To familiarize the students with the concepts of management
To study the functions of the managers
To identify the levels of management
To understand the various management skills
To examine the various approaches to management
Koontz and Weihrich offer an interesting perspective on management.
"Management is a process of designing and maintaining an environment in which individuals work together in groups to efficiently accomplish selected aims".
McFarland gives a holistic view on management.
"Management is a process by which managers create, direct, maintain and operate purposive organizations, through systematic, coordinated, cooperative human effort".
These definitions when expanded have these implications.
The functions of managers include planning, organizing, staffing, leading and controlling.
These functions are essential to any kind of organization.
It applies to managers at all hierarchical levels.
The aim of managers is to increase productivity, effectiveness and efficiency.
Management is thus a continuous effort aimed at shaping an organization and contributing to its overall growth.
In 1960, Henry Mintzberg conducted a study to understand about the managerial roles. He identified 10 managerial roles that are common to all managers. These 10 managerial roles are grouped under: Interpersonal, informational and decisional roles.
primarily social in nature(they are the roles in which the manager's main task is to relate to other people in certain ways )
Figurehead : Represents the company on social occasions. Attending the flag hosting ceremony, receiving visitors or taking visitors for dinner etc.
Leader : In the role of a leader, the manager motivates, encourages, and builds enthusiasm among the employees. Training subordinates to work under pressure, forms part of the responsibilities of a manager.
Liaison : Consists of relating to others outside the group or organization. Serves as a link between people, groups or organization. The negotiation of prices with the suppliers regarding raw materials is an example for the role of liaison.
involves some aspect of information processing
Recipient : Actively seeks information from subordinates and the external environment. He (Manager) keeps himself updated, with the latest developments which can be of value to the organization.
Disseminator : The manager plays the role of a disseminator by circulating and transferring relevant information to subordinates, and to the top-level management. For Example, Communicating changes in the company policy (remuneration, recruitment etc.) to subordinates
3. Spokesperson : Transmits information to the people who are external to the organization, i.e., government, media etc . For instance, a manager addresses a press conference announcing a new product launch or other major deal.
Entrepreneur : Act as an initiator and designer and encourage changes and innovation, identify new ideas, delegate idea and responsibility to others.
Disturbance handler : Take corrective action during disputes or crises; resolves conflicts among subordinates; adapt to environmental crisis.
Resource allocator : Decides distribution of resources among various individuals and groups in the organization.
Negotiator : Negotiates with subordinates, groups or organizations- both internal and external. Represents department during negotiation of union contracts, sales, purchases, budgets; represent departmental interests
Functions of the Manager
Planning is the process of setting goals, and charting the best way of action for achieving the goals. This function also includes, considering the various steps to be taken to encourage the necessary levels of change and innovation.
For example, if a company is planning for a promotional campaign, then the manager responsible for the campaign has to chart out actions that are in the best interest of the firm.
Organizing is the process of allocating and arranging work, authority and resources, to the members of the organization so that they can successfully execute the plans.
Staffing consists of recruiting, training and developing people, who form part of the organized efforts to contribute towards organizational growth.
Leading involves directing, influencing and motivating employees to perform essential tasks. This function involves display of leadership qualities, different leadership styles, different influencing powers, with excellent abilities of communication and motivation.
Controlling is the process of devising various checks to ensure that planned performance is actually achieved. It involves ensuring that actual activities confirm to the planned activities. Monitoring the financial statements, checking the cash registers to avoid overdraft etc., form part of this process.
The Levels of Management
Top management sets the goals of the organization, evaluates the overall performance of various departments involved in selection of key personnel and consults subordinate managers on subjects or problems of general scope.
Middle level management is responsible for developing departmental goals and initiate actions that are required to achieve organizational objectives.
Supervisory management takes charge of day-to-day operations at the floor level and is involved in preparing detailed short-range plans.
Technical skills These skills include the knowledge of and proficiency in activities involving methods, processes and procedures. This includes the abilities of a manager in using the knowledge, tools, and techniques of a specific discipline or field such as accounting, engineering, manufacturing etc.
Human or interpersonal skills of a manager, includes his/her ability to understand other people and interact effectively with them. Examples of such skills include leading, motivating and communicating, with subordinates, peers and outsiders. Possession of these skills is essential for managers, working in all levels. The human skills are also important in creation of an environment in which people feel secure and free to express their opinions.
Conceptual skills This refers to the ability to think and conceptualize abstract situations. These abilities are required for making complex decisions. Such skills are inclusive of the diagnostic skill, which enables an understanding of the `cause-effect' relationship. Further, it helps to see the situation as a whole, as well as in parts. (i.e., individually). These skills are essential for the top management.
Design skills enable a manager to handle and solve any kind of unforeseen problems, that may crop up in the organization. Top management should posses design skills, in plenty. It is basically their job to handle/tackle any unforeseen consequences that may occur in the organization. Such problems could arise due to internal factors or external factors and/or both.
Approaches to Management
Case approach : Experiences in an organization are analyzed with the help of cases. Based on these successes and failures are identified.
Interpersonal behavior approach : This approach is based on individual psychology. It lays emphasis on interpersonal behavior, human relations and motivation.
Group behavior approach : This approach is based on the theories of Sociology and Social Psychology. The focus of this approach is on the study of group behavior patterns.
Cooperative social system approach : This approach is concerned with interpersonal relations and group behavior.
Social-technical systems approach : This approach highlights about the relationships among people and their ability in the utilization of technical systems. (personal attitudes, group behavior etc.)
Decision theory approach : This approach is concerned with the decision making process, that involves individuals or groups.
Systems approach : The systems approach is a study about the inter-relationship between planning, organizing and controlling among the sub-systems in organizations.
Mathematical approach : This approach views management as a purely logical process, expressed in mathematical symbols and relationships.
Approaches to Management
Managerial roles approach: It involves the study of managerial roles that are based on interpersonal, informational and decision roles.
Situational approach : This approach recognizes the influence of the given solutions, regarding organizational behavior patterns.
McKinsey's 7-S framework : 7-S's structured by McKinsey are strategy, structure, systems, style, staff, shared values and skills.
Operational approach : This approach draws together the different concepts, principles, techniques and knowledge from other fields and from different types of managerial approaches.