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  1. 1. Leadership Skills: Do we need them? Can we gain them? France Bouthillier Director – Associate Professor Graduate School of Library and Information Studies McGill University
  2. 2. Who needs leadership skills? <ul><li>Those involved in: </li></ul><ul><li>Resources management </li></ul><ul><li>Project management </li></ul><ul><li>Advocacy </li></ul><ul><li>Lobbying </li></ul><ul><li>Change management </li></ul><ul><li>What about you? </li></ul>
  3. 3. What is leadership? <ul><li>Many definitions </li></ul><ul><li>Many theories </li></ul><ul><li>Many leader traits and styles </li></ul><ul><li>Ability to influence others for getting the job done through commitment of people </li></ul>
  4. 4. Sources of power <ul><li>organizational: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>legitimate power - granted by hierarchy </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>reward power - to give or withhold reward </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>coercive power - power to punish </li></ul></ul><ul><li>personal </li></ul><ul><ul><li>referent power - identification, imitation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>expert power – knowledge, expertise </li></ul></ul>
  5. 5. Managers and leaders: same skills? <ul><li>Managers are not necessarily leaders </li></ul><ul><li>Leaders are not necessarily managers </li></ul><ul><li>However, good managers and leaders should have both management and leadership skills </li></ul>
  6. 6. Manager Vs. Leader <ul><li>Managers </li></ul><ul><li>Administer </li></ul><ul><li>Maintain the status quo </li></ul><ul><li>Use control </li></ul><ul><li>Deal with details and tactics </li></ul><ul><li>Focus on systems and rules </li></ul><ul><li>Have limited view </li></ul><ul><li>Do the thing right </li></ul><ul><li>Leaders </li></ul><ul><li>Innovate </li></ul><ul><li>Develop </li></ul><ul><li>Inspire trust </li></ul><ul><li>Deal with strategies </li></ul><ul><li>Focus on people and values </li></ul><ul><li>Look at the big picture </li></ul><ul><li>Do the right thing </li></ul>
  7. 7. Qualities of managers vs. leaders <ul><li>Managers </li></ul><ul><li>Rule-oriented </li></ul><ul><li>Communicative </li></ul><ul><li>Create pressure </li></ul><ul><li>Care about satisfaction </li></ul><ul><li>Outcome-oriented </li></ul><ul><li>Problem controller </li></ul><ul><li>Respectful of traditions </li></ul><ul><li>Reactive </li></ul><ul><li>Responsible </li></ul><ul><li>Leaders </li></ul><ul><li>Assertive </li></ul><ul><li>Persuasive </li></ul><ul><li>Able to work under pressure </li></ul><ul><li>Good motivator </li></ul><ul><li>Visionary </li></ul><ul><li>Problem solver </li></ul><ul><li>Creative </li></ul><ul><li>Proactive </li></ul>
  8. 8. Examples of leaders <ul><li>Who is an inspiring leader? </li></ul><ul><li>Have you encountered a good leader? </li></ul><ul><li>Do you have models of leaders? </li></ul>
  9. 9. Emotional intelligence <ul><li>Good leaders have also </li></ul><ul><li>Self-awareness </li></ul><ul><li>Self-confidence </li></ul><ul><li>Self-control </li></ul><ul><li>Commitment and integrity </li></ul><ul><li>Ability to communicate, influence, initiate change and accept change (Goleman, 1998) </li></ul>
  10. 10. Transformational leadership <ul><li>argues for the importance of strong leaders with charismatic personalities who can </li></ul><ul><li>optimize the personal and professional development of others </li></ul><ul><li>Develop strong vision </li></ul><ul><li>Act as teachers, facilitators, motivators </li></ul><ul><li>Never put personal before group interests </li></ul><ul><li>Make moral and ethical decisions </li></ul>
  11. 11. What makes a leader? <ul><li>Guiding vision or sense of purpose </li></ul><ul><li>Passion and enthusiasm </li></ul><ul><li>Integrity </li></ul><ul><li>Self-knowledge </li></ul><ul><li>Honesty </li></ul><ul><li>Curiosity </li></ul><ul><li>Risk taking </li></ul>
  12. 12. A typology of leaders <ul><li>According to Pitcher (1999), leaders can be: </li></ul><ul><li>Artists who are intuitive and have dreams </li></ul><ul><li>Craftsmen who deal with day-to-day operations </li></ul><ul><li>Technocrats who are analytical, brilliant but distant </li></ul>
  13. 13. Leadership and women <ul><li>1929, women could earn a salary </li></ul><ul><li>1950, to work as teachers, women had to be single or members of religious communities </li></ul><ul><li>1964, women have the right to make banking transactions on their own </li></ul><ul><li>1975, Charter on human rights </li></ul><ul><li>1996, legislation on equity </li></ul>
  14. 14. Leadership and women <ul><li>For women, leadership skills and styles had to evolve differently than for men </li></ul><ul><li>In spite of barriers, at any time in history, we can find outstanding female leaders in various social areas </li></ul>
  15. 15. Leadership and librarians <ul><li>Are librarians motivated to become leaders? </li></ul><ul><li>Do we have inspiring leaders in libraries? </li></ul><ul><li>Do we like leaders in libraries? </li></ul><ul><li>Do librarians have the skills to become leaders? </li></ul>
  16. 16. Leadership and change management <ul><li>Paradigm shifts: </li></ul><ul><li>Resources </li></ul><ul><li>Services </li></ul><ul><li>Users </li></ul><ul><li>Implications on: </li></ul><ul><li>Job design </li></ul><ul><li>Technology </li></ul><ul><li>Human resources </li></ul>
  17. 17. Forces for change <ul><li>external </li></ul><ul><li>- new technologies </li></ul><ul><li>- political, economic, financial conditions, world market </li></ul><ul><li>- customer demands, changes in competition </li></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul><ul><li>internal </li></ul><ul><li>- re-engineering, costs </li></ul><ul><li>- revision of plan/objectives, communications </li></ul><ul><li>- employee turnover, changes in work practices </li></ul>
  18. 18. Change requires leaders who can <ul><li>Create a realistic sense of urgency for change </li></ul><ul><li>Create a clear vision of the future </li></ul><ul><li>Remove obstacles to change </li></ul><ul><li>Anchor changes in the organization’s culture </li></ul><ul><li>Follow through with plans </li></ul>
  19. 19. But leading change also means <ul><li>Machiavelli in The Prince (1514): “It must be realized that there is nothing more difficult to plan, more uncertain of success, or more dangerous to manage than the establishment of a new order of things… </li></ul>
  20. 20. Why change is difficult to implement? <ul><li>People don’t understand or don’t want to </li></ul><ul><li>People aren’t informed </li></ul><ul><li>People’s security is threatened </li></ul><ul><li>People prefer the status quo </li></ul><ul><li>People have vested interests </li></ul><ul><li>Inertia and obsolescence </li></ul>
  21. 21. Challenges for leaders <ul><li>Managing participation is a balancing act: between management control and team opportunity; between getting the work done quickly and giving people a chance to learn; between seeking volunteers and pushing people into it; between too little team spirit and too much. Kanter (1983). </li></ul>
  22. 22. How to gain leadership skills? <ul><li>First, you need to explore your values </li></ul><ul><li>Second, who can serve as a model for you and why? </li></ul><ul><li>Third, what is your vision of your profession, service, organization? </li></ul>
  23. 23. How to gain leadership skills? <ul><li>Develop emotional intelligence </li></ul><ul><li>Including empathy </li></ul><ul><li>And trustworthiness </li></ul><ul><li>Need to decide whether you want innovation, change and risk taking </li></ul>
  24. 24. You can develop skills… <ul><li>Only if you are truly motivated to do so </li></ul><ul><li>However your style and ability will always be determined by your personality </li></ul>
  25. 25. Means for developing skills <ul><li>Workshops </li></ul><ul><li>Institutes </li></ul><ul><li>Role playing </li></ul><ul><li>Community involvement </li></ul><ul><li>Personal experiences </li></ul>
  26. 26. Libraries need leaders more than ever because <ul><li>Change is permanent </li></ul><ul><li>Need to develop strong vision of the role of libraries and design of library services </li></ul><ul><li>Need for partnerships, communication, advocacy, lobbying </li></ul>
  27. 27. Are you ready for it? <ul><li>If not, others professions and experts will take a leadership role …. </li></ul><ul><li>Thank you! </li></ul><ul><li>Comments are appreciated: </li></ul><ul><li>[email_address] </li></ul>
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