EcologyStudy of interactions of organisms    with each other and their           environment
Level of organization• Cells -> organisms -> population -> community  -> ecosystems -> biosphere  – All connected so they ...
Environment• All external factors affecting an organism  – Abiotic –light, temperature, salinity, turbidity,    weather co...
Habitat-Where they live– Examples: rocky shores (cali and Maine), sandy  shores (jax beach), mangroves (south FL), coral  ...
Niche –Role in ecosystem “their job”• Can be viewed on an abiotic side OR a biotic  side, looking at both at same time get...
Competition• Occurs when organisms require same limited  resources (food, light, space, mates)  – Can be within same speci...
Sooo…..• Some species have adaptations that have  allowed them to be successful?  – Plankton feeding fish     • Sea bass- ...
Predator Prey relationships• Number of individuals is dependant on the  abundance of their food source.  – Ex: if the numb...
Keystone species• Has great effects on Foodwebs/ecosystems• Increases biodiversity• Example: sea otters in Pacific Coast  ...
• http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=LYtxz1dqZ  W0&feature=related&safety_mode=true&per  sist_safety_mode=1&safe=active
Symbiosis-”living together”             cohabitating• 3 main types  – 1. mutualism- both benefit  – 2. commensalism- one b...
Mutualism                                              •      Clownfish gets home                                         ...
Commensalism                   • Shark-no                     benefit or                     harm; remoras                ...
Parasitism             • Sea               Cucumber –               pearl fish feed               on respiratory          ...
So how do scientist sample to make inferences about ecosystem health?• Population sampling  – 2 main types for marine ecos...
Transect line
Quadrat
We will be using Quadrat method in           lab 6 and 7!!!
Ecology
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Ecology

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Ecology

  1. 1. EcologyStudy of interactions of organisms with each other and their environment
  2. 2. Level of organization• Cells -> organisms -> population -> community -> ecosystems -> biosphere – All connected so they all affect one another • When something happens to one; all affected – domino effect
  3. 3. Environment• All external factors affecting an organism – Abiotic –light, temperature, salinity, turbidity, weather conditions, pH, waves, currents – Biotic-predators, prey, parasites, etc.
  4. 4. Habitat-Where they live– Examples: rocky shores (cali and Maine), sandy shores (jax beach), mangroves (south FL), coral reefs (keys), deep sea (Hydrothermal vents)
  5. 5. Niche –Role in ecosystem “their job”• Can be viewed on an abiotic side OR a biotic side, looking at both at same time gets very complex and is difficult to illustrate• Lets take a look at the biotic side……
  6. 6. Competition• Occurs when organisms require same limited resources (food, light, space, mates) – Can be within same species (intraspecific) OR between similar species (interspecific) – Prevents 2 groups of organisms from occupying the same niche – Usually no 2 organisms can use exactly the same resources in exactly the same place at exactly the same time……..WHY?????????
  7. 7. Sooo…..• Some species have adaptations that have allowed them to be successful? – Plankton feeding fish • Sea bass- eat close to reef • Damselfish-each further away (adaption to feeding in different location) • Now these two species are feeding on the same thing BUT not in the same space.
  8. 8. Predator Prey relationships• Number of individuals is dependant on the abundance of their food source. – Ex: if the number of bull sharks were too increase to massive numbers because of a lot of food, then the number of fish they eat would go down, then eventually bull sharks populations would also decrease
  9. 9. Keystone species• Has great effects on Foodwebs/ecosystems• Increases biodiversity• Example: sea otters in Pacific Coast (Washington State)
  10. 10. • http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=LYtxz1dqZ W0&feature=related&safety_mode=true&per sist_safety_mode=1&safe=active
  11. 11. Symbiosis-”living together” cohabitating• 3 main types – 1. mutualism- both benefit – 2. commensalism- one benefits, other neither harmed nor helped – 3. parasitism- one lives off another • Parasite benefits and host is harmed
  12. 12. Mutualism • Clownfish gets home • Anemone-gets protection so other fish don’t eat tentaclesSo dependent on each other that need each otherto survive. Coral give zooxanthellae N, P, and CO2and zoo give corals carbohydrates
  13. 13. Commensalism • Shark-no benefit or harm; remoras get free ride and eat leftover food Barnacle gets ride and place to live; whale no benefit or harm
  14. 14. Parasitism • Sea Cucumber – pearl fish feed on respiratory tissue and reproductive organs
  15. 15. So how do scientist sample to make inferences about ecosystem health?• Population sampling – 2 main types for marine ecosystems • Transect line • Quadrat
  16. 16. Transect line
  17. 17. Quadrat
  18. 18. We will be using Quadrat method in lab 6 and 7!!!

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