i* Modeling of Agent-based RE Processes – A Basic Tutorial

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i* Modeling of Agent-based RE Processes – A Basic Tutorial …

i* Modeling of Agent-based RE Processes – A Basic Tutorial

ROLE PLE Expert Workshop Leicester, July 23, 2009

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  • 1. i* Modeling of Agent-based RE Processes – A Basic Tutorial ROLE PLE Expert Workshop Leicester, July 23, 2009 Ralf Klamma Chair f C Ch i of Computer Science 5, t S i 5 RWTH Aachen University, Germany Technical Leader Community Facilitator © www.role-project.eu
  • 2. Motivation - Traditional RE • Emphasis on Late Phase RE • OO RE (Classes/Objects) • Ill-suited for Socio-Technical Systems • “What“ & “How“, but not “Why“ What How Why • Neglection of Stakeholder Interests g • Early Choice between Alternatives  Agent-Oriented RE R. Klamma, RWTH Aachen 2 © www.role-project.eu
  • 3. Motivation - Agent-Oriented RE • Intentional Agents p g pursuing Goals g • Focus on Early Phase RE • Seamless R l S l Replacement Ht Human/SW A /SW Agent t • Continuous Adaptability p y – New Components – New Requirements • Flexibility – Alternative Ways towards Goals – Open towards Unknown Components R. Klamma, RWTH Aachen 3 © www.role-project.eu
  • 4. What is an Agent? • Person, Organisation, Software • BDI: Beliefs – Desires – Intentions • Autonomous, Flexible, Social • Goal-Oriented • Partial Description of Human Agents • Full Formal Description of SW Agents R. Klamma, RWTH Aachen 4 © www.role-project.eu
  • 5. The i* Modeling Framework • Developed by Eric Yu • Distributed Intentionality (Actors with Goals) • 2 Model Types – Strategic Dependency (SD) • Intentional, strategic relationships among actors • Actor Diagram – Strategic Rationale (SR) • Rationale behind dependencies p • Analysis of alternatives & dependency fulfillment g • Goal Diagram R. Klamma, RWTH Aachen 5 © www.role-project.eu
  • 6. i* - Syntax Element Overview • Actor • Actor Associations • Goal, Softgoal, Task, Resource, • Links – Strategic Dependency (SD) – Strategic Rationale (SR) • Decomposition • Means-Ends • Contributions R. Klamma, RWTH Aachen 6 © www.role-project.eu
  • 7. Actor, Agent, Role, Position • Actor – Abstract representation for active entity – Carries out actions to reach goals • Agent – Concrete manifestation of actor – Human/Software /S f • Role – Domain specific behaviour of actor Domain-specific – Played by actor • Position – Covers set of roles – Occupied by agent p y g R. Klamma, RWTH Aachen 7 © www.role-project.eu
  • 8. SD - Actor Associations • 6 Types: – plays – occupies – covers – is a – is Part Of – is Instance R. Klamma, RWTH Aachen 8 © www.role-project.eu
  • 9. SD - Strategic Dependencies Four Dependency Types: • Goal (fulfill) • Task (complete) • Softgoal (fulfill) • Resource (provide) R. Klamma, RWTH Aachen 9 © www.role-project.eu
  • 10. SD - Vulnerability • Vulnerability implied with dependencies • 3 Degrees of strength – Open: slightly affects depe de Ope s g y a ec s depender – Committed: causes action in depender – Critical: causes all depender actions to fail R. Klamma, RWTH Aachen 10 © www.role-project.eu
  • 11. SR – Actor Boundaries • Intentional boundary of actor y • Elements within explicitly desired by actor • Actor A t must depend on others’ i t ti td d th ’ intentions • Actor is depended upon by others p p y R. Klamma, RWTH Aachen 11 © www.role-project.eu
  • 12. SR – Means-Ends Links • Relationship between – an end – a means for attaining end • E d G l ( h t) End: Goal (what) • Means: Task (how) ( ) R. Klamma, RWTH Aachen 12 © www.role-project.eu
  • 13. SR – Decomposition Links • Task-Goal Task Goal Decomposition: Subgoal • Task-Task Decomposition: Subtask • Task-Resource Decomposition: ResourceFor • Task-Softgoal Decomposition: So tgoa o as So tgoa eco pos t o SoftgoalFor R. Klamma, RWTH Aachen 13 © www.role-project.eu
  • 14. SR – Contribution Links • contribution to fulfillment of softgoals • 9 Types:  Make  Break  Unknown  Some+  Some Some-  And  Help  Hurt  Or R. Klamma, RWTH Aachen 14 © www.role-project.eu
  • 15. SJTU Peer Teaching Scenario (SD) R. Klamma, RWTH Aachen 15 © www.role-project.eu
  • 16. SJTU Peer Teaching Scenario (SR) R. Klamma, RWTH Aachen 16 © www.role-project.eu
  • 17. Further Information – I* Wiki • Available at http://istar.rwth-aachen.de p • Tutorials & Modeling Guidelines • Tools T l • Publications categorized by domain g y – Requirements Engineering – Trust in Multi Agent Systems – Variability and Personalization – Knowledge Management R. Klamma, RWTH Aachen 17 © www.role-project.eu