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  • 09/23/12 Maria Petridou University of Nottingham
  • 09/23/12 Maria Petridou University of Nottingham

Se lect14 btech Se lect14 btech Presentation Transcript

  • SEN Lab TaskModeling and Design of your project using:• Data model: entity-relationship diagram (ERD).• Functional model:DFD• Recommended Software: DIA
  • SEN Lab TaskManagement of your project using:• Work Breakdown Structure Diagram• Activity Diagram• Gantt Chart• PERT Chart• Network Diagram• Recommended Software: MS PROJECT
  • • Analysis and design of your project using following diagrams:• UML Class Diagrams• UML Package Diagrams• UML Object Diagrams• UML Use Case Diagram• UML Sequence Diagram• UML Collaboration Diagrams• UML Statechart Diagrams• UML Activity Diagram• UML Component Diagram• UML Deployment Diagrams• Recommended Software: STAR UML
  • Overview of Project ManagementProject Concept & Definition Benefit Delivery Management Project P Es g Phase or Stage Planning t im ati End n Re g R so ur cin Pla Mobilis- Management, Control nin n ation & Reporting QA g Benefit Tracking & Management Quality Management Risk Management Issue Management Scope & Change Control Configuration Management Documentation Control Team building, Collaboration and Internal Communication Organisational Change Management External Communication Procurement & Accounting Subcontractor Management
  • Project Management• Project Failures• Project Successes
  • Project Failure• Identify reasons that project fail
  • Reasons for Project Failure1. Poor project and program management discipline2. Lack of executive-level support3. No linkage to the business strategy4. Wrong team members5. No measures for evaluating the success of the project6. No risk management7. Inability to manage change
  • Project Success Criteria• On time• On budget• Meeting the goals that have been agreed upon
  • Iron Triangle
  • Seven Traits of Good ProjectManagers Trait 1 Enthusiasm for the project Trait 2 Ability to manage change effectively Trait 3 A tolerant attitude toward ambiguity Trait 4 Team – building and negotiating skills
  • Seven Traits of Good ProjectManagersTrait 5 A customer-first orientationTrait 6 Adherence to the priorities of businessTrait 7 Knowledge of the industry or technology
  • Project Management• Project Management – The “application of knowledge, skills, tools and techniques to project activities to meet project requirements.”• 9 Knowledge areas
  • Integration Management• Fitting everything together• Planning• Project Changes
  • Project Scope Management• Clear scope statement• Prevent scope creep
  • Project Time Management• Time and Schedule – Planning – Managing
  • Project Cost Management• Manage costs – Out of your control – Competing projects
  • Project Quality Management• Planning quality• Enforcing quality• Checking quality control
  • Project Human ResourceManagement• Organizational planning• Staff acquisition• Making a team
  • Project CommunicationsManagement• Communication plan
  • Project Risk Management• Risk management plan
  • Project Procurement Management• Acquisition and contract management
  • Project Life Cycle
  • SMART goals• S – Specific• M – Measurable• A – Agreed upon• R – Realistic• T – Time related
  • Risk management• Identify – Sources of risk • Funding • Time • Staffing • Customer relations • Project size and/or complexity • Overall structure • Organizational resistance • External factors
  • Work Breakdown Structure (WBS)• Breaks large project into manageable units – Total project – Subprojects – Milestones (completion of an important set of work packages) – Major activities (summary tasks) – Work packages (tasks, activities, work elements)
  • Work Breakdown Structure 26
  • WBS• Helps to: – Identify all work needing to be done – Logically organize work so that is can be scheduled – Assign work to team members – Identify resources needed – Communicate what has to be done – Organize work using milestones
  • Budgeting• Budget = People + Resources + Time
  • Direct & Indirect Costs• Direct costs – Directly attributed to the project• Indirect costs – Shared amongst other projects
  • Types of Budgeting• Bottom-up• Top-Down• Phased
  • Project Time Management
  • Complexity of Scheduling Project Activities• Large number of activities• Precedence relationships• Limited time of the project 32
  • Importance of Project Schedules  Managers often cite delivering projects on time as one of their biggest challenges  Average time overrun from 1995 CHAOS report was 222%  Time has the least amount of flexibility; it passes no matter what  Schedule issues are the main reason for conflicts on projects, especially during the second half of projects
  • Conflict Intensity over the Life of A Project 0.40 0.35 0.30 Conflict Intensity Schedules 0.25 Average Total Conflict Priorities Manpower 0.20 Technical opinions Procedures 0.15 Cost Personality conflicts 0.10 0.05 0.00 Project Early Phases Middle Phases End Phases Formation
  • Project Time Management Processes  Project time management involves the processes required to ensure timely completion of a project, including:  Activity definition  Activity sequencing  Activity duration estimating  Schedule development  Schedule control
  • Where Do Schedules Come From? Defining Activities:  Project schedules grow out of the basic documents that initiate a project  Project charter includes start and end dates and budget information  Activity definition involves developing a more detailed PLANS and supporting explanations to understand all the work to be done
  • Activity Sequencing  Involves reviewing activities and determining dependencies  Mandatory dependencies: inherent in the nature of the work; hard logic  Optional dependencies: defined by the project team; soft logic  We must determine dependencies in order to use critical path analysis
  • Project Network Diagrams  Project network diagrams are the preferred technique for showing activity sequencing  A project network diagram is a schematic display of the logical relationships among, or sequencing of, project activities
  • Activity-on-Arrow (AOA) Network Diagram
  • Arrow Diagramming Method (ADM)  Also, called activity-on-arrow (AOA) project network diagrams  Activities are represented by arrows  Nodes or circles are the starting and ending points of activities  Can only show finish-to-start dependencies
  • Process for Creating AOA Diagrams 1. Find all of the activities that start at node 1. Draw their finish nodes and draw arrows between node 1 and those finish nodes. Put the activity letter or name and duration estimate on the associated arrow 2. Continue drawing the network diagram, working from left to right. Look for bursts and merges. Bursts occur when a single node is followed by two or more activities. A merge occurs when two or more nodes precede a single node 3. Continue drawing the project network diagram until all activities are included on the diagram that have dependencies 4. As a rule of thumb, all arrowheads should face toward the right, and no arrows should cross on an AOA network diagram
  • Project Planning When ActivityTimes are Known • Inputs – list of the activities that must be completed – activity completion times – activity precedence relationships 42
  • Project Planning When Activity Times are Known continued• Outputs – graphical representation of project – time to complete project – identification of critical path(s) and activities – activity and path slack – earliest and latest time each activity can be started – earliest and latest time each activity can be completed 43
  • ExampleActivity Time Preceded By A 10 -- B 7 -- C 5 A D 13 A E 4 B,C F 12 D G 14 E 44
  • Network Diagram 45
  • Early Start and Finish Times 46
  • Latest Start and Finish Times 47
  • Activity Slack TimeTES = earliest start time for activityTLS = latest start time for activityTEF = earliest finish time for activityTLF = latest finish time for activity Activity Slack = TLS - TES = TLF - TEF 48
  • Precedence Diagramming Method (PDM)  Activities are represented by boxes  Arrows show relationships between activities  More popular than ADM method and used by project management software  Better at showing different types of dependencies
  • Task Dependency Types
  • Activity Duration Estimating  After defining activities and determining their sequence, the next step in time management is duration estimating  Duration includes the actual amount of time worked on an activity plus elapsed time  People doing the work should help create estimates, and an expert should review them
  • Schedule Development  Schedule development uses results of the other time management processes to determine the start and end date of the project and its activities  Ultimate goal is to create a realistic project schedule that provides a basis for monitoring project progress for the time dimension of the project  Important tools and techniques include Gantt charts, PERT analysis, and critical path analysis
  • Gantt ChartPERT & CPM
  • Critical Path Method (CPM)  CPM is a project network analysis technique used to predict total project duration  A critical path for a project is the series of activities that determines the earliest time by which the project can be completed  The critical path is the longest path through the network diagram
  • Finding the Critical Path  First develop a good project network diagram  Add the durations for all activities on each path through the project network diagram  The longest path is the critical path
  • Determining the Critical Path
  • More on the Critical Path  If one of more activities on the critical path takes longer than planned, the whole project schedule will slip unless corrective action is taken  Misconceptions:  The critical path is not the one with all the critical activities; it only accounts for time  There can be more than one critical path if the lengths of two or more paths are the same  The critical path can change as the project progresses
  • Using Critical Path for Schedule Trade-offs  Knowing the critical path helps you make schedule trade-offs  Free slack or free float is the amount of time an activity can be delayed without delaying the early start of any immediately following activities  Total slack or total float is the amount of time an activity may be delayed from its early start without delaying the planned project finish date
  • Techniques for Shortening a Project Schedule  Shortening durations of critical tasks by adding more resources or changing their scope  Crashing tasks by obtaining the greatest amount of schedule compression for the least incremental cost  Fast tracking tasks by doing them in parallel or overlapping them
  • Shortening Project Schedules Original schedule Shortened duration Overlapped tasks
  • What are Gantt and PERT?Gantt and PERT charts are both “CPM” (Critical Path Method) tools to:• manage the tasks involved in big and complex projects• let project managers organise time, people, equipment and money• ensure the right people and equipment are in the right place and the right time • allow managers to monitor the progress of a project 61
  • Gantt Basics• Basically, a timeline with tasks that can be connected to each other• Note the spelling!• It is not all-capitals!• Can be created with simple tools like Excel, but specialised tools like Microsoft Project make life easier 62
  • Making a Gantt chart • Step 1 – list the tasks in the project 63
  • Making a Gantt chart • Step 2 – add task durations 64
  • Making a Gantt chart • Step 3 – add dependencies (which tasks cannot start before another task finishes) 65
  • Notes •The arrows indicate dependencies. •Task 1 is a predecessor of task 2 – i.e. task 2 cannot start before task 1 ends. •Task 3 is dependent on task 2. Task 7 is dependent on two other tasks •Electrics, plumbing and landscaping are concurrent tasks and can happen at the same time, so they overlap on the chart. All 3 can start after task 4 ends. •Task 9 has zero duration, and is a milestone 66
  • Making a Gantt chart • Step 4 – find the critical pathThe critical path is the sequence of tasks from beginning to end that takesthe longest time to complete.Any task on the critical path is called a critical task.No critical task can have its duration changed without affecting the enddate of the project. 67
  • PERT basics• PERT is an acronym so it’s in capital letters• Gantt is a name, so only has an initial capital• In Gantt chart, the length of a task’s bar is proportional to the length of the task. This rarely applies to PERT charts.• There are a few different “flavours” of PERT and Gantt charts… 68
  • PERT charts This PERT chart follows the “Activity on Arrow” style. •The tasks are shown by arrows. Task name are shown by letters, in this case. •The circles are called nodes. The nodes indicate the start or end of tasks. •Task durations are the shown by the numbers. 69
  • ‘Activity on Node’ style PERT Activity on Node is a different flavour of PERT: this time the nodes are tasks, and the arrows are merely connectors. The examiners prefer very simple PERT charts – 70 sometimes hybrid beasts that defy categorisation.
  • PERT EXAMPLE A PERT PROBLEM 71
  • • 1: Which tasks are on the critical path?• 2: What is the slack time for tasks C, D and G?• 3: Task C is delayed by one day. What impact would this have on the completion date of the project? Why?• 4: Task A will be delayed by 2 days because some equipment has arrived late. If the project manager wants to finish the project on time he will need to shorten the duration of one or more of the tasks. How can he achieve this?• 5: The project manager reduces the durations of tasks D and F by one day each. How will this affect the finishing date of the project? 72
  • 1: Which tasks are on the critical path? Possible paths: A,B,C,E,I = 2+3+1+4+3 = 13 days A,B,D,F,I = 2+3+3+3+3 = 14 days A,G,H,I = 2+2+5+3 = 12 days ANSWER: A,B,D,F,I 73
  • 2: What is the slack time for tasks C, D and G? TASKS C and D… Path C,E = 5 days, Path D,F = 6 days Difference (slack) = 1 day for tasks C or E compared to D,FTASK G…Path B,C,E = 8 days. Path B, D, F = 9 daysPath G, H = 7 days.So G & H have 2 days’ slack between them.B,C or E have 1 day’s slack. 74B,D,F have no slack.
  • 3: Task C starts one day late. What impact would this have on the completion date of the project? Why? No impact, because task C has one day’s slack (as discovered in previous question!) 75
  • 4: Task A will be delayed by 2 days because some equipment has arrived late. If the project manager still wants to finish the project within the original time frame, he will need to shorten the time for one or more of the tasks. What steps can he take to reduce the number of days allocated to a task? The answer has NOTHING to do with the chart! Just say how jobs can be finished more quickly, e.g. bringing in extra workers from slack tasks, working longer hours, working weekend, streamlining work practices, automating tasks etc. 76
  • • 5: The project manager decides to reduce the time needed for tasks D and F by one day each. How effective will this reduction be in achieving his aim of maintaining the original finish time for the project? It is only partially effective. Reducing tasks D and F by one day each means the path A,B,D,F,I is now 12 days long. However, path A,B,C,E,I is still 13 days so it becomes the longest path, and therefore becomes the new critical path. The project is now 13 days long instead of 14, a saving of only one day. 77
  • Project Management Software • There are a number of project management software tools available to help in the planning and control of large software development projects. – E.g. MS Project is a CASE software tool for Project Management • Most tools include functions to plan, schedule and control, but decision-making still has to be done by the project manager.
  • Project Management Software• Benefits of project management software: – Calculate project schedule – Resource smoothing – Automatic generation of reports and charts• Limitations of project management software – Allocation of resources to tasks – Estimation of tasks durations – Make decisions