Your SlideShare is downloading. ×
0
What Is An Attitude
What Is An Attitude
What Is An Attitude
What Is An Attitude
What Is An Attitude
What Is An Attitude
What Is An Attitude
What Is An Attitude
What Is An Attitude
What Is An Attitude
What Is An Attitude
What Is An Attitude
What Is An Attitude
What Is An Attitude
What Is An Attitude
What Is An Attitude
What Is An Attitude
What Is An Attitude
What Is An Attitude
What Is An Attitude
What Is An Attitude
What Is An Attitude
Upcoming SlideShare
Loading in...5
×

Thanks for flagging this SlideShare!

Oops! An error has occurred.

×
Saving this for later? Get the SlideShare app to save on your phone or tablet. Read anywhere, anytime – even offline.
Text the download link to your phone
Standard text messaging rates apply

What Is An Attitude

1,725

Published on

0 Comments
0 Likes
Statistics
Notes
  • Be the first to comment

  • Be the first to like this

No Downloads
Views
Total Views
1,725
On Slideshare
0
From Embeds
0
Number of Embeds
0
Actions
Shares
0
Downloads
91
Comments
0
Likes
0
Embeds 0
No embeds

Report content
Flagged as inappropriate Flag as inappropriate
Flag as inappropriate

Select your reason for flagging this presentation as inappropriate.

Cancel
No notes for slide

Transcript

  • 1. What is an Attitude? <ul><li>“ An organized predisposition to respond in a favorable or unfavorable manner toward a specified class of objects” (Shaver, 1977) </li></ul><ul><li>Position on a bipolar affective or evaluative dimension (Fishbein & Ajzen, 1975) </li></ul><ul><li>Networks of interrelated beliefs that reside in long-term memory and are activated when the attitude object or issue is encountered (Tourangeau & Rasinksi, 1988) </li></ul>
  • 2. Measuring Attitudes: Thurstone’s Equal Appearing Intervals (1928) <ul><li>Create pool of belief items (~100) </li></ul><ul><li>~300 judges rate favorability of items </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Scale value of item = average rating </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Exclude items with high variance </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Final scale: ~20 evenly distributed items </li></ul><ul><li>Person checks items (s)he agrees with </li></ul><ul><li>Score = median value of checked items </li></ul>
  • 3. Measuring Attitudes: Likert’s Summated Ratings (1932) <ul><li>Create pool of belief items </li></ul><ul><li>Decide how to score each (+ or -) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>exclude neutral or ambiguous items </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Administer to relevant sample </li></ul><ul><ul><li>bipolar SA (+2) to SD (-2) scale </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Criterion of internal consistency </li></ul><ul><ul><li>item-total correlations & Coefficient Alpha </li></ul></ul>
  • 4. Issues with Likert Scales <ul><li>Ambiguity of SD responses </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Women deserve same job opportunities as men </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>So use bipolar scales (“Women deserve…”) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Scaling is compensatory </li></ul><ul><ul><li>5 SA + 5 SD = 10 N = 5A + 5D </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Include neutral midpoint? </li></ul><ul><li>How many anchors? </li></ul>
  • 5. Measuring Attitudes: Guttman’s Scalogram (1944) <ul><li>Create set of items that form a uni-dimensional hierarchy </li></ul><ul><li>Score = “highest” item person endorses </li></ul><ul><li>e.g., attitudes towards gambling: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Place bets with bookie </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Gambling trips to Las Vegas </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Bet on greyhounds/horses </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Office football/basketball pools </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Penny ante poker with friends </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>No-stakes wager with a friend </li></ul></ul>
  • 6. Measuring Attitudes: Osgood’s Semantic Differential Scale <ul><li>Subjects rate items on bipolar adjectives: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>good…………………………………bad </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>favorable ……………………unfavorable </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>like……………………………….dislike </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Score = sum of responses to all items </li></ul><ul><li>Most direct measure of evaluation/affect </li></ul>
  • 7.  
  • 8. What is Job Satisfaction? <ul><li>Spector: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>“ the degree to which people like their jobs” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>“ How people feel about their jobs and different aspects of their jobs” </li></ul></ul>Work characteristics Job Satisfaction(s)
  • 9. Simple Discrepancy Models <ul><li>Porter (1961): Need Satisfaction </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Desired-Actual </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Minnesota Work Adjustment Model </li></ul><ul><ul><li>20 “reinforcers” (based on Murray’s 12 needs) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Locke (1976): Values </li></ul><ul><ul><li>“ Job satisfaction results from appraisal of one’s job as attaining…one’s important job values” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>provided these values are congruent with basic needs </li></ul></ul>
  • 10. Perceived characteristics Job Satisfaction(s) Objective characteristics Needs/ Values
  • 11. Frame of Reference Models <ul><li>March & Simon </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Evaluation of inducements/contributions ratio </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Labor market affects value of contributions </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Cornell Model: Outcomes vs. Expectations </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Evaluations of outcomes are affected by Frame of Reference (alternatives, past experience, economy) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Hulin, Roznowski & Hachiya (1985) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Frame of reference influences both contributions and inducements </li></ul></ul>
  • 12. Perceived characteristics Job Satisfaction(s) Objective characteristics Needs/ Values Frame of Reference
  • 13. Questioning the Situational View <ul><li>A chink in the armor: are perceptions veridical with objective reality? </li></ul><ul><li>Social Information Processing model </li></ul><ul><li>Dispositional View </li></ul>
  • 14. Alternative Models of JS: Social Information Processing Model <ul><li>Social construction of attitudes vs objective characteristics) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Salancik & Pfeffer (1978) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Roots in Schachter & Singer (1962) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Attitude statements based on: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Perception of affective components </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Social context cues </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Self-attributions about behavior </li></ul></ul>Event Generalized Arousal Cues JS
  • 15. Alternative Models of JS: Dispositional Approach <ul><li>Staw & Ross (1985) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Surprising stability over time/situations </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Staw, Bell & Clausen (1986) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Childhood temperament predicts adult JS </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Arvey et al. (1989) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>JS has hereditary component (30%) </li></ul></ul>
  • 16. Caveats re: Dispositional Approach <ul><li>General questions about behavioral genetics </li></ul><ul><li>Gerhart (1987): Situation AND Disposition </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Compared effects on current satisfaction of prior satisfaction, pay, job complexity </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Job complexity had strongest effect </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Why isn’t extrinsic satisfaction heritable? </li></ul><ul><li>Why is JS heritable? A JS gene? </li></ul>
  • 17. Temperament and Job Satisfaction <ul><li>Trait NA/PA may be key factor </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Some reason to believe that it may have biological basis, and thus inheritable </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Those high in NA are more likely to: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Notice negative stimuli </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Evaluate stimuli in negative terms </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Recall negative stimuli </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Create interpersonal conflict  dissatisfaction </li></ul></ul>
  • 18. Primacy of Affect or Judgment Events Affect JS Weiss & Cropanzano (1996) Disposition Mood at work JS Weiss et al. (1999) Disposition Interpretations JS Brief (1998)
  • 19. Primacy of Affect or Judgment Disposition Interpretations JS Brief & Weiss (2002) Mood Stress events Strain JS Fuller et al. (2003) Mood
  • 20. Subjective Norm Attitude: Act Behavior Intent Behavior Theory of Reasoned Action (Fishbein & Ajzen) Attitudes and Behavior
  • 21. Evaluation Behavior beliefs Normative beliefs Motivation to Comply Subjective Norm Attitude: Act Behavior Intent Behavior Theory of Reasoned Action (Fishbein & Ajzen) Attitudes and Behavior
  • 22. Evaluation Behavior beliefs Normative beliefs Motivation to Comply Subjective Norm Attitude: Act Behavior Intent Behavior Theory of Reasoned Action (Fishbein & Ajzen) Constraints Attitudes and Behavior

×