What Is An Attitude

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What Is An Attitude

  1. 1. What is an Attitude? <ul><li>“ An organized predisposition to respond in a favorable or unfavorable manner toward a specified class of objects” (Shaver, 1977) </li></ul><ul><li>Position on a bipolar affective or evaluative dimension (Fishbein & Ajzen, 1975) </li></ul><ul><li>Networks of interrelated beliefs that reside in long-term memory and are activated when the attitude object or issue is encountered (Tourangeau & Rasinksi, 1988) </li></ul>
  2. 2. Measuring Attitudes: Thurstone’s Equal Appearing Intervals (1928) <ul><li>Create pool of belief items (~100) </li></ul><ul><li>~300 judges rate favorability of items </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Scale value of item = average rating </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Exclude items with high variance </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Final scale: ~20 evenly distributed items </li></ul><ul><li>Person checks items (s)he agrees with </li></ul><ul><li>Score = median value of checked items </li></ul>
  3. 3. Measuring Attitudes: Likert’s Summated Ratings (1932) <ul><li>Create pool of belief items </li></ul><ul><li>Decide how to score each (+ or -) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>exclude neutral or ambiguous items </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Administer to relevant sample </li></ul><ul><ul><li>bipolar SA (+2) to SD (-2) scale </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Criterion of internal consistency </li></ul><ul><ul><li>item-total correlations & Coefficient Alpha </li></ul></ul>
  4. 4. Issues with Likert Scales <ul><li>Ambiguity of SD responses </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Women deserve same job opportunities as men </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>So use bipolar scales (“Women deserve…”) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Scaling is compensatory </li></ul><ul><ul><li>5 SA + 5 SD = 10 N = 5A + 5D </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Include neutral midpoint? </li></ul><ul><li>How many anchors? </li></ul>
  5. 5. Measuring Attitudes: Guttman’s Scalogram (1944) <ul><li>Create set of items that form a uni-dimensional hierarchy </li></ul><ul><li>Score = “highest” item person endorses </li></ul><ul><li>e.g., attitudes towards gambling: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Place bets with bookie </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Gambling trips to Las Vegas </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Bet on greyhounds/horses </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Office football/basketball pools </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Penny ante poker with friends </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>No-stakes wager with a friend </li></ul></ul>
  6. 6. Measuring Attitudes: Osgood’s Semantic Differential Scale <ul><li>Subjects rate items on bipolar adjectives: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>good…………………………………bad </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>favorable ……………………unfavorable </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>like……………………………….dislike </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Score = sum of responses to all items </li></ul><ul><li>Most direct measure of evaluation/affect </li></ul>
  7. 8. What is Job Satisfaction? <ul><li>Spector: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>“ the degree to which people like their jobs” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>“ How people feel about their jobs and different aspects of their jobs” </li></ul></ul>Work characteristics Job Satisfaction(s)
  8. 9. Simple Discrepancy Models <ul><li>Porter (1961): Need Satisfaction </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Desired-Actual </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Minnesota Work Adjustment Model </li></ul><ul><ul><li>20 “reinforcers” (based on Murray’s 12 needs) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Locke (1976): Values </li></ul><ul><ul><li>“ Job satisfaction results from appraisal of one’s job as attaining…one’s important job values” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>provided these values are congruent with basic needs </li></ul></ul>
  9. 10. Perceived characteristics Job Satisfaction(s) Objective characteristics Needs/ Values
  10. 11. Frame of Reference Models <ul><li>March & Simon </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Evaluation of inducements/contributions ratio </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Labor market affects value of contributions </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Cornell Model: Outcomes vs. Expectations </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Evaluations of outcomes are affected by Frame of Reference (alternatives, past experience, economy) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Hulin, Roznowski & Hachiya (1985) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Frame of reference influences both contributions and inducements </li></ul></ul>
  11. 12. Perceived characteristics Job Satisfaction(s) Objective characteristics Needs/ Values Frame of Reference
  12. 13. Questioning the Situational View <ul><li>A chink in the armor: are perceptions veridical with objective reality? </li></ul><ul><li>Social Information Processing model </li></ul><ul><li>Dispositional View </li></ul>
  13. 14. Alternative Models of JS: Social Information Processing Model <ul><li>Social construction of attitudes vs objective characteristics) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Salancik & Pfeffer (1978) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Roots in Schachter & Singer (1962) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Attitude statements based on: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Perception of affective components </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Social context cues </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Self-attributions about behavior </li></ul></ul>Event Generalized Arousal Cues JS
  14. 15. Alternative Models of JS: Dispositional Approach <ul><li>Staw & Ross (1985) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Surprising stability over time/situations </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Staw, Bell & Clausen (1986) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Childhood temperament predicts adult JS </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Arvey et al. (1989) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>JS has hereditary component (30%) </li></ul></ul>
  15. 16. Caveats re: Dispositional Approach <ul><li>General questions about behavioral genetics </li></ul><ul><li>Gerhart (1987): Situation AND Disposition </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Compared effects on current satisfaction of prior satisfaction, pay, job complexity </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Job complexity had strongest effect </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Why isn’t extrinsic satisfaction heritable? </li></ul><ul><li>Why is JS heritable? A JS gene? </li></ul>
  16. 17. Temperament and Job Satisfaction <ul><li>Trait NA/PA may be key factor </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Some reason to believe that it may have biological basis, and thus inheritable </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Those high in NA are more likely to: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Notice negative stimuli </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Evaluate stimuli in negative terms </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Recall negative stimuli </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Create interpersonal conflict  dissatisfaction </li></ul></ul>
  17. 18. Primacy of Affect or Judgment Events Affect JS Weiss & Cropanzano (1996) Disposition Mood at work JS Weiss et al. (1999) Disposition Interpretations JS Brief (1998)
  18. 19. Primacy of Affect or Judgment Disposition Interpretations JS Brief & Weiss (2002) Mood Stress events Strain JS Fuller et al. (2003) Mood
  19. 20. Subjective Norm Attitude: Act Behavior Intent Behavior Theory of Reasoned Action (Fishbein & Ajzen) Attitudes and Behavior
  20. 21. Evaluation Behavior beliefs Normative beliefs Motivation to Comply Subjective Norm Attitude: Act Behavior Intent Behavior Theory of Reasoned Action (Fishbein & Ajzen) Attitudes and Behavior
  21. 22. Evaluation Behavior beliefs Normative beliefs Motivation to Comply Subjective Norm Attitude: Act Behavior Intent Behavior Theory of Reasoned Action (Fishbein & Ajzen) Constraints Attitudes and Behavior

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