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licensing lecture at Chalmers

licensing lecture at Chalmers

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  • open content by appel & klang cc by nc sa.jpg
  • From the “Digital Revolution” (working title) a coming documentary by the BBC http://www.bbc.co.uk/digitalrevolution
  • communication age by Dom Dada cc by nc nd
  • Bonneville salt flats by ilmungo cc by nc sa
  • Help by LiminalMike cc by nc sa
  • Notre-Dame de Paris (Exhibitions UEVF 24/01/09, UNESCO 31/01/09) by hien_it cc by nc sa
  • berne_07-01-07_04 by coyote-agile cc by nc sa
  • Upphovrätten bygger på idén att det alster som någon, vem som helst, du eller jag, eller någon annan, skapat , också skall ha rätt att bestämma över detta verk på samma sätt som om det vore en ägodel . Om man ser upphovsrättens verk som en sak , är det lättare att förstå hur principerna och regelkomplexet runt detta. Ingen av oss skulle väl kunna tänka sig att utan lov , gå in till grannen och ta med sig de saker som finns där efter tycke och smak. Dessutom är det brottsligt och kallas för stöld . När det gäller upphovsrätten gäller samma regler, fast vi använder andra ord, upphovsrättsintrång t ex. Att skydda upphovsrätten har ansetts vara viktigt över hela världen. Det finns världsomspännande regler på området. Bernkonventionen från 1898 är den äldsta. Sverige har skrivit under, dvs ratificerat den. Upphovsrätten omfattar många skilda typer av verk. Det gemensamma och typiska för sådana verk som upphovsrätten skyddar är att de lätt kan kopieras och användas utan lov, om inte ägaren/upphovsmannen hade makt att förbjuda det. Allrahelst i vår värld där i stort allt kan med lätthet kopieras till lika fina kopior som originalet.
  • inferno by Miss K cc by nc sa
  • Habermas om Informationssystem 24 november 2004 Mathias Klang
  • fork in the road by Puff's Daddy cc by nc sa
  • Thinking Stallman by nauj27 cc by nc sa
  • Sailing Stone by romainguy cc by nc sa
  • after one beer... by camil tulcan cc by nc sa
  • Peppers by Chris J cc by nc nd
  • What the boy did.. by shankar, shiv cc by nc sa
  • X by hidden side cc by nc sa
  • Rationale: By constraining the license to require free redistribution, we eliminate the temptation to throw away many long-term gains in order to make a few short-term sales dollars. If we didn't do this, there would be lots of pressure for cooperators to defect.
  • Rationale: We require access to un-obfuscated source code because you can't evolve programs without modifying them. Since our purpose is to make evolution easy, we require that modification be made easy.
  • Rationale: The mere ability to read source isn't enough to support independent peer review and rapid evolutionary selection. For rapid evolution to happen, people need to be able to experiment with and redistribute modifications.
  • Rationale: Encouraging lots of improvement is a good thing, but users have a right to know who is responsible for the software they are using. Authors and maintainers have reciprocal right to know what they're being asked to support and protect their reputations. Accordingly, an open-source license must guarantee that source be readily available, but may require that it be distributed as pristine base sources plus patches. In this way, "unofficial" changes can be made available but readily distinguished from the base source.
  • Rationale: In order to get the maximum benefit from the process, the maximum diversity of persons and groups should be equally eligible to contribute to open sources. Therefore we forbid any open-source license from locking anybody out of the process. Some countries, including the United States, have export restrictions for certain types of software. An OSD-conformant license may warn licensees of applicable restrictions and remind them that they are obliged to obey the law; however, it may not incorporate such restrictions itself.
  • Rationale: The major intention of this clause is to prohibit license traps that prevent open source from being used commercially. We want commercial users to join our community, not feel excluded from it.
  • Rationale: This clause is intended to forbid closing up software by indirect means such as requiring a non-disclosure agreement.
  • Rationale: This clause forecloses yet another class of license traps. Urmia Salt Lake _ دریاچه ی نمک ارومیه by Mehrad.HM cc by nc sa
  • Rationale: Distributors of open-source software have the right to make their own choices about their own software. Yes, the GPL is conformant with this requirement. Software linked with GPLed libraries only inherits the GPL if it forms a single work, not any software with which they are merely distributed.
  • Sound of silence by Daniel Gasienica cc by nc nd Rationale: This provision is aimed specifically at licenses which require an explicit gesture of assent in order to establish a contract between licensor and licensee. Provisions mandating so-called "click-wrap" may conflict with important methods of software distribution such as FTP download, CD-ROM anthologies, and web mirroring; such provisions may also hinder code re-use. Conformant licenses must allow for the possibility that (a) redistribution of the software will take place over non-Web channels that do not support click-wrapping of the download, and that (b) the covered code (or re-used portions of covered code) may run in a non-GUI environment that cannot support popup dialogues.
  • Source Kamal Hassin Carleton University
  • The GPL moved to version 3 to protect its copyleft from being undermined by legal or technological developments.
  • Day 537/20080308-The old man still got it by Mikey aka DaSkinnyBlackMan cc by nc sa
  • Thinking Stallman by nauj27 cc by nc sa
  • 800px-JimmyWalesJI5 by joi ito cc by
  • Help by LiminalMike cc by nc sa
  • Upphovrätten bygger på idén att det alster som någon, vem som helst, du eller jag, eller någon annan, skapat , också skall ha rätt att bestämma över detta verk på samma sätt som om det vore en ägodel . Om man ser upphovsrättens verk som en sak , är det lättare att förstå hur principerna och regelkomplexet runt detta. Ingen av oss skulle väl kunna tänka sig att utan lov , gå in till grannen och ta med sig de saker som finns där efter tycke och smak. Dessutom är det brottsligt och kallas för stöld . När det gäller upphovsrätten gäller samma regler, fast vi använder andra ord, upphovsrättsintrång t ex. Att skydda upphovsrätten har ansetts vara viktigt över hela världen. Det finns världsomspännande regler på området. Bernkonventionen från 1898 är den äldsta. Sverige har skrivit under, dvs ratificerat den. Upphovsrätten omfattar många skilda typer av verk. Det gemensamma och typiska för sådana verk som upphovsrätten skyddar är att de lätt kan kopieras och användas utan lov, om inte ägaren/upphovsmannen hade makt att förbjuda det. Allrahelst i vår värld där i stort allt kan med lätthet kopieras till lika fina kopior som originalet.
  • Olsson (2006) ger två exempel på fotografiska bilder, nämligen nyhetsbilder från Hindenburgkatastrofen och mordet på president Kennedy. Nordell (1997) räknar upp amatörfotografier och bilder som tagits i stor hast och som återger en aktuell händelse. Dead fly - FUTAB by Samyra Serin cc by nc sa
  • Informationspolitik 30 november 2005 Mathias Klang
  • the same horizon by Norma Desmond cc by nc sa
  • Mathias Klang www.digital-rights.net
  • Mathias Klang www.digital-rights.net
  • Mathias Klang www.digital-rights.net
  • Mathias Klang www.digital-rights.net
  • Mathias Klang www.digital-rights.net
  • Mathias Klang www.digital-rights.net
  • Mathias Klang www.digital-rights.net
  • Mathias Klang www.digital-rights.net
  • Mathias Klang www.digital-rights.net
  • Mathias Klang www.digital-rights.net
  • Mathias Klang www.digital-rights.net
  • Mathias Klang www.digital-rights.net
  • Mathias Klang www.digital-rights.net Article 1 a in French Canadian, Hebrew, and German
  • Mathias Klang www.digital-rights.net
  • Mathias Klang www.digital-rights.net
  • 36680176 36371975
  • Mathias Klang www.digital-rights.net
  • Mathias Klang www.digital-rights.net
  • Mathias Klang www.digital-rights.net
  • and in last place by ...tim cc by nc nd

Icm Lecture Icm Lecture Presentation Transcript

  • Open / Free Licensing Mathias Klang
  • ATT-NC-SA
    • NO ENDORSEMENT AND NO DEROGATORY USE - The Digital Revolution material is provided to allow you to get creative with content, not for campaigning, fundraising or to defame others. Don’t use it for illegal, offensive or fundraising purposes.
  • AN INFRASTRUCTURE OF SHARING
  • WHERE THE TROUBLE BEGAN
    • Or the danger of good intentions…
  • WHEREAS PRINTERS, BOOKSELLERS, AND OTHER PERSONS, HAVE OF LATE FREQUENTLY TAKEN THE LIBERTY OF PRINTING, REPRINTING, AND PUBLISHING, OR CAUSING TO BE PRINTED, REPRINTED, AND PUBLISHED BOOKS, AND OTHER WRITINGS, WITHOUT THE CONSENT OF THE AUTHORS OR PROPRIETORS OF SUCH BOOKS AND WRITINGS, TO THEIR VERY GREAT DETRIMENT, AND TOO OFTEN TO THE RUIN OF THEM AND THEIR FAMILIES: FOR PREVENTING THEREFORE SUCH PRACTICES FOR THE FUTURE, AND FOR THE ENCOURAGEMENT OF LEARNED MEN TO COMPOSE AND WRITE USEFUL BOOKS;
    • Statute of Anne 1710
  • LAGEN DEN 10 AUGUSTI 1877 OM ÄGANDERÄTT TILL SKRIFT
    • äganderätt till skrift: litterär äganderätt. Därmed menas rätt för en skrifts författare eller dennes rättsinnehafvare att, med andras uteslutande, låta genom tryck (äfven fotokemiskt) mångfaldiga sin skrift, ehvad den förut blifvit offentliggjord eller förefinnes endast i handskrift.
  •  
  • THE ARCHDEACON GAZED AT THE GIGANTIC EDIFICE FOR SOME TIME IN SILENCE, THEN EXTENDING HIS RIGHT HAND, WITH A SIGH, TOWARDS THE PRINTED BOOK WHICH LAY OPEN ON THE TABLE, AND HIS LEFT TOWARDS NOTRE-DAME, AND TURNING A SAD GLANCE FROM THE BOOK TO THE CHURCH,--"ALAS," HE SAID, "THIS WILL KILL THAT."
    • The Hunchback of Notre Dame
  •  
  • ESTABLISHMENT OF A UNION THE COUNTRIES TO WHICH THIS CONVENTION APPLIES CONSTITUTE A UNION FOR THE PROTECTION OF THE RIGHTS OF AUTHORS IN THEIR LITERARY AND ARTISTIC WORKS.
    • Berne Convention 1886
  • Det upphovsrättsliga systemet Lag (1960) om upphovsrätt till litterära och konstnärliga verk UPPHOVSRÄTTEN Ekonomisk rätt Ideell rätt Exemplarframställning Tillgängliggörande Spridningsrätt Visningsrätt Framföranderätt Rätt till namnangivelse Skydd för kränkande ändring Skydd för kränkande användning Överföring till allmänheten
  • THE ROAD TO HELL IS PAVED WITH GOOD INTENTIONS
  • LIFE IS ORGANIZED AROUND TECHNOLOGY…
    • … and it always has been….
  • COPYING COST  ZERO
  • WE HAVE ALTERNATIVES
    • “ Can this be happiness, this terrifying freedom?” Caligula (Albert Camus)
  • IF IT AINT BROKE – THEN DON’T FIX IT… IF IT IS BROKEN – THEN DON’T FIX IT…
  •  
  • Starting this Thanksgiving I am going to write a complete Unix–compatible software system called GNU (for Gnu’s Not Unix), and give it away free to everyone who can use it. September 1983
  • STALLMAN FORKED THE FUNDAMENTAL IDEAS OF CREATION AND PROVED EMPIRICALLY THAT SHARING WORKS
    • SO WHY IS IT THAT EVERYONE STILL CANNOT BELIEVE IT?
  • What does this mean? Free Infrastructure
  • “ Free software” is a matter of liberty, not price. To understand the concept, you should think of “free” as in “free speech,” not as in “free beer.”
  • COPYLEFT
    • Viral or Vaccination?
  •  
  • COPYLEFT IS NOT OPPOSITE OR ANTI-COPYRIGHT
    • Copyleft is a general method for making a program or other work free, and requiring all modified and extended versions of the program to be free as well
  • WHY NOT JUST USE PUBLIC DOMAIN?
    • -- Public domain grants FULL freedom
    • -- Including converting the program, after changes, into proprietary software.
    • -- Including denying the same freedoms to others.
  • PROPRIETARY BUT FREE (NO COST?) SEMI FREE FREE THE LICENSES
  • WHAT IS FREE?
    • 0. The freedom to run the program, for any purpose.
    • 1. The freedom to study how the program works, and adapt it to your needs (source code).
    • 2. The freedom to redistribute copies so you can help your neighbor.
    • 3. The freedom to improve the program, and release your improvements to the public (source code).
  • Open Source
    • Solution to the freedom discussion?
    • Code available for…
      • Studied
      • Changed
      • Improved
  • What makes an OS License?
    • Open Source Definition – 10 requirements (Version 1.9)
    • Approved by Open Source Initiative Board of Directors
    • Use of the Open Source TM
  • 1. Free Redistribution
    • Not restrict any party from selling or giving away the software
    • Not require a royalty or other fee for such sale.
  • 2. Source Code
    • The program must include source code
    • Must allow distribution in source code
      • … or there must be a well-publicized means of obtaining the source code
    • Deliberately obfuscated source code is not allowed.
  • 3. DERIVED WORKS
    • The license must allow modifications and derived works, and must allow them to be distributed under the same terms as the license of the original software.
  • 4. Integrity of The Author's Source Code
    • The license may restrict source-code from being distributed in modified form only if the license allows the distribution of "patch files" with the source code for the purpose of modifying the program at build time. The license must explicitly permit distribution of software built from modified source code. The license may require derived works to carry a different name or version number from the original software.
  • 5. NO DISCRIMINATION AGAINST PERSONS OR GROUPS
    • The license must not discriminate against any person or group of persons.
  • 6. No Discrimination Against Fields of Endeavor
    • The license must not restrict anyone from making use of the program in a specific field of endeavor.
    • For example, it may not restrict the program from being used in a business, or from being used for genetic research.
  • 7. DISTRIBUTION OF LICENSE
    • The rights attached to the program must apply to all to whom the program is redistributed without the need for execution of an additional license by those parties.
  • 8. LICENSE MUST NOT BE SPECIFIC TO A PRODUCT
    • The rights attached to the program must not depend on the program's being part of a particular software distribution.
  • 9. License Must Not Restrict Other Software
    • The license must not place restrictions on other software that is distributed along with the licensed software.
    • For example, the license must not insist that all other programs distributed on the same medium must be open-source software.
  • 10. LICENSE MUST BE TECHNOLOGY-NEUTRAL
  • 72 OSI licenses Microsoft Reciprocal License (Ms-RL) MIT license MITRE Collaborative Virtual Workspace License (CVW License) Motosoto License Mozilla Public License 1.0 (MPL) Mozilla Public License 1.1 (MPL) Multics License NASA Open Source Agreement 1.3 NTP License Naumen Public License Nethack General Public License Nokia Open Source License Non-Profit Open Software License 3.0 (Non-Profit OSL 3.0) OCLC Research Public License 2.0 Open Group Test Suite License Open Software License 3.0 (OSL 3.0) PHP License Python license (CNRI Python License) Python Software Foundation License Qt Public License (QPL) RealNetworks Public Source License V1.0 Reciprocal Public License Reciprocal Public License 1.5 (RPL1.5) Ricoh Source Code Public License Simple Public License 2.0 Sleepycat License Sun Industry Standards Source License (SISSL) Sun Public License Sybase Open Watcom Public License 1.0 University of Illinois/NCSA Open Source License Vovida Software License v. 1.0 W3C License wxWindows Library License X.Net License Zope Public License zlib/libpng license Academic Free License 3.0 (AFL 3.0) Affero GNU Public License Adaptive Public License Apache Software License Apache License, 2.0 Apple Public Source License Artistic license Artistic license 2.0 Attribution Assurance Licenses New and Simplified BSD licenses Boost Software License (BSL1.0) Computer Associates Trusted Open Source License 1.1 Common Development and Distribution License Common Public Attribution License 1.0 (CPAL) Common Public License 1.0 CUA Office Public License Version 1.0 EU DataGrid Software License Eclipse Public License Educational Community License, Version 2.0 Eiffel Forum License Eiffel Forum License V2.0 Entessa Public License Fair License Frameworx License GNU General Public License (GPL) GNU General Public License version 3.0 (GPLv3) GNU Library or "Lesser" General Public License (LGPL) GNU Library or "Lesser" General Public License version 3.0 (LGPLv3) Historical Permission Notice and Disclaimer IBM Public License Intel Open Source License ISC License Jabber Open Source License Lucent Public License (Plan9) Lucent Public License Version 1.02 Microsoft Public License (Ms-PL)
  • Finding the right fit Restrictive Permissive
    • GPL
    • Linux kernel
    • Ingres
    • MySQL
    • R
    • BSD, MIT, Apache
    • FreeBSD
    • Subversion
    • Ruby on Rails
    • LGPL
    • JBoss
    • OpenOffice
    • GFDL
    • Wikipedia
    • Citizendium
    • MPL/GPL/LGPL
    • Firefox
    • Thunderbird
    • Bugzilla
    • EPL
    • Eclipse IDE and software projects
  • Types of Licenses
    • Academic Licenses (BSD)
      • Originally from academic institutions
      • Freedom to the public  even to close
    • Reciprocal Licenses (GPL)
      • Free for any use
      • Licensees must offer same terms
    • Standards Licenses
      • Standard software & documentation
    • Content Licenses (AFL, OSL)
      • Copyrightable subject free for all
      • www.creativecommons.org
  • Categorization
    • Permissive Licenses
      • BSD, MIT, Apache
      • allow free distribution, modifying, and license change
      • similar to public domain software
    • Persistent
      • LGPL
      • allows free distribution, modifying and license change if bundled as a whole into new work; derivative works must be under LGPL or GPL
  • Categorization
    • Persistent and viral
      • GNU GPL
      • allows free distribution and modifying but all bundled and derivative works must be under GNU GPL
    • Persistent and viral source
      • MPL, NPL
      • used by large firms like Sun, Nokia etc, much like GPL but allows license change of binaries in favor of the original producer
  • GPL VERSION 1 JANUARY 1989
    • The four freedom
  • GPL VERSION 2 JUNE 1991 “LIBERTY OR DEATH”
    • Section 7. This section says that if somebody has restrictions imposed that prevent him or her from distributing GPL-covered software in a way that respects other users’ freedom (for example, if a legal ruling states that he or she can only distribute the software in binary form), he or she cannot distribute it at all.
  • GPL VERSION 3 JUNE 2007
    • Tivoization
    • Laws prohibiting free software (DMCA or equivalent)
    • Discriminatory patent deals
  • Content changes everything
  • THREE MAD IDEAS…
  •  
  •  
  •  
  • STALLMAN FORKED THE FUNDAMENTAL IDEAS OF CREATION AND PROVED EMPIRICALLY THAT SHARING WORKS
    • So why is it that everyone still cannot believe it?
  • CONVERGENCE OF HACKERS AND USERS…
    • We are not marginal any more… actually we probably never were…
    & DIGITAL GENERATION…
  • HISTORIK 2001 2003 2004 2005 2006 WWW Facebook YouTube Twitter MySpace Ning Linkedin Second Life
  • OPEN CONTENT LICENSING
    • CC was not the first but it is now the most common
  • LAGEN DEN 10 AUGUSTI 1877 OM ÄGANDERÄTT TILL SKRIFT
    • äganderätt till skrift: litterär äganderätt. Därmed menas rätt för en skrifts författare eller dennes rättsinnehafvare att, med andras uteslutande, låta genom tryck (äfven fotokemiskt) mångfaldiga sin skrift, ehvad den förut blifvit offentliggjord eller förefinnes endast i handskrift.
  • Det upphovsrättsliga systemet Lag (1960) om upphovsrätt till litterära och konstnärliga verk UPPHOVSRÄTTEN Ekonomisk rätt Ideell rätt Exemplarframställning Tillgängliggörande Spridningsrätt Visningsrätt Framföranderätt Rätt till namnangivelse Skydd för kränkande ändring Skydd för kränkande användning Överföring till allmänheten
  • Konstnärliga verk
    • Teater
    • Musik
    • Datorprogram
    • Film
    • Databaser
    • Konstverk
    • Byggnader
    • Brukskonst
    • Kartor
    • Fotografiska verk
    • Litteratur
  • Utmärkande drag
    • Skyddar formen men inte innehållet i ett verk
    • Formen måste uppnå ”verkshöjd” för att skyddas av upphovsrättslagen
    • Upphovsrätt kräver inga formaliteter
  • Skyddstid
    • 70 år post mortem (dödsår + 71)
    • Anonyma verk - 70 är efter publikation
    • Fotografier –
      • foto bilder: 50 år
      • foto verk: 70 år
  • Vems upphovsrätt?
    • Fastighetsägaren
    • Mathias Klang
    • Shepard Fairey
    • Anonyma konstnärer
    • Nätet
  • Vad är en kopia? Donald Duck av Walt Disney Arne Anka av Charlie Christensen
  • Form & Innehåll
  • Fountain - Duchamp (1917) “ The creative act is not performed by the artist alone; the spectator brings the work in contact with the external world by deciphering and interpreting its inner qualifications and thus adds his contribution to the creative act”
  • History 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 CC grundad! 1 mil . licenser 4.7 mil . CC licens verk! 20 mil .
  • 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 http://creativecommons.org/about/history/ 90 mill! 50 mill! 130 mill!
  • Licenssystem
  • Alternativ
  • Välj licens
  • Mer info
  • Japanska
  • Bulgarien
  • Finska
  • Vad skapas?
    • License Deed - Human readable
    • The License - Lawyer readable
    • Metatext - Machine readable
  •  
  • Esperanto
  • Kastellanska
  • Colombia
  • Licens
  • Metatext <a rel=&quot;license&quot; href=&quot;http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/2.5/se/&quot;> <img alt=&quot;Creative Commons License&quot; style=&quot;border-width:0&quot; src=&quot;http://i.creativecommons.org/l/by-nc-sa/2.5/se/88x31.png&quot; /> </a> <br /> <span xmlns:dc=&quot;http://purl.org/dc/elements/1.1/&quot; href=&quot;http://purl.org/dc/dcmitype/Sound&quot; property=&quot;dc:title&quot; rel=&quot;dc:type&quot;>klang i duschen</span> by <a xmlns:cc=&quot;http://creativecommons.org/ns#&quot; href=&quot;http://www.digital-rights.net&quot; property=&quot;cc:attributionName&quot; rel=&quot;cc:attributionURL&quot;>Klang</a> is licensed under a <a rel=&quot;license&quot; href=&quot;http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/2.5/se/&quot;>Creative Commons Erkännande-Ickekommersiell-Dela Lika 2.5 Sverige License</a>.
  • Sök Google - advanced Yahoo - advanced
  • BILDER 17/11
      • 36 668 176 images ( 23 000 per day)
    • 76 991 Student & 9 400 Göteborg = 10 Student Göteborg
    Students in Poseidon by appel
  • open content by appel & klang cc by nc sa
  • Criticism
    • Political - CC does not ensure ideological control
    • Common Sense – its too complicated
    • Pro-copyright position - CC not viable and undermines copyright by fooling users
    • Anti-copyright – its broken! Don’t fix it.
    • Confusion – do we need another license???
    • Community – licenses do not create community (or lawyers are bad people)
  • http://flickr.com/photos/barackobamadotcom/sets/72157608716313371/ by Barack Obama http://flickr.com/photos/barackobamadotcom/3008255125/in/set-72157608716313371/ Election Night Photos:
  •  
  • Alison Chiang
  • Dump your penfriend
  • Growth
  • Thank you!