Kelly E. Larkins<br />April 18th, 2011<br />Committee<br />Dr. Cliff Ellis<br />Dr. Anne Dunning<br />A concept drawing fo...
Outline<br />Problem Statement<br />Research Question and Objective<br />Literature Review<br />Research Design<br />Case ...
Problem Statement<br />3<br />The current trend of auto dependency leaves populations vulnerable to losing access to emplo...
Ways to Reverse Auto Dependency<br />Short term<br />Increase transportation options<br />Long term<br />Land use and dens...
Research Question and Objective<br />5<br />How can the planning, policy, and design principles of transit-oriented develo...
Definition<br />“A pattern of dense, diverse, pedestrian-friendly land uses near transit nodes that, under the right condi...
Developments EmphasizingTransit & Density<br />7<br />
Different Transit Developments<br />Transit-Adjacent<br />Suburban street pattern<br />Low densities<br />Dominance of sur...
TOD Typologies<br />9<br />The New Transit Town: Best Practices in Transit-oriented Development<br />
Building Blocks of TOD<br />Affordable housing for a variety of income groups and household types<br />Access to diverse e...
Goals of Transit-Oriented Development<br />Location efficiency<br />Objective: to make a region more equitable for people ...
Zoning <br />Permitted Uses<br />Prohibited Uses<br />12<br />Apartments (above ground floor in active business districts)...
Potential Benefits of TOD<br />Reduced fuel consumption <br />ƒBetter air quality <br />ƒReduced sprawl <br />ƒConservatio...
Complexity of Actors and Roles<br />14<br />Center for Transit-Oriented Development<br />
Research Design<br />Case studies. <br />Orenco Station, Oregon<br />Englewood, Colorado<br />Apply best practices in tran...
Case Study Questions<br />What are the characteristics of the residents?<br />How are shopping and retail opportunities ut...
Orenco StationContext & History<br />Started as a company town for Orenco Nursery Company in 1898<br />Company and communi...
Orenco StationDemographics (within ½ mile transit zone)<br />18<br />
Orenco StationTransportation Options<br />Transit Options<br />MAX Blue Line<br />10-15 minutes<br />Local Bus<br />30-45 ...
Orenco StationRetail on Site<br />Specialty Shops<br />Jeany’s Bridal Couture<br />Nature’s Pet Market<br />Renaissance Pr...
Orenco StationLessons Learned<br />Create a coherent neighborhood structure with livable features and services.<br />Overc...
Orenco StationIllustrative Plan<br />22<br />
CityCenter EnglewoodContext & History<br />Cinderella City opened in March1968<br />Sales began to fall in the 1980s due t...
CityCenter EnglewoodDemographics (within ½ transit zone)<br />24<br />
CityCenter Englewood Transportation Options<br />Transit<br />Light rail (Routes C & D)<br />7.5 -15 minutes<br />Local bu...
CityCenter EnglewoodRetail & Services on Site<br />Specialty<br />Fred Astaire Dance Studio<br />Heavenly Ham<br />Bally T...
CityCenter EnglewoodLessons Learned<br />Avoid fronting buildings towards arterial roads<br />Avoid large parking lots whi...
CityCenterIllustrative Plan<br />28<br />Calthorpe Associates<br />
CityCenterFinal Site Design and Photos<br />29<br />
Greenville County’s Readiness for TOD<br />Greenlink<br />Building and strengthening neighborhoods<br />Neighborhood shoul...
Potential TOD Site Locations<br />31<br />
Conceptual Transit Corridors<br />32<br />
Potential TOD Sites<br />33<br />
Current Greenlink Transit System<br />34<br />
CherrydaleExisting Conditions<br />Transportation<br />Natural Environment<br />Transit<br />Greenlink Route 3C <br />Gree...
CherrydaleRetail & Services<br />Retail<br />Ingles<br />Old Navy<br />RadioShack<br />Hibbett Sports<br />GNC<br />Payles...
CherrydaleCharacteristics<br />Job Counts by Distance/Direction 2009<br />Housing and TransportationAffordability Index<br...
CherrydaleSite with transit zones<br />38<br />Yellow = 0.25 mile<br />Purple = 0.50 mile<br />
CherrydaleIllustrative Plan<br />39<br />
TaylorsExisting Conditions<br />Transportation<br />Natural Environment<br />40<br />Transit<br />Greenlink Route 11K<br /...
TaylorsRetail & Services<br />Retail & Dining<br />Services<br />Walmart<br />Bi-Lo<br />Advance Auto Parts<br />Sally Bea...
TaylorsCharacteristics<br />Job Counts by Distance/Direction 2009<br />Housing and TransportationAffordability Index<br />...
TaylorsSite with transit zones<br />43<br />Yellow = 0.25 mile<br />Purple = 0.50 mile<br />
TaylorsIllustrative Plan<br />44<br />
Recommendations for Greenville County<br />Begin early by developing a regional plan for transportation and land use<br />...
Transportation at Greenville County TODs<br />Parking strategies<br />Unbundled<br />Joint<br />Structured<br />On-street<...
Parking Strategies<br />47<br />Left : Campus of UNC Greensboro; Right: Downtown Greensboro<br />Bottom:  Conceptual Drawi...
Conclusion<br />Greenville County can benefit from TODs<br />Improving air quality<br />Land conservation<br />Housing cho...
Thank You<br />49<br />Bowen Studios:1700 South Salt Lake Master Plan<br />
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Planning Transit-Oriented Developments in Greenville County

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  • http://blog.tstc.org/2009/01/13/westchester-incorporating-land-use-into-new-brt-line/
  • Fighting Oil Addiction: Ranking States’ Gasoline Price Vulnerability and Solutions for ChangeNatural Resources Defense CouncilNovember 2010http://www.nrdc.org/energy/states/files/Fighting%20Oil%20Addiction_NRDC_Nov%202010.pdf
  • http://mithun.com/projects/type/mixed_use_tod/http://www.soundtransit.org/Working-With-Us/Real-Estate/Transit-Oriented-Dev.xmlhttp://www.metrojacksonville.com/article/2009-oct-elements-of-urbanism-alexandria-vahttp://www.arnoldimaging.com/2007/12/arnold-imaging-completes-rendering-for-omaha-mixed-use-development/
  • Shown here are some of the many benefits of TOD. This list is compiled both from the Center for Transit-Oriented Development and those that were included in the first plan developed in the Salt Lake City region by Envision Utah. Those I feel are most important for Greenville County include:Reduced fuel consumption ƒBetter air quality ƒƒConservation of open space ƒReduced transportation spending and increased housing affordability for householdsImproved social cohesion through positive interactions among people in a community Improved transportation options, particularly for non-drivers Improved access to job opportunities for workers
  • Center for Transit-oriented Development
  • http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Old_store_in_Orenco_-_Hillsboro,_Oregon.JPGhttp://www.blog.fusionhappens.com/wp-content/uploads/2009/12/ptl-orenco-stat.jpg
  • http://light-rail-big.blogspot.com/2009_06_01_archive.htmlTriMet
  • Calthorpe Associates
  • http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/en/1/11/Cinderella_City_Mall_Rose_Mall.jpghttp://www.saundersci.com/files/portfolio%20pictures/Streets%20at%20Southglenn%201.jpg
  • http://www.rtd-denver.com/images/LightRail_mapfile.gif
  • Calthorpe Associates
  • City of Englewood
  • Data from US Census Bureau and Esri Business AnalystCenter for Neighborhood TechnologyLED OnTheMap
  • Data from US Census Bureau and Esri Business AnalystCenter for Neighborhood TechnologyLED OnTheMap
  • Image source:http://www.streetsblog.org/wp-content/uploads/2008/08_11/spt_car_sharing.jpg
  • http://onlineathens.com/slideshows/030609/405447466/slide1.shtml
  • Bowen Studios
  • Planning Transit-Oriented Developments in Greenville County

    1. 1. Kelly E. Larkins<br />April 18th, 2011<br />Committee<br />Dr. Cliff Ellis<br />Dr. Anne Dunning<br />A concept drawing for bus-oriented development in White Plains, NY. <br />
    2. 2. Outline<br />Problem Statement<br />Research Question and Objective<br />Literature Review<br />Research Design<br />Case Studies<br />Planning for Selected Greenville County TOD Sites<br />Recommendations<br />Conclusion<br />2<br />
    3. 3. Problem Statement<br />3<br />The current trend of auto dependency leaves populations vulnerable to losing access to employment, shopping, and social connections.<br />Fighting Oil Addiction: Ranking States’ Gasoline Price Vulnerability and Solutions for Change<br />
    4. 4. Ways to Reverse Auto Dependency<br />Short term<br />Increase transportation options<br />Long term<br />Land use and densification<br />http://tsix.ca/projects/?cat=5<br />4<br />
    5. 5. Research Question and Objective<br />5<br />How can the planning, policy, and design principles of transit-oriented development be implemented within Greenville County?<br />Objective: Increase access to employment, shopping, and social connections through the strategic combination of transit and densification.<br />
    6. 6. Definition<br />“A pattern of dense, diverse, pedestrian-friendly land uses near transit nodes that, under the right conditions, translates into higher patronage” – Robert Cervero<br />6<br />Transit Cooperative Research Program: Report 102 <br />
    7. 7. Developments EmphasizingTransit & Density<br />7<br />
    8. 8. Different Transit Developments<br />Transit-Adjacent<br />Suburban street pattern<br />Low densities<br />Dominance of surface parking<br />Limited or no pedestrian access<br />Single-family homes<br />Industrial land uses<br />Segregated land uses<br />Gas stations, car dealerships, drive-thrus and other auto-focused land-uses<br />Transit-Oriented<br />Grid street pattern<br />High densities<br />Mostly underground or structured parking<br />Pedestrian-focused design<br />Bicycle access/parking<br />Multi-family homes<br />Office and retail uses, especially along main streets<br />Vertically and horizontally mixed land-uses<br />8<br />John L. Renne, From transit-adjacent to transit-oriented development. <br />
    9. 9. TOD Typologies<br />9<br />The New Transit Town: Best Practices in Transit-oriented Development<br />
    10. 10. Building Blocks of TOD<br />Affordable housing for a variety of income groups and household types<br />Access to diverse employment opportunities<br />Access to community services<br />Libraries<br />Child care centers<br />Health clinics<br />Educational facilities<br />Banks<br />Access to a variety of food and retail opportunities<br />Pedestrian-friendly and bicycle-friendly infrastructure<br />Public spaces and green space<br />10<br />
    11. 11. Goals of Transit-Oriented Development<br />Location efficiency<br />Objective: to make a region more equitable for people without access to a private automobile<br />Placing goods, services, and employment close to transit stations to promote walking, biking, and transit ridership<br />Rich mix of choices<br />Value Capture<br />Increased sales tax revenues<br />Higher property values<br />Increased farebox revenues<br />Enhanced foot traffic<br />Placemaking<br />Portal to the Region<br />11<br />Transit-Oriented Development Strategic Plan (Denver, CO)<br />
    12. 12. Zoning <br />Permitted Uses<br />Prohibited Uses<br />12<br />Apartments (above ground floor in active business districts)<br />Townhouses<br />Service-oriented office uses<br />Non-service oriented office uses on upper floors only<br />Mixed uses with ground floor retail, personal services and/or service-oriented offices<br />Banks<br />Retail under 10,000 square feet<br />Healthcare facilities<br />Hotels<br />Transit stations<br />Restaurants (except fast food)<br />Civic, cultural and community facilities<br />Theaters, except drive-ins<br />Dry cleaners stores with cleaning facilities outside the Overlay District<br />Accessory uses (parking garages, gift shops, cafeterias and day care facilities)<br />Auto sales, auto service and repair, auto storage and auto rental uses<br />Gasoline sales<br />Industrial uses<br />Car wash<br />Strip commercial development<br />Mini-storage and self-storage facilities<br />Commercial laundries with dry-cleaning operation on site<br />Low density housing (<7 units per acre)<br />Retail uses, except grocery stores, larger than 10,000 square feet, unless part of a mixed-use development<br />Drive-through facilities<br />Commercial parking facilities<br />12<br />Massachusetts Transit-Oriented Development Overlay District Model Bylaw<br />
    13. 13. Potential Benefits of TOD<br />Reduced fuel consumption <br />ƒBetter air quality <br />ƒReduced sprawl <br />ƒConservation of open space <br />ƒReduced transportation spending and increased housing affordability for households<br />Agglomeration efficiencies and increased productivity <br />ƒIncreased property values <br />Increased return for developers from less money and land spent on parking and roads<br />Improved social cohesion through positive interactions among people in a community <br />Reduced traffic accidents <br />Improved transportation options, particularly for non-drivers <br />Expanded labor market shed for employers <br />Improved access to job opportunities for workers<br />ƒNeighborhood revitalization<br />13<br />Center for Transit-Oriented Development and Envision Utah<br />
    14. 14. Complexity of Actors and Roles<br />14<br />Center for Transit-Oriented Development<br />
    15. 15. Research Design<br />Case studies. <br />Orenco Station, Oregon<br />Englewood, Colorado<br />Apply best practices in transit-oriented development to Greenville County.<br />Spatially analyze existing land uses.<br />Compile quantitative information. <br />Perform document analysis on public documents. <br />Develop recommendations.<br />Create illustrative plans.<br />Cherrydale<br />Taylors<br />15<br />
    16. 16. Case Study Questions<br />What are the characteristics of the residents?<br />How are shopping and retail opportunities utilized?<br />How does the development work to maximize transportation options?<br />16<br />
    17. 17. Orenco StationContext & History<br />Started as a company town for Orenco Nursery Company in 1898<br />Company and community collapsed in the 1930s<br />Situated between Hillsboro (west) and Beaverton (east)<br />Development increased with the planned expansion of the Blue MAX Line (1993-1994)<br />Orenco Station opened in 1998<br />17<br />http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Old_store_in_Orenco_-_Hillsboro,_Oregon.JPG<br />http://www.blog.fusionhappens.com/wp-content/uploads/2009/12/ptl-orenco-stat.jpg<br />
    18. 18. Orenco StationDemographics (within ½ mile transit zone)<br />18<br />
    19. 19. Orenco StationTransportation Options<br />Transit Options<br />MAX Blue Line<br />10-15 minutes<br />Local Bus<br />30-45 minutes<br />Parking Availability<br />180 (surface)<br />Bike lockers available<br />19<br />TriMet<br />
    20. 20. Orenco StationRetail on Site<br />Specialty Shops<br />Jeany’s Bridal Couture<br />Nature’s Pet Market<br />Renaissance Premium Wines<br />Kitchen Kaboodle<br />Grooming<br />Ann’s Nail & Skin Care<br />Bishop’s Barbershop<br />Health<br />Dr. Judith M. Kemp(family practice)<br />Elizabeth Guimont DC PC (chiropractor) <br />Cornell Dental<br />Eye Health Northwest<br />Cafes<br />Starbucks<br />Merchant of Venice Cafe<br />Dining<br />Swagath Indian Cuisine<br />Orenco Station Grill<br />Yuki Japanese Restaurant<br />Hotels<br />Towneplace Suites by Marriott<br />Holiday Inn Express<br />Orenco Station Manor Suites<br />Other services<br />New Seasons Market (supermarket)<br />McNeil & Goldstein(law office)<br />20<br />
    21. 21. Orenco StationLessons Learned<br />Create a coherent neighborhood structure with livable features and services.<br />Overcome major challenges by bringing jurisdictions onto the team. These can help overcome:<br />Obsolete national building codes<br />Traffic engineering practices<br />Local zoning<br />Provide good market research to envision future residents needs and desires.<br />Learn from history but do not copy it.<br />Let the design evolve and change with real-world conditions.<br />21<br />Source: Michael Mehaffy<br />
    22. 22. Orenco StationIllustrative Plan<br />22<br />
    23. 23. CityCenter EnglewoodContext & History<br />Cinderella City opened in March1968<br />Sales began to fall in the 1980s due to competition <br />Last anchor store closed in 1997<br />The mall was demolished and the site redeveloped<br />Materials from old mall reused for new mixed-use development<br />CityCenter opened in 2000 <br />23<br />
    24. 24. CityCenter EnglewoodDemographics (within ½ transit zone)<br />24<br />
    25. 25. CityCenter Englewood Transportation Options<br />Transit<br />Light rail (Routes C & D)<br />7.5 -15 minutes<br />Local bus<br />30 minutes<br />Parking<br />1,968 (surface)<br />767 (structured) <br />25<br />
    26. 26. CityCenter EnglewoodRetail & Services on Site<br />Specialty<br />Fred Astaire Dance Studio<br />Heavenly Ham<br />Bally Total Fitness<br />Chuck E Cheese’s<br />Municipal<br />Englewood City Hall<br />Englewood Finance and Administration Services<br />Englewood City Clerk<br />Museum of Outdoor Arts<br />Health<br />Hearing Center<br />Specialty Eye Care<br />City Center Dental Group<br />Grooming<br />Supercuts<br />Nail Center<br />Big Box Retail<br />Walmart Supercenter<br />Office Depot<br />Sports Authority<br />Petco<br />Ross<br />Hobby Lobby<br />Dining<br />Quiznos<br />IHOP<br />Cold Stone Creamery<br />Qdoba Mexican Grill<br />Tokyo Joe’s Englewood<br />Country Buffet<br />Blondie’s Firehouse Pub<br />Cafe<br />Mile High Coffee<br />Banking<br />Bank of the West<br />Academy Bank (inside Walmart)<br />26<br />
    27. 27. CityCenter EnglewoodLessons Learned<br />Avoid fronting buildings towards arterial roads<br />Avoid large parking lots which drain the life out of civic spaces<br />Ensure foot traffic and critical mass through development<br />Ensure the development has good “front doors”<br />Locate transit parking away from station/stop to channel riders through development<br />27<br />
    28. 28. CityCenterIllustrative Plan<br />28<br />Calthorpe Associates<br />
    29. 29. CityCenterFinal Site Design and Photos<br />29<br />
    30. 30. Greenville County’s Readiness for TOD<br />Greenlink<br />Building and strengthening neighborhoods<br />Neighborhood should have transitions to appropriate land use intensity; transit villages, major employment districts, and higher density developments<br />Greenville-Pickens Area Transportation Study<br />No specific mention of TODs<br />Avocation for Complete Streets<br />Transit integration into land use<br />“Areas for high-quality transit service must be supported through land use and zoning policies”<br />Greenville County<br />No specific mention of TODs<br />Three elements: “Communities, Centers, Corridors”<br />Focusing development into centers<br />Organizing land use to increase access to transit<br />City of Greenville<br />Noted specifically the goal to “pave the way for transit-oriented development”<br />Locating density near transit and allowing for mixed-use<br />Orienting buildings near roadways<br />Re-evaluating building codes to ensure vibrancy in TODs<br />Supporting adaptive reuse to create identity<br />Three specific mentions by the public concerning TODs<br />30<br />
    31. 31. Potential TOD Site Locations<br />31<br />
    32. 32. Conceptual Transit Corridors<br />32<br />
    33. 33. Potential TOD Sites<br />33<br />
    34. 34. Current Greenlink Transit System<br />34<br />
    35. 35. CherrydaleExisting Conditions<br />Transportation<br />Natural Environment<br />Transit<br />Greenlink Route 3C <br />Greenville Area Paratransit<br />Roadways<br />Poinsett Highway<br />N. Pleasantburg Drive<br />Furman Hall Road<br />Cherrydale Street<br />Canterbury Drive<br />Soil Types<br />Cecil-Urban Land<br />Urban Land<br />Cecil-Urban Land Complex<br />Retention pond<br />No rare, threatened, or endangered species reported<br />35<br />
    36. 36. CherrydaleRetail & Services<br />Retail<br />Ingles<br />Old Navy<br />RadioShack<br />Hibbett Sports<br />GNC<br />Payless Shoe Source<br />Dollar Tree <br />Shoe Carnival<br />Ross<br />Anna’s Linens<br />TJ Maxx<br />Mattress Firm<br />Cherrydale Cinemas<br />Services<br />Ultratan<br />Great Clips<br />Anytime Fitness<br />Rush Fitness<br />H&R Block<br />State Farm Insurance<br />Sands Motel<br />Dining<br />Chick-fil-a<br />Ruby Tuesday<br />Jack In The Box<br />Wendy’s<br />Five Guys<br />36<br />
    37. 37. CherrydaleCharacteristics<br />Job Counts by Distance/Direction 2009<br />Housing and TransportationAffordability Index<br />37<br />
    38. 38. CherrydaleSite with transit zones<br />38<br />Yellow = 0.25 mile<br />Purple = 0.50 mile<br />
    39. 39. CherrydaleIllustrative Plan<br />39<br />
    40. 40. TaylorsExisting Conditions<br />Transportation<br />Natural Environment<br />40<br />Transit<br />Greenlink Route 11K<br />Greenville Area Paratransit<br />Roadways<br />Tappan Drive<br />Space Drive<br />Wade Hampton Boulevard (US 29)<br />Watson Road<br />Warehouse Court<br />Soil Types<br />Cecil-Sandy loam <br />Cecil-Urban land complex<br />Boling Creek<br />No rare, threatened, or endangered species reported<br />
    41. 41. TaylorsRetail & Services<br />Retail & Dining<br />Services<br />Walmart<br />Bi-Lo<br />Advance Auto Parts<br />Sally Beauty Supply<br />Game Stop<br />Firehouse Subs<br />Blockbuster<br />Ruby Tuesday<br />Wade Hampton Lanes<br />Sonny’s Pub<br />Firestone Complete Auto Care<br />Check Into Cash<br />Happy Nails<br />Supercuts<br />41<br />
    42. 42. TaylorsCharacteristics<br />Job Counts by Distance/Direction 2009<br />Housing and TransportationAffordability Index<br />42<br />
    43. 43. TaylorsSite with transit zones<br />43<br />Yellow = 0.25 mile<br />Purple = 0.50 mile<br />
    44. 44. TaylorsIllustrative Plan<br />44<br />
    45. 45. Recommendations for Greenville County<br />Begin early by developing a regional plan for transportation and land use<br />Identify potential TOD sites and corridors<br />Begin stakeholder involvement early<br />Work closely with Greenlink and other transit providers<br />Strengthen existing land use regulations<br />Use existing knowledge and local expertise<br />Use developers with existing TOD experience<br />Incorporate existing uses<br />Incorporate or strengthen street patterns inside and around TODs<br />Control parking within TOD with both policy and design guidelines to maximize location efficiency<br />45<br />
    46. 46. Transportation at Greenville County TODs<br />Parking strategies<br />Unbundled<br />Joint<br />Structured<br />On-street<br />Metered<br />Bicycle racks and lockers<br />Transit<br />Local bus<br />Paratransit<br />Bus rapid transit (BRT)<br />Light rail<br />Demand management<br />Car sharing<br />Car and van pooling<br />Taxis<br />46<br />
    47. 47. Parking Strategies<br />47<br />Left : Campus of UNC Greensboro; Right: Downtown Greensboro<br />Bottom:  Conceptual Drawing of Mixed Use Parking Deck: Athens, GA<br />
    48. 48. Conclusion<br />Greenville County can benefit from TODs<br />Improving air quality<br />Land conservation<br />Housing choices<br />Rise in senior population<br />Conditions will prove favorable for TOD in coming years<br />Expansion of Greenlink<br />Increasing number of mixed use developments<br />Focus on centers and corridors<br />Increased research and study of existing TODs<br />More suburban TOD examples are becoming available for Greenville County to follow<br />48<br />
    49. 49. Thank You<br />49<br />Bowen Studios:1700 South Salt Lake Master Plan<br />

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