Solar Energy By: Terra Barton, Jacob Droogan, Julia Koh, Xin Qin
Alternative Energy Sources - Wind
Friendly to surrounding environments
No fossil fuels being burn t
Takes up less space then the average power station
Only occupies a few square meters for the base
L and around the turbine can be used for other purposes such as agriculture
Newer technology makes extracting energy from wind more efficient
Turbines for wind can be modified in size for the needs of the surrounding
Also can be modified based on the population it is supporting
Combined with solar power energy , can be a great steady source of incoming energy
Wind Energy’s Disadvantage
wind comes and goes at its own rate
Sometimes the wind can be too weak in certain regions
Produces a lot less electricity then fossil fuel
M any turbines need to be constructed
Potentially damages environment while building the turbines
Amount of noise a turbine makes: similar to a small j et engine
Some argue it mars the beauty of nature
Alternative Energy Sources - Clean Coal Technology
Does not release carbon dioxide into the atmosphere
Easy to dig up and produce
We can continue to use coal as we always did for a couple hundred more years since we are putting all the carbon dioxide back into the ground
Not as expensive of a project as wind or water power
Coal miners can keep their jobs
Clean Coal Technology ’s Disadvantage
Other forms of pollutions besides carbon dioxide will still be emitted
S elenium and arsenic for example
Governments will be reluctant to spend money on research into renewable technologies like solar, wind or water power
Many scientists are still a little skeptical that clean coal is truly cleaner then regular coal, since there is a chance carbon dioxide can escape the ground and get back into the atmosphere
Alternative Energy Sources – Fossil Fuel
Simple process to produce heat or electricity.
Easy to distribute around the world.
Most likely source of global warming, burning fossil fuels is contributed to this.
Prices fluctuate based on the politics of region where it is coming from.
Acid rain can be produced because of fossil fuel.
Alternative Energy Sources - Geothermal energy
It is globally sustainable.
Geothermal energy is safer then fossil fuels.
It’s a “base-load” energy source.
The power plants take up very little room.
Geothermal energy ’s Disadvantages
Greenhouse gas emissions and toxic chemical emissions.
H ot water from geothermal sources has traces of dangerous elements (mercury, boron, arsenic, antimony)
Localized depletion ( geothermal sites eventually will lose heat and water )
C ause geological instability, causing seismic events to take place.
Expensive, drilling to tap the resource alone accounts for over half of the costs to erect a geothermal energy site.
Alternative Energy Sources – Hydro Power
E lectricity can be produced at a constant rate.
If electricity is not needed, the sluice gates can be shut, stopping electricity generation.
The water can be saved for use another time when electricity demand is high.
Designed to last many decades.
The lake that forms behind the dam can be used for water sports and leisure / pleasure activities.
The lake's water can be used for irrigation purposes.
When in use, electricity produced by dam systems do not produce green house gases.
Hydro Power’s Disadvantages
Dams are extremely expensive to build and must be built to a very high standard.
T hey must operate for many decades to become profitable.
The flooding of large areas of land can destroy the natural environment
People living in villages and towns that are in the valley to be flooded, must move out.
The building of large dams can cause serious geological damage.
Hoover Dam in the USA triggered a number of earth quakes and has depressed the earth’s surface at its location.
In t he past old dams have been known to be breached (the dam gives under the weight of water in the lake)
Dams built blocking the progress of a river in one country usually means that the water supply from the same river in the following country is out of their control.
This can lead to serious problems between neighb o ring countries.
Building a large dam alters the natural water table level.
Aswan Dam in Egypt has altered the level of the water table. This is slowly leading to damage of many of its ancient monuments as salts and destructive minerals are deposited in the stone work from ‘rising damp’ caused by the changing water table level.
Alternative Energy Sources – Nuclear Energy
Does not require a lot of space.
Nuclear is the most concentrated form of energy by far.
Clean, does not pollute in same ways fossil fuel does (read more about this in disadvantages.)
Fission meltdowns, very very deadly, See Chernobyl for example.
Produces radiation which is harmful to human health.
Potentially can kill people.
These nuclear reactors will only last for 40 to 50 years.
Contrary to popular belief, nuclear energy is NOT a renewable energy source.
Definition : radiant light and heat from the sun that is used and transformed into different types of energy.
M ost abundant source of renewable energy on the planet
P roduction of solar energy uses heat engines and photovoltaic
T he most common way of collecting solar energy is by use of solar panels
energy storage methods:
salts are good
high specific heat levels and
can deliver the right temperature heat to conventional heating systems
Can be used anywhere
Silent and non polluting
Solar cells can be added when there is demand for more energy
Sunlight that reaches the earth everyday is 200,000 times the total electrical energy generated everyday
Solar power production is growing rapidly
It is a secure type of energy
High initial cost
Takes a lot of solar panels to be efficient initially
Can only generate during the day
Cost about twice of what fossil fuels do
Facts about Solar Power
passive or active solar:
A ctive; photovoltaic panels and solar thermal collectors
P assive; buildings pointed to the sun, spaces within buildings with rooms that circulate air, and building with materials that have a favorable thermal mass
S olar wind and biomass are the top consumed type of energies from humans
B iomass could lead solar in terms of consumption, but it is a cause of global warming and is bad for agriculture
http:// www.youtube.com/watch?v = AmWrGPKcMNM
solar lighting, heating and ventilation systems
pumps fans and windows
U se natural solar lighting when building
Hybrid solar lighting: faces mirrors track the sun throughout the day and use optical fibers to distribute it
W ater heating: china and Cyprus have the most amount of solar thermal water heaters
greenhouses turn solar energy to hear
P hotovoltaic cells : collect photons and release electrons as energy
M ade of silicon
as small as a calculator and as large as pods in desert
Solar Energy in Daily Life
Water heating system ( Schematic diagram )
Basic Theory: Collect the solar radiation, transfer it to heat energy and apply in our daily life.
As the solar panel collect the heat from the solar and transfer it to the water inside the pipe, the water is heated and outflow from the other pipe.
Then, we may use the hot water in the showers, warming machine.
Solar Energy for Industrial Applications
Basic Theory of Solar power plant
(1). Sunlight -> Heat -> Electricity: transfer the heat from the solar thermal collector to working medium steam, then the steam gas turbine engine drive the electric generator to generate electricity.
(2) Sunlight -> Electricity: Due to the photovoltaic effect, we may trans the light to electric energy directly.
The Electricity may be used for microwave, TV, radio, telemetry, radio telephones and industrial production.