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Ecology
Ecology
Ecology
Ecology
Ecology
Ecology
Ecology
Ecology
Ecology
Ecology
Ecology
Ecology
Ecology
Ecology
Ecology
Ecology
Ecology
Ecology
Ecology
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Transcript

  • 1. EcologyStudy of interactions of organisms with each other and their environment
  • 2. Level of organization• Cells -> organisms -> population -> community -> ecosystems -> biosphere – All connected so they all affect one another • When something happens to one; all affected – domino effect
  • 3. Environment• All external factors affecting an organism – Abiotic –light, temperature, salinity, turbidity, weather conditions, pH, waves, currents – Biotic-predators, prey, parasites, etc.
  • 4. Habitat-Where they live– Examples: rocky shores (cali and Maine), sandy shores (jax beach), mangroves (south FL), coral reefs (keys), deep sea (Hydrothermal vents)
  • 5. Niche –Role in ecosystem “their job”• Can be viewed on an abiotic side OR a biotic side, looking at both at same time gets very complex and is difficult to illustrate• Lets take a look at the biotic side……
  • 6. Competition• Occurs when organisms require same limited resources (food, light, space, mates) – Can be within same species (intraspecific) OR between similar species (interspecific) – Prevents 2 groups of organisms from occupying the same niche – Usually no 2 organisms can use exactly the same resources in exactly the same place at exactly the same time……..WHY?????????
  • 7. Sooo…..• Some species have adaptations that have allowed them to be successful? – Plankton feeding fish • Sea bass- eat close to reef • Damselfish-each further away (adaption to feeding in different location) • Now these two species are feeding on the same thing BUT not in the same space.
  • 8. Predator Prey relationships• Number of individuals is dependant on the abundance of their food source. – Ex: if the number of bull sharks were too increase to massive numbers because of a lot of food, then the number of fish they eat would go down, then eventually bull sharks populations would also decrease
  • 9. Keystone species• Has great effects on Foodwebs/ecosystems• Increases biodiversity• Example: sea otters in Pacific Coast (Washington State)
  • 10. • http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=LYtxz1dqZ W0&feature=related&safety_mode=true&per sist_safety_mode=1&safe=active
  • 11. Symbiosis-”living together” cohabitating• 3 main types – 1. mutualism- both benefit – 2. commensalism- one benefits, other neither harmed nor helped – 3. parasitism- one lives off another • Parasite benefits and host is harmed
  • 12. Mutualism • Clownfish gets home • Anemone-gets protection so other fish don’t eat tentaclesSo dependent on each other that need each otherto survive. Coral give zooxanthellae N, P, and CO2and zoo give corals carbohydrates
  • 13. Commensalism • Shark-no benefit or harm; remoras get free ride and eat leftover food Barnacle gets ride and place to live; whale no benefit or harm
  • 14. Parasitism • Sea Cucumber – pearl fish feed on respiratory tissue and reproductive organs
  • 15. So how do scientist sample to make inferences about ecosystem health?• Population sampling – 2 main types for marine ecosystems • Transect line • Quadrat
  • 16. Transect line
  • 17. Quadrat
  • 18. We will be using Quadrat method in lab 6 and 7!!!

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