Civilwar

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Civilwar

  1. 1. THE CIVIL WAR CAUSES AND CONSEQUENSES
  2. 2. HISTORIOGRAPHY OF THE CIVIL WAR <ul><li>STAGE ONE - 1865-1895 - NARROW AND PERSONAL </li></ul><ul><li>STAGE TWO - 1900 - BROAD & INPERSONAL FORCES </li></ul><ul><li>STAGE THREE - 1920S - STRESSED ECONOMIC FACTORS </li></ul>
  3. 3. HISTORIOGRAPHY OF THE CIVIL WAR <ul><li>STAGE FOUR - 1945-1960 - WAR WAS CAUSED BY MISGUIDED INDIVIDUALS </li></ul><ul><li>STAGE FIVE - 1960S - PRESENT - SLAVERY WAS THE CAUSE </li></ul>
  4. 4. THE SLAVERY QUESTION ARISES <ul><li>1820’S - MEXICO WINS INDEPENDENCE FROM SPAIN </li></ul><ul><li>1830 - MEXICO DEALS WITH AMERICAN SETTLERS </li></ul><ul><li>1836 - TEXAS DECLARES INDEPENDENCE FROM MEXICO </li></ul><ul><li>SHOULD TEXAS BE PART OF THE UNITED STATES? </li></ul>
  5. 5. THE SLAVERY QUESTION ARISES <ul><li>TEXAS SEEKS TO JOIN THE UNITED STATES </li></ul><ul><li>THE BOUNDARY ISSUE - RIO GRANDE VS NUEVES </li></ul><ul><li>PRESIDENT JAMES POLK - EXPANSIONIST- SIDES WITH TEXAS </li></ul>
  6. 6. THE SLAVERY QUESTON ARISES <ul><li>MEXICAN-AMERICAN WAR - 1846 </li></ul><ul><li>MANIFEST DESTINY! </li></ul><ul><li>A WAR TO EXTEND SLAVERY? </li></ul><ul><li>A POLITICAL CHALLENGE FOR THE DEMOCRATS </li></ul>
  7. 7. THE SLAVERY QUESTON ARISES <ul><li>THE TREATY OF JOINT OCCUPATION </li></ul><ul><li>APPROPRIATING FOR WAR </li></ul><ul><li>THE WILMOT PROVISO - BANS SLAVERY IN TERRITORY OBTAINED FROM MEXICO </li></ul><ul><li>A POLITICAL SUCCESS! </li></ul><ul><li>SLAVERY - EXPANSION VS CONTAINMENT </li></ul>
  8. 8. THE COMPROMISE OF 1850 <ul><li>ZACHARHY TAYLOR - WHIG PRESIDENT </li></ul><ul><li>CALIFORNIA - GOLD RUSH OF 1849 FORCES THE ISSUE </li></ul><ul><li>NEW MEXICO - REMOTE TRADING POSTS </li></ul><ul><li>UTAH - MORMON SETTLEMENT READY FOR STATEHOOD </li></ul>
  9. 9. THE COMPROMISE OF 1850 <ul><li>THE QUESTION OF SLAVERY ARISES </li></ul><ul><li>IS GEOGRAPHY THE KEY? </li></ul><ul><li>NO SLAVE STATES ARE READY </li></ul><ul><li>THE BALANCE THREATENED </li></ul><ul><li>TAYLOR DICTATES THE SETTLEMENT ON HIS TERMS </li></ul><ul><li>THE PROCESS IGNORED </li></ul>
  10. 10. THE COMPROMISE OF 1850 <ul><li>RUNAWAY SLAVES - A STRONG FUGITIVE SLAVE LAW NEEDED? </li></ul><ul><li>SLAVERY IN WASHINGTON D.C. - </li></ul><ul><li>THE FAILURE OF ZACHARHY TAYLOR </li></ul><ul><li>HENRY CLAY - THE GREAT COMPROMISER TO THE RESCUE </li></ul>
  11. 11. THE COMPROMISE OF 1850 <ul><li>HERE’S THE DEAL </li></ul><ul><li>CALIFORNIA - A FREE STATE </li></ul><ul><li>NEW MEXICO AND UTAH - POPULAR SOVEREIGNTY WILL DETERMINE SLAVERY </li></ul><ul><li>TEXAS WILL GIVE UP CLAIMS AGAINST MEXICO. FEDERAL GOVERNMENT WILL ASSUME TEXAS DEBT </li></ul>
  12. 12. THE COMPROMISE OF 1850 <ul><li>SLAVE TRADE BANNED IN WASHINGTON D.C. </li></ul><ul><li>FUGITIVE SLAVE LAW - STRENGTHEND AND ENFORCED </li></ul><ul><li>THE FAILURE OF HENRY CLAY </li></ul><ul><li>THE RISE OF STEPHEN DOUGLAS </li></ul>
  13. 13. THE COMPROMISE OF 1850 <ul><li>TAYLOR AND THE VETO THREAT </li></ul><ul><li>TAYLOR’S DEMISE </li></ul><ul><li>SOUTHERN REACTION - “ALL WE GOT WAS THE FUGITIVE SLAVE LAW” </li></ul><ul><li>NORTHERN REACTION - “GOOD DEAL BUT WE HATE THE FUGITIVE SLAVE LAW” </li></ul>
  14. 14. THE FUGITIVE SLAVE LAW <ul><li>DESIGNED TO DEAL WITH RUNAWAY SLAVES </li></ul><ul><li>COMMISSIONERS TO ENFORCE </li></ul><ul><li>RALLYING CRY FOR ABOLITIONISTS </li></ul>
  15. 15. KANSAS-NEBRASKA ACT <ul><li>1854 </li></ul><ul><li>PRESIDENT FRANKLIN PIERCE </li></ul><ul><li>STEPHEN DOUGLAS AND HIS MOTIVES </li></ul><ul><li>THE FATE OF THE TRANSCONTINENTAL RAILROAD </li></ul>
  16. 16. KANSAS-NEBRASKA ACT <ul><li>POPULAR SOVEREIGNTY AGAIN </li></ul><ul><li>TERRITORY IS SPLIT IN HALF. KANSAS AND NEBRASKA </li></ul><ul><li>REPUBLICANS - A NEW ANTI SLAVERY PARTY COMES INTO BEING </li></ul><ul><li>BLEEDING KANSAS - A BATTLEGROUND </li></ul>
  17. 17. KANSAS-NEBRASKA ACT <ul><li>1856 - VIOLENCE BEGINS </li></ul><ul><li>THE CANING OF CHARLES SUMNER </li></ul><ul><li>JAMES BUCHANAN - PRESIDENT? </li></ul><ul><li>JOHN FREMONT - REPUBLICAN CANDIDATE </li></ul><ul><li>ELECTION OF 1856 - THE DEMOCRATS HOLD ON </li></ul>
  18. 18. DRED SCOTT <ul><li>1857 </li></ul><ul><li>TRAVELS FROM SLAVE TO FREE STATE </li></ul><ul><li>SUES FOR FREEDOM </li></ul><ul><li>SUPREME COURT- RULES THAT BLACKS HAVE NO RIGHTS. MISSOURI COMPROMISE AND POPULAR SOVERIGNTY ILLEGAL </li></ul>
  19. 19. LINCOLN-DOUGLAS DEBATES <ul><li>1858 ILLINOIS SENATE RACE </li></ul><ul><li>LINCOLN’S BACKGROUND </li></ul><ul><li>THE HOUSE DIVIDED </li></ul><ul><li>DID LINCOLN TRAP DOUGLAS? </li></ul><ul><li>LINCOLN’S VICTORY IN DEFEAT </li></ul>
  20. 20. JOHN BROWN <ul><li>1859 </li></ul><ul><li>A SOLDIER IN KANSAS </li></ul><ul><li>THE PLAN FOR HARPER’S FERRY </li></ul><ul><li>THE PLAN IN ACTION </li></ul><ul><li>A MARTYR? </li></ul>
  21. 21. ELECTION OF 1860 <ul><li>THE CANDIDATES </li></ul><ul><li>WILLIAM SEWARD - THE REPUBLICAN FRONT RUNNER. IS HE TOO RADICAL? </li></ul><ul><li>A MODERATE ALTERNATIVE IS SOUGHT </li></ul><ul><li>LINCOLN’S IMAGE </li></ul>
  22. 22. ELECTION OF 1860 <ul><li>STEPHEN DOUGLAS - DEMOCRATIC NOMINEE </li></ul><ul><li>CAN DOUGLAS GET SOUTHERN SUPPORT? </li></ul><ul><li>JOHN BRECKINRIDGE - THE SOUTHERN CHOICE </li></ul><ul><li>JOHN BELL - A MODERATE CHOICE </li></ul>
  23. 23. ELECTION OF 1860 <ul><li>LINCOLN’S SILENCE </li></ul><ul><li>DOUGLAS TAKES THE THREAT SERIOUSLY </li></ul>
  24. 24. ELECTION OF 1860 <ul><li>THE RESULTS </li></ul><ul><li>LINCOLN 40% </li></ul><ul><li>DOUGLAS - 29% </li></ul><ul><li>BRECKINRIDGE - 18% </li></ul><ul><li>BELL - 13% </li></ul>
  25. 25. ELECTION OF 1860 <ul><li>THE RESULTS </li></ul><ul><li>LINCOLN - 180 ELECTORAL VOTES </li></ul><ul><li>DOUGLAS - 12 ELECTORAL VOTES </li></ul><ul><li>BRECKINRIDGE - 72 ELECTORAL VOTES </li></ul><ul><li>BELL - 39 ELECTORAL VOTES </li></ul>
  26. 26. SECESSION! <ul><li>SOUTH CAROLINA TAKES THE FIRST STEP </li></ul><ul><li>LINCOLN’S SILENCE </li></ul><ul><li>BUCHANAN’S SILENCE </li></ul><ul><li>FORT SUMTER IS TAKEN </li></ul>
  27. 27. SECESSION! <ul><li>THE SCRAMBLE FOR COMPROMISE </li></ul><ul><li>CRITTENDEN’S COMPROMISE </li></ul><ul><li>SEWARD’S DARING PROPOSAL </li></ul><ul><li>LINCOLN SETS THE TRAP </li></ul><ul><li>WAR! </li></ul>
  28. 28. ECONOMIC CONFLICT <ul><li>TRANSPORTATION REVOLUTION FAVORS THE NORTH </li></ul><ul><li>FOOD PRODUCTION FAVORS THE NORTH </li></ul><ul><li>TECHNOLOGY VS SLAVE LABOR </li></ul><ul><li>MANUFACTURING FAVORS THE NORTH </li></ul>
  29. 29. ECONOMIC CONFLICT <ul><li>SOUTHERN ECONOMY HAD GROWTH. DID IT HAVE DEVELOPMENT? </li></ul><ul><li>THE PARADOX OF THE SOUTHERN ECONOMY </li></ul><ul><li>WHO PROFITS? </li></ul>
  30. 30. SLAVERY <ul><li>WHO PROFITS? </li></ul><ul><li>COTTON AND SUGAR PLANTERS </li></ul><ul><li>THE ROLE OF NON SLAVE HOLDING WHITES </li></ul><ul><li>THE SLAVES? </li></ul><ul><li>THE SOUTHERN DEFENSE - JOHN CALHOUN’S RATIONALE </li></ul>
  31. 31. SLAVERY <ul><li>WHO PROFITS? </li></ul><ul><li>COTTON AND SUGAR PLANTERS </li></ul><ul><li>THE ROLE OF NON SLAVE HOLDING WHITES </li></ul><ul><li>THE SLAVES? </li></ul><ul><li>THE SOUTHERN DEFENSE - JOHN CALHOUN’S RATIONALE </li></ul>
  32. 32. WAR BEGINS <ul><li>LINCOLN CALLS FOR TROOPS </li></ul><ul><li>WHAT ABOUT THE BORDER STATES? </li></ul><ul><li>POPULATION ADVANTAGE FOR THE NORTH </li></ul><ul><li>22 MILLION - NORTHERN POPULATION </li></ul><ul><li>9 MILLION - SOUTHERN POPULATION </li></ul><ul><li>3 MILLION ARE SLAVES </li></ul>
  33. 33. WAR BEGINS! <ul><li>THE ANACONDA PLAN </li></ul><ul><li>ROBERT E. LEE AND STONEWALL JACKSON </li></ul><ul><li>GEORGE McCLELLAN </li></ul>
  34. 34. EMANCIPATION PROCLAMATION <ul><li>LINCOLN’S VIEWS </li></ul><ul><li>BATTLE OF ANTIETAM </li></ul><ul><li>SLAVES ARE FREED IN REBEL TERRITORY </li></ul><ul><li>HOW IT CHANGED THE WAR </li></ul>
  35. 35. NORTHERN ADVANTAGES <ul><li>BANKING </li></ul><ul><li>RAILROADS </li></ul><ul><li>NAVY </li></ul><ul><li>EXPERIENCED GOVERNMENT </li></ul><ul><li>POPULATION </li></ul>
  36. 36. NORTHERN DISADVANTAGES <ul><li>GOALS </li></ul><ul><li>DISAGREEMENT OVER SLAVERY ISSUE </li></ul><ul><li>LOSS OF BEST OFFICERS TO THE SOUTH </li></ul>
  37. 37. SOUTHERN ADVANTAGES <ul><li>ECONOMIC RELATIONSHIP WITH EUROPE </li></ul><ul><li>BETTER MILITARY OFFICERS </li></ul><ul><li>LONG COASTLINE TO BEAT BLOCKADE </li></ul><ul><li>BELIEVED IN THEIR CAUSE </li></ul><ul><li>HOMEFIELD ADVANTAGE </li></ul>
  38. 38. SOUTHERN DISADVANTAGES <ul><li>SMALLER NAVY </li></ul><ul><li>LONG COASTLINE TO DEFEND </li></ul><ul><li>SLAVES - AN ONGOING CONCERN </li></ul><ul><li>LITTLE INDUSTRY </li></ul>
  39. 39. RECONSTRUCTION <ul><li>WHAT HAPPENS WHEN IT’S OVER? </li></ul><ul><li>LINCOLN’S PLAN </li></ul><ul><li>THE POLITICAL CONCERNS </li></ul><ul><li>STATE SUICIDE THEORY </li></ul><ul><li>CONQUERED PROVINCE THEORY </li></ul><ul><li>DEMOCRATS DIVIDED </li></ul>
  40. 40. LINCOLN’S PLAN <ul><li>PARDONS FOR THOSE WHO TAKE AN OATH TO THE UNION </li></ul><ul><li>AT 10%, ELECT DELEGATES FOR STATE CONVENTION </li></ul><ul><li>REPEAL SLAVERY AND STATE CONSTITUTION </li></ul><ul><li>WAS THIS TOO LIBERAL? </li></ul>
  41. 41. CONGRESSIONAL PLAN <ul><li>MILITARY GOVENOR CONTROLS EACH STATE </li></ul><ul><li>51% MUST TAKE THE OATH </li></ul><ul><li>REPUDIATE CONFEDERATE DEBT </li></ul><ul><li>IRON CLAD OATH - NO ADMITTANCE FOR THOSE WHO AIDED THE REBELLION </li></ul>
  42. 42. THE RISE OF ANDREW JOHNSON <ul><li>LINCOLN’S DEATH </li></ul><ul><li>JOHNSON’S BACKGROUND </li></ul>
  43. 43. JOHNSONS’S PLAN <ul><li>SOUTHERN ELECTIONS </li></ul><ul><li>PARDONS FOR THE ELITE </li></ul><ul><li>CONGRESS DRAWS THE LINE </li></ul><ul><li>WHAT TO DO? </li></ul>
  44. 44. RADICAL RECONSTRUCTION <ul><li>FREEDMEN’S BUREAU </li></ul><ul><li>5 MILITARY DISTRICTS </li></ul><ul><li>ALL ORDERS THROUGH GENERAL OF THE ARMY </li></ul><ul><li>JOHNSON’S IMPEACHMENT </li></ul><ul><li>CARPETBAGGERS AND SCALAWAGS </li></ul><ul><li>WAS IT CORRUPT? </li></ul>
  45. 45. RADICAL RECONSTRUCTION <ul><li>WHAT ABOUT LAND? </li></ul>

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