WHO IS THE AMERICAN OF THE COLONIAL PERIOD?  AN OVERVIEW
CHARACTERISTICS OF COLONISTS <ul><li>INDIVIDUALISTIC </li></ul><ul><li>SELF SUFFICIENT </li></ul><ul><li>OPTIMISTIC </li><...
PEOPLE VIEWED THEMSELVES AS EUROPEAN COLONISTS <ul><li>IDEA OF “AMERICAN” STILL BEING FORMED </li></ul><ul><li>HOW DO WE K...
HECTOR ST JOHN DE CREVOUCEUR <ul><li>LIVED ON PA.-NY BORDER </li></ul><ul><li>WROTE “LETTERS FROM AN AMERICAN FARMER” </li...
FRONTIER THESIS <ul><li>FREDERICK JACKSON TURNER </li></ul><ul><li>AMERICANS WERE DEFINED BY THE FRONTIER </li></ul><ul><l...
GERM THEORY <ul><li>AMERICAN INSTITUTIONS SPREAD FROM BRITAIN </li></ul><ul><li>BICAMERAL LEGISLATURE </li></ul><ul><li>AM...
WHAT DID THE COLONISTS FIND IN THE NEW WORLD? <ul><li>INDIANS </li></ul><ul><li>THE FRONTIER </li></ul>
AMERICAN INDIANS <ul><li>ARRIVED 12,000-14,000 YEARS AGO </li></ul><ul><li>NAMED BY CHRISTOPHER COLUMBUS </li></ul><ul><li...
COLONIAL INTERPRETATIONS OF THE AMERICAN INDIAN <ul><li>DEVIL THEORY – INDIAN IS EVIL  </li></ul><ul><li>NOBLE SAVAGE THEO...
AMERICAN INDIAN DEMOGRAPHICS <ul><li>HISTORIANS DISAGREE ON POPULATION </li></ul><ul><li>3 TO 10 MILLION IN NORTH AMERICA ...
AMERICAN INDIAN DEMOGRAPHICS <ul><li>OVER 25O TRIBES </li></ul><ul><li>5 PRIMARY LINGUISTIC GROUPS </li></ul><ul><li>ALGON...
ALGONQUIAN S <ul><li>MAINE TO CAROLINAS </li></ul><ul><li>POLITICALLY DECENTRALIZED </li></ul><ul><li>HOSPITABLE TO EUROPE...
IROQUOIS <ul><li>UPSTATE PA AND NY </li></ul><ul><li>POLITICALLY ORGANIZED </li></ul><ul><li>MATRILINEAL </li></ul><ul><li...
CHARACTERISTICS OF AMERICAN INDIANS <ul><li>VARIED BASED ON REGION AND CLIMATE </li></ul><ul><li>HUNTER/GATHERER </li></ul...
EUROPEAN RESPONSES TO INDIANS <ul><li>FRENCH – TRADE WITH INDIANS </li></ul><ul><li>SPANISH – ENSLAVE AND CONVERT </li></u...
THE FRONTIER <ul><li>WHERE CIVILIZATION MEETS THE WILDERNESS </li></ul><ul><li>ENGLISH COLONIES </li></ul><ul><li>FRENCH C...
WHY DID ENGLAND SUCCEED? <ul><li>AGRICULTURAL FOUNDATION </li></ul><ul><li>HANDLING OF INDIANS </li></ul><ul><li>CAME FOR ...
POLITICAL ACCIDENT <ul><li>1603-1763 </li></ul><ul><li>KING AND PARLIAMENT POWER STRUGGLE </li></ul><ul><li>COLONIES DEVEL...
SALUTARY NEGLECT  <ul><li>MERCANTILISM – BRITISH ECONOMIC THEORY BASED ON FAVORABLE BALANCE OF TRADE </li></ul><ul><li>COL...
SALUTARY NEGLECT <ul><li>OLIVER CROMWELL – DEMANDED ENFORCEMENT </li></ul><ul><li>NAVIGATION ACTS – RESTRICT COLONIAL TRAD...
SOCIAL ORIGINS OF COLONISTS <ul><li>WHO CAME?  </li></ul><ul><li>MIDDLE CLASS </li></ul><ul><li>ARTISANS </li></ul><ul><li...
SOCIAL ORIGINS OF COLONISTS  <ul><li>WHY MOVE? </li></ul><ul><li>ENCLOSURE MOVEMENT </li></ul><ul><li>RISING PRICES </li><...
INDENTURED SERVANTS <ul><li>WRITTEN CONTRACT </li></ul><ul><li>UP TO SEVEN YEARS OF SERVITUDE </li></ul><ul><li>NO STIGMA ...
HANLIN’S THEORY <ul><li>SOMETHING TO THINK ABOUT </li></ul><ul><li>BLACKS IN THE COLONIES </li></ul><ul><li>INDENTURED SER...
ROANOKE ISLAND <ul><li>FIRST ATTEMPT AT A COLONY </li></ul><ul><li>1585 BY SIR WALTER RALEIGH </li></ul><ul><li>IT FAILED ...
JAMESTOWN <ul><li>1607 </li></ul><ul><li>FIRST SUCCESSFUL ENGLISH SETTLEMENT </li></ul><ul><li>CHARTER GRANTED TO VIRGINIA...
JAMESTOWN <ul><li>INDIAN POLICY – “TAKE GREAT PAINS NOT TO OFFEND THEM” </li></ul><ul><li>VOYAGE – 4 MONTHS </li></ul><ul>...
JAMESTOWN <ul><li>JOHN SMITH </li></ul><ul><li>DEALT HARSHLY WITH SUSQUEHANNA INDIANS </li></ul><ul><li>FORCED GENTLEMEN T...
YES, THERE WAS A POCHAHANTAS <ul><li>DAUGHTER OF CHIEF POWHATAN </li></ul><ul><li>MET JOHN SMITH </li></ul><ul><li>KIDNAPP...
MASSACHUSETTS BAY COLONY <ul><li>1629 </li></ul><ul><li>MASSACHUSETTS BAY COMPANY </li></ul><ul><li>JOHN WINTHROP – LEADER...
MASSACHUSETTS BAY COLONY <ul><li>ADVENTURERS – THOSE WHO INVEST </li></ul><ul><li>PLANTERS – THOSE WHO GO </li></ul><ul><l...
MASSACHUSETTS BAY COLONY <ul><li>CITY ON A HILL </li></ul><ul><li>GREAT MIGRATION </li></ul><ul><li>POLITICAL ACCIDENT AGA...
PURITANS <ul><li>BELIEVED IN PURITY OF CHURCH </li></ul><ul><li>GOOD SOCIAL CONDUCT IS A RESULT OF SALVATION, NOT A CAUSE ...
PURITANS <ul><li>ALL RELATIONSHIPS ARE DEFINED BY GOD </li></ul><ul><li>BELIEF IN MODERATE CONDUCT </li></ul><ul><li>SOCIA...
PURITANS <ul><li>CHILDREN </li></ul><ul><li>WORSHIP </li></ul><ul><li>WORK </li></ul><ul><li>LOVE </li></ul><ul><li>VIOLAT...
PURITANS <ul><li>VISIBLE SAINTS </li></ul><ul><li>CONVERSION EXPERIENCE </li></ul><ul><li>ROLE OF LINEAGE AND ECONOMICS </...
QUAKERS <ul><li>WILLIAM PENN </li></ul><ul><li>GEORGE FOX – QUAKER FOUNDER </li></ul><ul><li>DIVINE REVELATION </li></ul><...
QUAKERS <ul><li>CHARLES II GAVE PENN COLONY TO COVER DEBTS </li></ul><ul><li>THREE OBJECTIVES </li></ul><ul><li>ENLARGE TH...
QUAKERS <ul><li>PROPRIETARY COLONY </li></ul><ul><li>LIMITS IN CHARTER </li></ul><ul><li>LIBERAL GOVERNMENT STRUCTURE </li...
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Colonial Roots

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Colonial Roots

  1. 1. WHO IS THE AMERICAN OF THE COLONIAL PERIOD? AN OVERVIEW
  2. 2. CHARACTERISTICS OF COLONISTS <ul><li>INDIVIDUALISTIC </li></ul><ul><li>SELF SUFFICIENT </li></ul><ul><li>OPTIMISTIC </li></ul><ul><li>RUGGED </li></ul><ul><li>MATERIALISTIC </li></ul><ul><li>RELIGIOUS </li></ul><ul><li>BELIEVED IN EQUALITY </li></ul>
  3. 3. PEOPLE VIEWED THEMSELVES AS EUROPEAN COLONISTS <ul><li>IDEA OF “AMERICAN” STILL BEING FORMED </li></ul><ul><li>HOW DO WE KNOW WHAT THEY BELIEVED? </li></ul><ul><li>USE OF PRIMARY SOURCES </li></ul>
  4. 4. HECTOR ST JOHN DE CREVOUCEUR <ul><li>LIVED ON PA.-NY BORDER </li></ul><ul><li>WROTE “LETTERS FROM AN AMERICAN FARMER” </li></ul><ul><li>DESCRIBED OUTLOOK OF COLONISTS PRIOR TO AMERICAN REVOLUTION </li></ul>
  5. 5. FRONTIER THESIS <ul><li>FREDERICK JACKSON TURNER </li></ul><ul><li>AMERICANS WERE DEFINED BY THE FRONTIER </li></ul><ul><li>CONTROVERSIAL TODAY </li></ul><ul><li>WHAT ARE THE HOLES IN THE THEORY? </li></ul>
  6. 6. GERM THEORY <ul><li>AMERICAN INSTITUTIONS SPREAD FROM BRITAIN </li></ul><ul><li>BICAMERAL LEGISLATURE </li></ul><ul><li>AMERICAN LAW </li></ul><ul><li>VOTING QUALIFICATIONS </li></ul>
  7. 7. WHAT DID THE COLONISTS FIND IN THE NEW WORLD? <ul><li>INDIANS </li></ul><ul><li>THE FRONTIER </li></ul>
  8. 8. AMERICAN INDIANS <ul><li>ARRIVED 12,000-14,000 YEARS AGO </li></ul><ul><li>NAMED BY CHRISTOPHER COLUMBUS </li></ul><ul><li>ARE THEY REALLY “NATIVE” AMERICANS? </li></ul>
  9. 9. COLONIAL INTERPRETATIONS OF THE AMERICAN INDIAN <ul><li>DEVIL THEORY – INDIAN IS EVIL </li></ul><ul><li>NOBLE SAVAGE THEORY – INDIAN IS INNOCENT. THEY ARE BEGINNING CIVILIZATION ANEW. </li></ul>
  10. 10. AMERICAN INDIAN DEMOGRAPHICS <ul><li>HISTORIANS DISAGREE ON POPULATION </li></ul><ul><li>3 TO 10 MILLION IN NORTH AMERICA </li></ul><ul><li>500,000 ON EAST COAST </li></ul><ul><li>40 TO 60 MILLION IN NORTH AND SOUTH AMERICA COMBINED </li></ul>
  11. 11. AMERICAN INDIAN DEMOGRAPHICS <ul><li>OVER 25O TRIBES </li></ul><ul><li>5 PRIMARY LINGUISTIC GROUPS </li></ul><ul><li>ALGONQUIN </li></ul><ul><li>IROQUOIS </li></ul><ul><li>MUSKOHEGAN </li></ul><ul><li>SIOUX </li></ul><ul><li>PUEBLO </li></ul>
  12. 12. ALGONQUIAN S <ul><li>MAINE TO CAROLINAS </li></ul><ul><li>POLITICALLY DECENTRALIZED </li></ul><ul><li>HOSPITABLE TO EUROPEANS </li></ul><ul><li>SUSCEPTIBLE TO DISEASE </li></ul>
  13. 13. IROQUOIS <ul><li>UPSTATE PA AND NY </li></ul><ul><li>POLITICALLY ORGANIZED </li></ul><ul><li>MATRILINEAL </li></ul><ul><li>LEAGUE OF THE IROQUOIS </li></ul>
  14. 14. CHARACTERISTICS OF AMERICAN INDIANS <ul><li>VARIED BASED ON REGION AND CLIMATE </li></ul><ul><li>HUNTER/GATHERER </li></ul><ul><li>NOMADIC </li></ul><ul><li>COMMUNAL APPROACH TO LAND </li></ul><ul><li>SOME AGRICULTURE </li></ul><ul><li>SUSCEPTIBLE TO DISEASE </li></ul>
  15. 15. EUROPEAN RESPONSES TO INDIANS <ul><li>FRENCH – TRADE WITH INDIANS </li></ul><ul><li>SPANISH – ENSLAVE AND CONVERT </li></ul><ul><li>ENGLISH – GET RID OF THEM </li></ul>
  16. 16. THE FRONTIER <ul><li>WHERE CIVILIZATION MEETS THE WILDERNESS </li></ul><ul><li>ENGLISH COLONIES </li></ul><ul><li>FRENCH COLONIES </li></ul><ul><li>SPANISH COLONIES </li></ul>
  17. 17. WHY DID ENGLAND SUCCEED? <ul><li>AGRICULTURAL FOUNDATION </li></ul><ul><li>HANDLING OF INDIANS </li></ul><ul><li>CAME FOR MORE THAN MONEY </li></ul><ul><li>RESOURCES (NAVY) </li></ul><ul><li>POLITICAL ACCIDENT </li></ul><ul><li>SALUTARY NEGLECT </li></ul>
  18. 18. POLITICAL ACCIDENT <ul><li>1603-1763 </li></ul><ul><li>KING AND PARLIAMENT POWER STRUGGLE </li></ul><ul><li>COLONIES DEVELOPED POLITICALLY </li></ul><ul><li>BRITAIN OPPOSES THIS BUT IS UNABLE TO CONTROL IT </li></ul>
  19. 19. SALUTARY NEGLECT <ul><li>MERCANTILISM – BRITISH ECONOMIC THEORY BASED ON FAVORABLE BALANCE OF TRADE </li></ul><ul><li>COLONIES PROVIDE RAW MATERIALS AND PURCHASE FINISHED PRODUCTS </li></ul><ul><li>BRITISH LAWS NOT ENFORCED </li></ul>
  20. 20. SALUTARY NEGLECT <ul><li>OLIVER CROMWELL – DEMANDED ENFORCEMENT </li></ul><ul><li>NAVIGATION ACTS – RESTRICT COLONIAL TRADE </li></ul><ul><li>ENFORCEMENT OF NAVIGATION ACTS DECLINES </li></ul><ul><li>COLONIES DEVELOP ECONOMICALLY </li></ul>
  21. 21. SOCIAL ORIGINS OF COLONISTS <ul><li>WHO CAME? </li></ul><ul><li>MIDDLE CLASS </li></ul><ul><li>ARTISANS </li></ul><ul><li>THOSE WITH LIMITED ECONOMIC OPPORTUNITY </li></ul><ul><li>SPECULATORS </li></ul>
  22. 22. SOCIAL ORIGINS OF COLONISTS <ul><li>WHY MOVE? </li></ul><ul><li>ENCLOSURE MOVEMENT </li></ul><ul><li>RISING PRICES </li></ul><ul><li>POPULATION GROWTH </li></ul><ul><li>RELIGIOUS UNREST </li></ul>
  23. 23. INDENTURED SERVANTS <ul><li>WRITTEN CONTRACT </li></ul><ul><li>UP TO SEVEN YEARS OF SERVITUDE </li></ul><ul><li>NO STIGMA ATTACHED </li></ul><ul><li>DEBTORS AND CRIMINALS </li></ul>
  24. 24. HANLIN’S THEORY <ul><li>SOMETHING TO THINK ABOUT </li></ul><ul><li>BLACKS IN THE COLONIES </li></ul><ul><li>INDENTURED SERVANTS? </li></ul><ul><li>RACISM? </li></ul><ul><li>HOW DO WE KNOW? </li></ul>
  25. 25. ROANOKE ISLAND <ul><li>FIRST ATTEMPT AT A COLONY </li></ul><ul><li>1585 BY SIR WALTER RALEIGH </li></ul><ul><li>IT FAILED </li></ul>
  26. 26. JAMESTOWN <ul><li>1607 </li></ul><ul><li>FIRST SUCCESSFUL ENGLISH SETTLEMENT </li></ul><ul><li>CHARTER GRANTED TO VIRGINIA COMPANY, A JOINT STOCK COMPANY </li></ul><ul><li>PURPOSE WAS TO FIND GOLD </li></ul><ul><li>900 INITIAL SETTLERS. 6O SURVIVORS </li></ul>
  27. 27. JAMESTOWN <ul><li>INDIAN POLICY – “TAKE GREAT PAINS NOT TO OFFEND THEM” </li></ul><ul><li>VOYAGE – 4 MONTHS </li></ul><ul><li>WHO WERE THE LEADERS? </li></ul><ul><li>1/3 WERE GENTLEMEN </li></ul><ul><li>NO WOMEN </li></ul>
  28. 28. JAMESTOWN <ul><li>JOHN SMITH </li></ul><ul><li>DEALT HARSHLY WITH SUSQUEHANNA INDIANS </li></ul><ul><li>FORCED GENTLEMEN TO WORK </li></ul><ul><li>STARVING TIME </li></ul><ul><li>SMITH’S DEPARTURE </li></ul>
  29. 29. YES, THERE WAS A POCHAHANTAS <ul><li>DAUGHTER OF CHIEF POWHATAN </li></ul><ul><li>MET JOHN SMITH </li></ul><ul><li>KIDNAPPED IN 1613 </li></ul><ul><li>CONVERTS TO CHRISTIANITY IN 1614 </li></ul><ul><li>MARRIES JOHN ROLFE IN 1615 </li></ul><ul><li>VISITS ENGLAND IN 1616 </li></ul><ul><li>DIES SOON AFTER </li></ul>
  30. 30. MASSACHUSETTS BAY COLONY <ul><li>1629 </li></ul><ul><li>MASSACHUSETTS BAY COMPANY </li></ul><ul><li>JOHN WINTHROP – LEADER </li></ul><ul><li>COMPANY AND COLONY ARE THE SAME </li></ul>
  31. 31. MASSACHUSETTS BAY COLONY <ul><li>ADVENTURERS – THOSE WHO INVEST </li></ul><ul><li>PLANTERS – THOSE WHO GO </li></ul><ul><li>CAMBRIDGE AGREEMENT – MAKES THEM ONE AND THE SAME </li></ul><ul><li>MASSACHUSETTS BAY IS UNIQUE </li></ul>
  32. 32. MASSACHUSETTS BAY COLONY <ul><li>CITY ON A HILL </li></ul><ul><li>GREAT MIGRATION </li></ul><ul><li>POLITICAL ACCIDENT AGAIN! </li></ul><ul><li>COLONY EXISTS UNTIL 1684 </li></ul>
  33. 33. PURITANS <ul><li>BELIEVED IN PURITY OF CHURCH </li></ul><ul><li>GOOD SOCIAL CONDUCT IS A RESULT OF SALVATION, NOT A CAUSE </li></ul><ul><li>COVENANT THEOLOGY </li></ul><ul><li>COVENANT OF WORKS </li></ul><ul><li>COVENANT OF GRACE </li></ul>
  34. 34. PURITANS <ul><li>ALL RELATIONSHIPS ARE DEFINED BY GOD </li></ul><ul><li>BELIEF IN MODERATE CONDUCT </li></ul><ul><li>SOCIAL ORDER – ALL HAVE THEIR PLACE </li></ul>
  35. 35. PURITANS <ul><li>CHILDREN </li></ul><ul><li>WORSHIP </li></ul><ul><li>WORK </li></ul><ul><li>LOVE </li></ul><ul><li>VIOLATORS </li></ul>
  36. 36. PURITANS <ul><li>VISIBLE SAINTS </li></ul><ul><li>CONVERSION EXPERIENCE </li></ul><ul><li>ROLE OF LINEAGE AND ECONOMICS </li></ul><ul><li>CIVIL MEN </li></ul><ul><li>A THEOCRACY? </li></ul><ul><li>HALFWAY COVENANT </li></ul>
  37. 37. QUAKERS <ul><li>WILLIAM PENN </li></ul><ul><li>GEORGE FOX – QUAKER FOUNDER </li></ul><ul><li>DIVINE REVELATION </li></ul><ul><li>SPARK OF GOD </li></ul><ul><li>NO MINISTRY </li></ul><ul><li>PLAIN DRESS AND HOUSING </li></ul>
  38. 38. QUAKERS <ul><li>CHARLES II GAVE PENN COLONY TO COVER DEBTS </li></ul><ul><li>THREE OBJECTIVES </li></ul><ul><li>ENLARGE THE EMPIRE </li></ul><ul><li>MAKE MERCANTILISM WORK </li></ul><ul><li>CIVILIZE THE INDIANS </li></ul>
  39. 39. QUAKERS <ul><li>PROPRIETARY COLONY </li></ul><ul><li>LIMITS IN CHARTER </li></ul><ul><li>LIBERAL GOVERNMENT STRUCTURE </li></ul><ul><li>CONCEPT OF EQUALITY </li></ul>

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