Mobile SoftwareMobile Software
EngineeringEngineering
By
Prof. Dr.Prof. Dr. O.P.VyasO.P.Vyas
DAAD Fellow (Germany), AOTS F...
n Mobile Software: Evolution or Revolution
HH Smartphone Vs Other Mobile DevicesSmartphone Vs Other Mobile Devices
HH Mobi...
Our Approach …Our Approach …
nn Concepts of Mobile Software & need for EngineeringConcepts of Mobile Software & need for E...
Types of Mobile Apps
•• Native AppsNative Apps
A native app as one that is
specifically designed to
run on a device’s
oper...
Technical difference between the two?
• For instance, a native
application developed for
the iPhone will need to run
on it...
Native:Native:
• For native apps, the advent
of the Apple App Store was
the game changer.
• Native apps will remain
prefer...
Why Web Apps…..
Web Apps offer an architectural advantagearchitectural advantage
when targeting a crossa cross--device lau...
Helpful Developer ToolsHelpful Developer Tools
n Mobile developers aren’t just looking into coding and
design resources.
n...
9
Mobile Software Engineering
Prof. OP Vyas Indian Institute of Information Technology, Allahabad, India
jQueryjQuery
n jQuery is a multi-browser JavaScript library designed toJavaScript library designed to
simplify the clients...
jQuery MobilejQuery Mobile
n jQuery Mobile: Touch-Optimized Web Framework for
Smartphones & Tablets
H A unified, HTML5, HT...
PhoneGapPhoneGap
n There haven’t been many APIs developed over HTML5 to
build solid mobile applications. Notably the mobil...
MoSyncMoSync
n MoSync is a free and open source software development kit
(SDK) for mobile applications.
n It is integrated...
Mosync
nn MoSyncMoSync is ais a free and open source software development kitfree and open source software development kit...
Mobile Device
Mobile Devices & PlatformsMobile Devices & Platforms
15
TabletsTabletsMobileMobile
PhonesPhones
Basic &Basic...
Developing Native AppsDeveloping Native Apps
ØØiPhoneiPhone AppsApps
H iOS
H Objective-C, C
H Requires Apple Developer Acc...
Windows AppsWindows Apps
nn Windows MobileWindows Mobile
H C#, C
H .NET, CF of Windows Mobile API,
H most devices ship wit...
WindowsWindows
Microsoft has been trying to enter the
mobile space as a big player for
years. Windows Mobile was its
main ...
Windows PhoneWindows Phone
Microsoft launched its new operating system with companies suchnew operating system with compan...
WindowsWindows
The second generation of this platform, known as Windows PhoneWindows Phone
88, is not compatible with devi...
Windows 8
Windows Phone is not intendedis not intended for tablets because Windows 8—the
big version—is prepared for bigge...
Windows for MobileWindows for Mobile
Microsoft originally named the Windows Phone and Windows 8 user
interface Metro, but ...
Windows Phone & NokiaWindows Phone & Nokia
• In late 2011, Nokia began using Windows Phone as the main
smartphone platform...
BlackBerryBlackBerry
• Research in Motion (RIMRIM) was the Canadian manufacturer of the
BlackBerryBlackBerry devices, mobi...
BlackBerryBlackBerry
• For years RIM had few devices aimed at the mass market; most of them
had QWERTY keyboards and were ...
Mobile manufacturer and platform developerMobile manufacturer and platform developer
websiteswebsites
Mobile Software Engi...
Smart TVSmart TV Platforms
• You’re thinking: my TV is not too mobile! Well, you’re right. We
are not going to talk too mu...
Smart TVSmart TV
• At the time of this writing, interactive TV platforms are divided
into native platforms and set-top box...
Android Application developmentAndroid Application development
29
Mobile Software Engineering
Prof. OP Vyas Indian Institu...
Application Development on AndroidApplication Development on Android
n Android Software Environment
HH Linux KernelLinux K...
31
Mobile Software Engineering
Prof. OP Vyas Indian Institute of Information Technology, Allahabad, India
Android Application developmentAndroid Application development
n Android applications consist of different components andc...
Google Play (Android Market)Google Play (Android Market)
Google offers the Google Play service in which
programmers can of...
Android Development ToolsAndroid Development Tools
nn Android SDKAndroid SDK
n The Android Software Development Kit (Andro...
Android Development ToolsAndroid Development Tools
n Google provides tools based on the Eclipse and IntelliJ IDE
to develo...
ADTADT
n Google also supports an IDE called the Android Studio for
creating Android applications. This IDE is based on the...
First things firstFirst things first
•Get Eclipse with ADT plug -in (other IDE is also applicable)
1. Select Help > Softwa...
Dalvik Virtual MachineDalvik Virtual Machine
n The Android system uses a special virtual machine, i.e. the
Dalvik Virtual ...
JVM Vs DVMJVM Vs DVM
39
Mobile Software Engineering
Prof. OP Vyas Indian Institute of Information Technology, Allahabad, I...
How to develop Android ApplicationsHow to develop Android Applications
n Android applications are primarily written in the...
Developing Android ApplicationDeveloping Android Application
n These dex files are therefore much smaller in size than the...
Android Basic Building BlocksAndroid Basic Building Blocks
•Activities - UI component typically corresponding to one scree...
Understanding the Anatomy of an AndroidUnderstanding the Anatomy of an Android
ApplicationApplication
ContextContext
Activ...
Important terminologyImportant terminology
ContextContext
Mobile Software Engineering
Prof. OP Vyas Indian Institute of In...
ActivityActivity
Mobile Software Engineering
Prof. OP Vyas Indian Institute of Information Technology, Allahabad, India
IntentIntent
Mobile Software Engineering
Prof. OP Vyas Indian Institute of Information Technology, Allahabad, India
ServiceService
Mobile Software Engineering
Prof. OP Vyas Indian Institute of Information Technology, Allahabad, India
Using the application contextUsing the application context
nn The context can be used to manage applicationThe context can...
Android Application & ActivityAndroid Application & Activity
n Unlike other programming paradigms in which apps are
launch...
Android LifecycleAndroid Lifecycle
n As a user navigates through, out of, and back to your app,
the Activity instances in ...
Activity LifecycleActivity Lifecycle
51
During the life of an activity, the system calls a core set of lifecycle methodsse...
Core files and directories of the AndroidCore files and directories of the Android
ApplicationApplication
AndroidManifest....
Core files and directories of the AndroidCore files and directories of the Android
ApplicationApplication
res folder • All...
n Mobile Software: Mobility or Ubiquity
HH Mobile Web & Responsive WebsitesMobile Web & Responsive Websites
n Why Mobile W...
SQLite DatabasesSQLite Databases
forforforfor
Storing StructuredStoring Structured
DataData
Mobile Software Engineering
Pr...
Mobile Software EngineeringMobile Software Engineering
BlackBerryBlackBerry
Apps BehaviorApps BehaviorApps BehaviorApps Be...
BlackBerryBlackBerry
Mobile App developmentMobile App developmentMobile App developmentMobile App development
Mobile Softw...
BlackBerryBlackBerry
• Research in Motion (RIMRIM) was the Canadian manufacturer of the
BlackBerryBlackBerry devices, mobi...
BlackBerryBlackBerry
• For years RIM had few devices aimed at the mass market; most of them
had QWERTY keyboards and were ...
Mobile manufacturer and platform developerMobile manufacturer and platform developer
websiteswebsites
Mobile Software Engi...
Mobile AppsMobile Apps BehaviourBehaviour
Ø How App can be limitedlimited to Mobile Context?
Ø How the Phone features are ...
Mobile Software & PhoneMobile Software & Phone
• Smartphones are communications devices, so making phone
calls is their mo...
Life Cycle of Mobile AppLife Cycle of Mobile App
What is the Life Cycle on iOS / Android
How to have efficient Memory Mana...
App on iOS
• The application life cycle constitutes the sequence of events that
occurs between the launch and termination ...
App Life Cycle in iOS4
• Because of background applications support in iOS 4, following are
the possible state of any thir...
App Life cycle on iOS
Mobile Software Engineering
Prof. OP Vyas Indian Institute of Information Technology, Allahabad, Ind...
Life Cycle of Mobile AppsLife Cycle of Mobile Apps
Mobile Software Engineering
Prof. OP Vyas Indian Institute of Informati...
Mobility & Mobile WebMobility & Mobile Web
68
Mobile Software Engineering
Prof. OP Vyas Indian Institute of Information Te...
Mobile WebMobile Web
n The Mobile Web refers to access to the world wide web, i.e. the
use of browser-based Internet servi...
Mobile WebMobile Web
Ø An early 2010 ITU (International Telecommunication
Union) report said that with the current growth ...
Mobile WebMobile Web
n With the surge of powerful mobile devices , the role of the Web as
a platform for content, applicat...
Mobile WebMobile Web
n The term “Mobile Web” (although often criticized) is
commonly used to describe accessing the intern...
Mobile BrowserMobile Browser
n A mobile browser, also called a
microbrowser, minibrowser, or wireless
internet browser (WI...
Mobile BrowsersMobile Browsers
Mobile Software Engineering
Prof. OP Vyas Indian Institute of Information Technology, Allah...
Mobile WebMobile Web
n Websites designed for access from Web browsers are referred to
as wireless portals or collectively ...
Mobile Apps & Traditional WebsiteMobile Apps & Traditional Website
76
Mobile Software Engineering
Prof. OP Vyas Indian Ins...
“Applike” Website“Applike” Website
Ø In a more applikeapplike
modelmodel, the client tends to
play a bigger role.
Ø Reusab...
Mobile Software:Mobile Software: Mobile delivery methodsMobile delivery methods
n Unlike traditional websites, there are f...
Issues in Mobile Web designIssues in Mobile Web design
Aspect ratioAspect ratio
A device’s aspect ratio is the ratio betwe...
Aspect RatioAspect Ratio
•• If there is one thing mobile handset producers cannot agree on, it’sIf there is one thing mobi...
Aspect RatioAspect Ratio
• The traditional aspect ratio of 4:3 is fairly square; it’s been the
standard go-to format for m...
Aspect Ratio: Phones & TV
• Although mobile TV video is the biggest benefit of the
acceptance of 16:9 aspect ratios, mobil...
ØØMake the page and its structural elementsMake the page and its structural elements
fit withinfit within 320 pixels320 pi...
Responsive Web DesignResponsive Web Design
RWD is a set of techniquesset of techniques championed by web designer Ethan
Ma...
Responsive Web DesignResponsive Web Design
85
Mobile Software Engineering
Prof. OP Vyas Indian Institute of Information Te...
Mobile SoftwareMobile Software
While many “classic” software engineering techniques may transfer
easily to the mobile appl...
87
Mobile Software Engineering
Prof. OP Vyas Indian Institute of Information Technology, Allahabad, India
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  1. 1. Mobile SoftwareMobile Software EngineeringEngineering By Prof. Dr.Prof. Dr. O.P.VyasO.P.Vyas DAAD Fellow (Germany), AOTS Fellow (Japan)DAAD Fellow (Germany), AOTS Fellow (Japan) Indian Institute of Information TechnologyIndian Institute of Information Technology AllahabadAllahabad Mobile Software Engineering Prof. OP Vyas Indian Institute of Information Technology, Allahabad, India
  2. 2. n Mobile Software: Evolution or Revolution HH Smartphone Vs Other Mobile DevicesSmartphone Vs Other Mobile Devices HH Mobile OS: Android OS, Windows Phone,Mobile OS: Android OS, Windows Phone, iOSiOS HH Mobile Software: Cross Device ApplicationsMobile Software: Cross Device Applications n Mobile Apps Characteristics & Issues HH Software trends : Native Apps & Web AppsSoftware trends : Native Apps & Web Apps HH Mobile Information Architecture: PatternsMobile Information Architecture: Patterns Mobile Software EngineeringMobile Software Engineering 2 HH Mobile Information Architecture: PatternsMobile Information Architecture: Patterns n Why Mobile SE ? Mobile SE Approaches HH Mobile SE trends : Usability Lifecycle & UX DesignMobile SE trends : Usability Lifecycle & UX Design HH Mobile Interaction Design: MobileMobile Interaction Design: Mobile IxDIxD PatternsPatterns HH Mobile Software Testing : Native & Web AppsMobile Software Testing : Native & Web Apps n Mobile Web & Responsive Web Design nn Implementation issuesImplementation issues:: Software ProjectsSoftware Projects Mobile Software Engineering Prof. OP Vyas Indian Institute of Information Technology, Allahabad, India
  3. 3. Our Approach …Our Approach … nn Concepts of Mobile Software & need for EngineeringConcepts of Mobile Software & need for Engineering approachapproach nn Significant issues: Mobile UX design, InformationSignificant issues: Mobile UX design, Information ArchitectureArchitecture nn Implementations: Mobile Apps Design & DevelopmentImplementations: Mobile Apps Design & Development nn Responsive Web DesignResponsive Web Designnn Responsive Web DesignResponsive Web Design nn Tools & Frameworks:Tools & Frameworks: PhonegapPhonegap,, MosyncMosync && jQueryjQuery HH Modeling with UMLModeling with UML HH Tools & TechniquesTools & Techniques 4Overview of Mobile Platform: – Writing codes: Implementing using Tools & Framework 4Tools : J2ME, Javascript, jQuery, HTML5,….. 3 Mobile Software Engineering Prof. OP Vyas Indian Institute of Information Technology, Allahabad, India
  4. 4. Types of Mobile Apps •• Native AppsNative Apps A native app as one that is specifically designed to run on a device’s operating system and machine firmware, and •• Web AppsWeb Apps A Web app, or browser application, is one in which all or some parts of the software are downloaded from themachine firmware, and typically needs to be adapted for different devices. Ex. Address book,Address book, calendar andcalendar and calculatorcalculator downloaded from the Web each time it is run. Ø It can usually be accessed from all Web- capable mobile devices. Ex. Weather Widgets,Weather Widgets, Social Networking andSocial Networking and Online GamesOnline Games. 8/29/20134 Mobile Software Engineering Prof. OP Vyas Indian Institute of Information Technology, Allahabad, India
  5. 5. Technical difference between the two? • For instance, a native application developed for the iPhone will need to run on its proprietary iOS platform, or on Symbian for many Nokia devices, and so forth. • One interesting point to note is that while architectural differences will likely remain between a native and Web application for some time, the user experiences provided by both interfaces are increasingly blurred, as most native apps utilize real-time and so forth. • A Web app, however, is typically coded in a browser-rendered language such as HTML combined with JavaScript. native apps utilize real-time Web connectivity and Web apps provide offline modes that can be accessed without network connectivity. • As a result, some of these apps are now referred to as hybrid apps. 8/29/2013 5 Best practices for Mobile Apps development: http://www.w3.org/TR/mwabp/ Mobile Software Engineering Prof. OP Vyas Indian Institute of Information Technology, Allahabad, India
  6. 6. Native:Native: • For native apps, the advent of the Apple App Store was the game changer. • Native apps will remain preferred choice for heavy apps such as 3D gaming in the near future. Web:Web: • For mobile Web apps, notable developer interest emerged only in the last year or so after Google’s successful implementation of HTML5-based apps • Web useful for subscription - based services such as communications, news & weather, financial services, retail andfinancial services, retail and shopping. 8/29/20136 Mobile Software Engineering Prof. OP Vyas Indian Institute of Information Technology, Allahabad, India
  7. 7. Why Web Apps….. Web Apps offer an architectural advantagearchitectural advantage when targeting a crossa cross--device launchdevice launch, where significantly less platform migrationplatform migration is required compared to native applications, Similar Platform independence paradigm of Java TechnologyJava Technology… 8/29/2013 7 Mobile Software Engineering Prof. OP Vyas Indian Institute of Information Technology, Allahabad, India
  8. 8. Helpful Developer ToolsHelpful Developer Tools n Mobile developers aren’t just looking into coding and design resources. n There is also a high demand for software tools and IDEs, not to mention powerful mobile frameworks. n Mobile Software development is a difficult task which requires quite a bit of dedication, but utilizing additional tools will make your job a whole lot easier.additional tools will make your job a whole lot easier. H jQuery is a multi-browser JavaScript library designed to simplify the client-side scripting of HTML. H jQuery Mobile: Touch-Optimized Web Framework for Smartphones & Tablets. A unified, HTML5, HTML5--based user interfacebased user interface system for all popular mobile device platforms, nn Mobile Software Testing: SeleniumMobile Software Testing: Selenium 8 Mobile Software Engineering Prof. OP Vyas Indian Institute of Information Technology, Allahabad, India
  9. 9. 9 Mobile Software Engineering Prof. OP Vyas Indian Institute of Information Technology, Allahabad, India
  10. 10. jQueryjQuery n jQuery is a multi-browser JavaScript library designed toJavaScript library designed to simplify the clientsimplify the client--side scriptingside scripting of HTML. n Free, Open Source Software, was released in January 2006 by John Resig. n jQuery greatly simplifies JavaScript programming n It is currently developed by a team of developers led by Dave Methvin.Methvin. n Used by over 65% of the 10,000 most visited websites, jQuery is the most popular JavaScript library in use today. 10 Mobile Software Engineering Prof. OP Vyas Indian Institute of Information Technology, Allahabad, India
  11. 11. jQuery MobilejQuery Mobile n jQuery Mobile: Touch-Optimized Web Framework for Smartphones & Tablets H A unified, HTML5, HTML5--based user interfacebased user interface system for all popular mobile device platforms, H built on the rock-solid jQueryjQuery andand jQueryjQuery UIUIH built on the rock-solid jQueryjQuery andand jQueryjQuery UIUI foundation. n Its lightweight code is built with H progressive enhancement, and has a flexible, easily themeable design. n Latest stable version - 1.3.1 nn URL: http://jquerymobile.com/URL: http://jquerymobile.com/ 11 Mobile Software Engineering Prof. OP Vyas Indian Institute of Information Technology, Allahabad, India
  12. 12. PhoneGapPhoneGap n There haven’t been many APIs developed over HTML5 to build solid mobile applications. Notably the mobile landscape has been lacking these types of websites, which is exactly why PhoneGap fills the niche so well. Their platform lets you easily construct HTML5-based apps as native applications on 6 different platforms. n The process works by first compressing your code and passing it through PhoneGap’s application framework. Frompassing it through PhoneGap’s application framework. From there your apps can reach a large portion of the mobile marketplace including Android, iOS, Windows Phone 7, and BlackBerry 12 Mobile Software Engineering Prof. OP Vyas Indian Institute of Information Technology, Allahabad, India
  13. 13. MoSyncMoSync n MoSync is a free and open source software development kit (SDK) for mobile applications. n It is integrated with the Eclipse development environment and is provided under a dual license scheme; a commercial license and an open source GPL version 2 license. n The framework produces native mobile applications for multiple platforms using C/C++, html5 scripting and anymultiple platforms using C/C++, html5 scripting and any combination thereof. The target group for MoSync are both web developers looking to enter the mobile space, as well as the ordinary PC/Mac desktop developer with knowledge in C/C++ development 13 Mobile Software Engineering Prof. OP Vyas Indian Institute of Information Technology, Allahabad, India
  14. 14. Mosync nn MoSyncMoSync is ais a free and open source software development kitfree and open source software development kit (SDK)(SDK) for mobile applications.for mobile applications. nn It is integrated with theIt is integrated with the Eclipse development environmentEclipse development environment,, and is provided under a dual license scheme; a commercialand is provided under a dual license scheme; a commercial license and an open source GPL version 2 license.license and an open source GPL version 2 license. nn The framework producesThe framework produces native mobile applications fornative mobile applications for multiple platforms using C/C++, html5 scriptingmultiple platforms using C/C++, html5 scripting and anyand anymultiple platforms using C/C++, html5 scriptingmultiple platforms using C/C++, html5 scripting and anyand any combination thereof.combination thereof. nn The target group forThe target group for MoSyncMoSync are both web developersare both web developers looking to enter the mobile space, as well as the ordinarylooking to enter the mobile space, as well as the ordinary PC/Mac desktop developer with knowledge in C/C++PC/Mac desktop developer with knowledge in C/C++ developmentdevelopment 14 Mobile Software Engineering Prof. OP Vyas Indian Institute of Information Technology, Allahabad, India
  15. 15. Mobile Device Mobile Devices & PlatformsMobile Devices & Platforms 15 TabletsTabletsMobileMobile PhonesPhones Basic &Basic & FeatureFeature phonesphones SocialSocial PhonesPhones TVTV Android Based Apple iPhones SmartphonesSmartphones NonNon--PhonePhone Smart TVSmart TV Mobile Software Engineering Prof. OP Vyas Indian Institute of Information Technology, Allahabad, India
  16. 16. Developing Native AppsDeveloping Native Apps ØØiPhoneiPhone AppsApps H iOS H Objective-C, C H Requires Apple Developer Account H developer apple.com/iPhone ØØAndroid AppsAndroid Apps H Android H Java, C, C++ H Open source OS (based on Linux) H developerandroid.com ØØWindows AppsWindows Apps ØØBlackBerryBlackBerry 16 Mobile Software Engineering Prof. OP Vyas Indian Institute of Information Technology, Allahabad, India
  17. 17. Windows AppsWindows Apps nn Windows MobileWindows Mobile H C#, C H .NET, CF of Windows Mobile API, H most devices ship with J2ME compatible JVMJVM H developer.windowsmobile.com nn Window PhoneWindow Phone H C#, VB.NET H SilverLight, XNA Framework 17 Mobile Software Engineering Prof. OP Vyas Indian Institute of Information Technology, Allahabad, India
  18. 18. WindowsWindows Microsoft has been trying to enter the mobile space as a big player for years. Windows Mobile was its main platform, until it decided to start from scratch: Windows Phone was the result, leading to Windows 8 on the desktop and tablets later. A new mobile operating systemmobile operating system, developed from the ground up with a unique user interface (originallya unique user interface (originally called Metro), it provides a different experience than the other main platforms. Both Windows Phone and the Windows tablet and desktop versions (from version 8) include an official Windows store for applications and content. NokiaNokia LumiaLumia 820 with Windows Phone 8 installed820 with Windows Phone 8 installed Mobile Software Engineering Prof. OP Vyas Indian Institute of Information Technology, Allahabad, India
  19. 19. Windows PhoneWindows Phone Microsoft launched its new operating system with companies suchnew operating system with companies such as HTC, LG, and Samsungas HTC, LG, and Samsung, but it didn’t get too much market share. A special agreement with Nokia changed this, providing much wideragreement with Nokia changed this, providing much wider Windows Phone distributionWindows Phone distribution worldwide starting in 2012. Most independent analysts conclude that in the following years iOSiOS,, Android, and Windows PhoneAndroid, and Windows Phone are likely to be the main threeAndroid, and Windows PhoneAndroid, and Windows Phone are likely to be the main three platforms in the market. The first version of the Windows Phone OS was 7.0Windows Phone OS was 7.0 (following on from Windows Mobile 6.5). This was followed by the first big step: Windows Phone 7.5, also known as Mango, which supported multitasking and HTML5 in Internet Explorer 9. Windows Phone devices include Microsoft-related services and applications, such as Office, Internet Explorer, and Bing services. Applications on Windows Phone devices can only be installed through the official Windows store. Mobile Software Engineering Prof. OP Vyas Indian Institute of Information Technology, Allahabad, India
  20. 20. WindowsWindows The second generation of this platform, known as Windows PhoneWindows Phone 88, is not compatible with devices sold with 7.x, although these devices were upgraded to Windows Phone 7.8, which includes some of the new features of the second-generation platform (such as a new Home screen with tiles). Windows Phone 8 includes a new architecture and an optimized UInew architecture and an optimized UI for better customization,for better customization, including Kid’s Corner, which provides a worry-free way for your kids to play with your phone.worry-free way for your kids to play with your phone. All Windows Phone 8 devices include the Windows Phone Store,Windows Phone Store, formerly known as Windows Marketplace, for native app distribution Mobile Software Engineering Prof. OP Vyas Indian Institute of Information Technology, Allahabad, India
  21. 21. Windows 8 Windows Phone is not intendedis not intended for tablets because Windows 8—the big version—is prepared for bigger touch devices. Windows 8 includes the same user interfacesame user interface that appeared first in the phone version of Microsoft’s mobile operating system. Windows 8 is included with many tablets on the market, including Microsoft’s own devices and those from different vendors, and every version supports Windows 8 Store apps —fullfull--screen applications created with HTML5 or .NETscreen applications created with HTML5 or .NET—fullfull--screen applications created with HTML5 or .NETscreen applications created with HTML5 or .NET The operating system includes an official Windows StoreWindows Store for the first time, for app distribution. This operating system is optimized for desktops, notebooks, and tablet devices. For tablets, it is available in two main versions: Ø Windows 8 Pro and Windows 8 RT. Ø The first version is the “classicclassic” Intel chipset–based version, and it supports every Windows Vista or legacy Windows XP application in a “Desktop” mode. Mobile Software Engineering Prof. OP Vyas Indian Institute of Information Technology, Allahabad, India
  22. 22. Windows for MobileWindows for Mobile Microsoft originally named the Windows Phone and Windows 8 user interface Metro, but a trademark dispute forced it to drop this name. It is now called the “Windows 8–style UI” or “Windows Store UI.” Mobile Software Engineering Prof. OP Vyas Indian Institute of Information Technology, Allahabad, India
  23. 23. Windows Phone & NokiaWindows Phone & Nokia • In late 2011, Nokia began using Windows Phone as the main smartphone platform in devices released under the marketing series name LumiaLumia. • These devices are replacing Symbian devices as Nokia’s main high-end line and will coexist with them for a couple of years. • Nokia Lumia phones have Windows Phone 7.x, 8.0, or later and include Microsoft and Nokia software such as Internet Explorer, Bing, Nokia Maps, Nokia Drive, and the Windows Phone Store.Bing, Nokia Maps, Nokia Drive, and the Windows Phone Store. Mobile Software Engineering Prof. OP Vyas Indian Institute of Information Technology, Allahabad, India
  24. 24. BlackBerryBlackBerry • Research in Motion (RIMRIM) was the Canadian manufacturer of the BlackBerryBlackBerry devices, mobile devices focused on being “alwaysalways connectedconnected” with push technologies. • The company was renamed “BlackBerry” in early 2013, dropping the RIM name for the future. • Early adopters were primarily corporate users who needed to remain connected to intranets and corporate networks; then the devices appeared in new markets, becoming popular with teenagers and instant messaging fans.messaging fans. • RIM used to call all its devices “smartphones,” but others did not always consider them as falling into that category Mobile Software Engineering Prof. OP Vyas Indian Institute of Information Technology, Allahabad, India
  25. 25. BlackBerryBlackBerry • For years RIM had few devices aimed at the mass market; most of them had QWERTY keyboards and were not designed for gaming. • Many of these devices had proprietary input devices, like a scroll wheelproprietary input devices, like a scroll wheel or a touchpador a touchpad, although some touch-enabled devices were launched in the last few years, giving users more multimedia and gaming support. • Until 2012 all BlackBerry smartphones shipped with the BlackBerry OSBlackBerry OS, a proprietary operating system compatible with Java MEJava ME with extensions, and, of course, a mobile browsermobile browser.extensions, and, of course, a mobile browsermobile browser. • We can categorize the devices by operating system version. The versions available on the market in 2012 were 4.7, 5.0, 6.0, 7.0, 7.1, and the new BB10 platform. • Versions 4.7 and 5.0 should be considered legacy platforms; however, there are still some old devices in some markets working with these (more than three-year-old) versions. • All the BlackBerry devices support App World, the BlackBerry application store. Mobile Software Engineering Prof. OP Vyas Indian Institute of Information Technology, Allahabad, India
  26. 26. Mobile manufacturer and platform developerMobile manufacturer and platform developer websiteswebsites Mobile Software Engineering Prof. OP Vyas Indian Institute of Information Technology, Allahabad, India
  27. 27. Smart TVSmart TV Platforms • You’re thinking: my TV is not too mobile! Well, you’re right. We are not going to talk too much about TVs in this discussion, but it’s important to give them a mention. • Why? – Because interactive TV systems are usinginteractive TV systems are using web technologiesweb technologies, and most of them areweb technologiesweb technologies, and most of them are imported from mobile operating systems. – While TVs are not mobile, they usually have web browsers and engines similar to those of mobile devices. • And mobile web developers usually are the first group of professionals to be called when a company needs a TV-based application. Mobile Software Engineering Prof. OP Vyas Indian Institute of Information Technology, Allahabad, India
  28. 28. Smart TVSmart TV • At the time of this writing, interactive TV platforms are divided into native platforms and set-top box (STB) platforms. 1) The first group includes companies that are delivering thedelivering the interactive platform with the TVinteractive platform with the TV itself, 2) While the latter are just setset--top boxestop boxes that you can buy and attach to any HDMI-based TV. • As with smartphones and tablets, we can find low-end TVs and• As with smartphones and tablets, we can find low-end TVs and high-end TVs on the market, with radical differences in the engines behind them. • Interactive TV platforms typically include a web browser andweb browser and native web or widget appsnative web or widget apps that can be attached to the TV home screen or even to a live channel to follow the video streaming. • On the market today we can find AndroidAndroid--based,based, OperaOpera--basedbased, and custom based TVcustom based TV platforms. Mobile Software Engineering Prof. OP Vyas Indian Institute of Information Technology, Allahabad, India
  29. 29. Android Application developmentAndroid Application development 29 Mobile Software Engineering Prof. OP Vyas Indian Institute of Information Technology, Allahabad, India
  30. 30. Application Development on AndroidApplication Development on Android n Android Software Environment HH Linux KernelLinux Kernel HH Libraries & DVMLibraries & DVM HH Application FrameworkApplication Framework HH ApplicationsApplicationsHH ApplicationsApplications n Development Tools HH Android SDKAndroid SDK 44Android SDKAndroid SDK 44Android Development ToolsAndroid Development Tools 44Dalvik Virtual MachineDalvik Virtual Machine 44How to develop Android ApplicationsHow to develop Android Applications 30 Mobile Software Engineering Prof. OP Vyas Indian Institute of Information Technology, Allahabad, India
  31. 31. 31 Mobile Software Engineering Prof. OP Vyas Indian Institute of Information Technology, Allahabad, India
  32. 32. Android Application developmentAndroid Application development n Android applications consist of different components andcomponents and can recan re--use componentsuse components of other applications. n This leads to the concept of a tasktask in Android; an application can re-use other Android components to archive a task.task. H For example you can trigger from your application another application which has itself registered with the Android system to handleregistered with the Android system to handle photos. H In this other application you select a photo and return to your application to use the selected photo. n The Android system supports background processing, provides a rich user interface library, supports 2-D and 3-D graphics using the OpenGL libraries, access to the file system and provides an embedded SQLite database. 32 Mobile Software Engineering Prof. OP Vyas Indian Institute of Information Technology, Allahabad, India
  33. 33. Google Play (Android Market)Google Play (Android Market) Google offers the Google Play service in which programmers can offer their Android application to Android users. Google phones include the Google Play application which allows to install applications. n Google Play also offers an update service, e.g. if an Google Play also offers an update service, e.g. if a programmer uploads a new version of his application to Google Play, this service will notify existing users that an update is available and allow to install it. n Google Play used to be called Android Market. 33 Mobile Software Engineering Prof. OP Vyas Indian Institute of Information Technology, Allahabad, India
  34. 34. Android Development ToolsAndroid Development Tools nn Android SDKAndroid SDK n The Android Software Development Kit (Android SDK) contains the necessary tools to create, compile and package Android application. Most of these tools are command line based. he primary way to develop Android applications is based on the Java programming language. n The Android SDK also provides an Android device emulator,n The Android SDK also provides an Android device emulator, so that Android applications can be tested without a real Android phone. You can create Android virtual devices (AVD) via the Android SDK, which run in this emulator. n The Android SDK contains the Android debug bridge (adb) tool which allows to connect to an virtual or real Android device. 34 Mobile Software Engineering Prof. OP Vyas Indian Institute of Information Technology, Allahabad, India
  35. 35. Android Development ToolsAndroid Development Tools n Google provides tools based on the Eclipse and IntelliJ IDE to develop new applications. n The Android Development Tools (ADT) are based on Eclipse to develop Android applications. HH ADT extends the capabilities of Eclipse to letADT extends the capabilities of Eclipse to let you quickly set up new Android projects,you quickly set up new Android projects, HH Developing inDeveloping in Eclipse with ADTEclipse with ADT is highlyis highly recommended and is the fastest way to getrecommended and is the fastest way to get started.started. n ADT is a set of components (plug-ins) which extend the Eclipse IDE with Android development capabilities. 35 Mobile Software Engineering Prof. OP Vyas Indian Institute of Information Technology, Allahabad, India
  36. 36. ADTADT n Google also supports an IDE called the Android Studio for creating Android applications. This IDE is based on the IntelliJ IDE. n Both tools contains all required functionalities to create, compile, debug and deploy Android applications from the IDE. n They also allow the developer to create and start Android virtual devices for testing.virtual devices for testing. n Both tools provide specialized editors for resources files, e.g. layout files. These editors allow to switch between the XML representation of the file and a preview mode of the user interface 36 Mobile Software Engineering Prof. OP Vyas Indian Institute of Information Technology, Allahabad, India
  37. 37. First things firstFirst things first •Get Eclipse with ADT plug -in (other IDE is also applicable) 1. Select Help > Software Updates > Find and Install … from within Eclipse. 2. In the resulting dialog box, choose Search for new features to install. 3. Select New Remote Site, and enter the following address into the dialog box: https://dl-ssl.google.com/android/eclipse/ 4. The new site you entered should now be checked. Click Finish. 5. Eclipse will now download the plug-in. When it’s fi nished, select Android Plugin > Developer5. Eclipse will now download the plug-in. When it’s fi nished, select Android Plugin > Developer Tools from the resulting Search Results dialog box, and click Next. 6. Read and then Accept the terms of the license agreement, and click Next and then Finish. As the ADT plug-in is not signed, you’ll be prompted before the installation continues. 7. When complete, you’ll have to restart Eclipse and update the ADT preferences. Restart and select Window Preferences … (or Eclipse > Preferences for the Mac OS). 8. Then select Android from the left panel. 9. Click Browse …, and navigate to the folder into which you unzipped the Android SDK; then click Apply and OK. Mobile Software Engineering Prof. OP Vyas Indian Institute of Information Technology, Allahabad, India
  38. 38. Dalvik Virtual MachineDalvik Virtual Machine n The Android system uses a special virtual machine, i.e. the Dalvik Virtual Machine to run Java based applications. n Dalvik uses an own bytecode format which is different from Java bytecode. n Therefore you cannot directly run Java class files on Android, they need to get converted in the Dalvik bytecodeDalvik bytecode format. E d i t o r C o m p i le r 38 E d i t o r : 7 K H e l lo .j a v a ; S o u rc e c o d e C o m p i le r : H e ll o . c la s s ; B y t e c o d e s "In t e r p r e t e r 0 1 H e l l o , W o r l d ! ¿ In t e r p r e t e r 0 2 H e l l o , W o r l d ! : Mobile Software Engineering Prof. OP Vyas Indian Institute of Information Technology, Allahabad, India
  39. 39. JVM Vs DVMJVM Vs DVM 39 Mobile Software Engineering Prof. OP Vyas Indian Institute of Information Technology, Allahabad, India
  40. 40. How to develop Android ApplicationsHow to develop Android Applications n Android applications are primarily written in the Java programming language. n The Java source files are converted to Java class files by the Java compiler. n The Android SDK contains a tool called dxdx which converts Java class files into a .dex (Dalvik Executable) file. H All class files of one application are placed in oneH All class files of one application are placed in one compressed .dex file. H During this conversion process redundant information in the class files are optimized in the .dex file. 40 Mobile Software Engineering Prof. OP Vyas Indian Institute of Information Technology, Allahabad, India
  41. 41. Developing Android ApplicationDeveloping Android Application n These dex files are therefore much smaller in size than the corresponding class files. n The .dex file and the resources of an Android project, e.g. the images and XML files, are packed into an .apk (Android Package) file. n The program aapt (Android Asset Packaging Tool) performsn The program aapt (Android Asset Packaging Tool) performs this packaging. n The resulting .apk file contains all necessary data to run the Android application and can be deployed to an Android device via the adb tool. n The Android Development Tools (ADT) performs these steps transparently to the user. n If you use the ADT tooling you press a button the whole Android application (.apk file) will be created and deployed. 41 Mobile Software Engineering Prof. OP Vyas Indian Institute of Information Technology, Allahabad, India
  42. 42. Android Basic Building BlocksAndroid Basic Building Blocks •Activities - UI component typically corresponding to one screen. Android uses a special class called anAndroid uses a special class called an IntentIntent to move from screento move from screen to screen.to screen. An intent describes what an application wants done.An intent describes what an application wants done. There is a related class called an IntentFilter. It is a description of what intents an activity (or BroadcastReceiverBroadcastReceiver) is capablewhat intents an activity (or BroadcastReceiverBroadcastReceiver) is capable of handling. •Broadcast Intent Receiver- a way to respond to an external event like notifications or alarm. •Services – Faceless tasks that run in the background. •Content Providers – Enable applications to share data. Mobile Software Engineering Prof. OP Vyas Indian Institute of Information Technology, Allahabad, India
  43. 43. Understanding the Anatomy of an AndroidUnderstanding the Anatomy of an Android ApplicationApplication ContextContext ActivityActivity IntentIntent ServiceService Mobile Software Engineering Prof. OP Vyas Indian Institute of Information Technology, Allahabad, India
  44. 44. Important terminologyImportant terminology ContextContext Mobile Software Engineering Prof. OP Vyas Indian Institute of Information Technology, Allahabad, India
  45. 45. ActivityActivity Mobile Software Engineering Prof. OP Vyas Indian Institute of Information Technology, Allahabad, India
  46. 46. IntentIntent Mobile Software Engineering Prof. OP Vyas Indian Institute of Information Technology, Allahabad, India
  47. 47. ServiceService Mobile Software Engineering Prof. OP Vyas Indian Institute of Information Technology, Allahabad, India
  48. 48. Using the application contextUsing the application context nn The context can be used to manage applicationThe context can be used to manage application-- specific configuration details as well as applicationspecific configuration details as well as application wide operations and data.wide operations and data. Mobile Software Engineering Prof. OP Vyas Indian Institute of Information Technology, Allahabad, India
  49. 49. Android Application & ActivityAndroid Application & Activity n Unlike other programming paradigms in which apps are launched with a main() method, H the Android system initiates code in an Activity instance by invoking specific callback methods that correspond to specific stages of its lifecycle.specific stages of its lifecycle. H There is a sequence of callback methods that start up an activity and a sequence of callback methods that tear down an activity. 49 Mobile Software Engineering Prof. OP Vyas Indian Institute of Information Technology, Allahabad, India
  50. 50. Android LifecycleAndroid Lifecycle n As a user navigates through, out of, and back to your app, the Activity instances in your app transition between different states in their lifecycle. HH For instance, when your activity starts for theFor instance, when your activity starts for the first time, it comes to the foreground of thefirst time, it comes to the foreground of the system and receives user focus.system and receives user focus. HH During this process, the Android system calls aDuring this process, the Android system calls a series ofseries of lifecycle methodslifecycle methods on the activity inon the activity in which you set up the user interface and otherwhich you set up the user interface and other components.components. HH If the user performs an action thatIf the user performs an action that startsstarts another activityanother activity or switches to another app, theor switches to another app, the system calls another set of lifecycle methodssystem calls another set of lifecycle methods on your activity as it moves into theon your activity as it moves into the backgroundbackground 50 Mobile Software Engineering Prof. OP Vyas Indian Institute of Information Technology, Allahabad, India
  51. 51. Activity LifecycleActivity Lifecycle 51 During the life of an activity, the system calls a core set of lifecycle methodsset of lifecycle methods in a sequence similar to a step pyramidstep pyramid. That is, each stage of the activity lifecycle is a separate step on the pyramid. As the system creates a new activity instance, each callback method moves the activity state one step toward the top. The top of the pyramid is the point at which the activity is running in the foreground and the user can interact with it. Mobile Software Engineering Prof. OP Vyas Indian Institute of Information Technology, Allahabad, India
  52. 52. Core files and directories of the AndroidCore files and directories of the Android ApplicationApplication AndroidManifest.xml • Global application description file. • Defines application’s capabilities and permissions and how it runs Default.properties • Automatically created project file. • Defines your application’s build target and other build system options.and other build system options. src folder • All source code resides src/package name/.java file • core source file that defines the entry point of Android application. gen foldergen folder •• Autogenerated resource files reside.Autogenerated resource files reside. gen/package name/R.java • Application resource management source file Mobile Software Engineering Prof. OP Vyas Indian Institute of Information Technology, Allahabad, India
  53. 53. Core files and directories of the AndroidCore files and directories of the Android ApplicationApplication res folder • All application resources are managed. res/drawable-*/icon.png • different resolutions of the application icon. res/layout/main.xml • single screen layout file res/values/strings.xml • Application string resources. assets folder • application assets are pieces of application data (files,directories) that should not be managed as application resources Mobile Software Engineering Prof. OP Vyas Indian Institute of Information Technology, Allahabad, India
  54. 54. n Mobile Software: Mobility or Ubiquity HH Mobile Web & Responsive WebsitesMobile Web & Responsive Websites n Why Mobile Web ? nn Significant Issues inSignificant Issues in SmartphonesSmartphones, Tablet & Smart TV, Tablet & Smart TV Mobility & Mobile WebMobility & Mobile Web 54 n Responsive Website Characteristics HH R W Design : Developing Mobile Web AppsR W Design : Developing Mobile Web Apps HH HTML5 ,HTML5 , jQueryjQuery n Mobile SE Implementations HH Mobile SE trends :Mobile SE trends : PhonegapPhonegap && MosyncMosync Mobile Software Engineering Prof. OP Vyas Indian Institute of Information Technology, Allahabad, India
  55. 55. SQLite DatabasesSQLite Databases forforforfor Storing StructuredStoring Structured DataData Mobile Software Engineering Prof. OP Vyas Indian Institute of Information Technology, Allahabad, India
  56. 56. Mobile Software EngineeringMobile Software Engineering BlackBerryBlackBerry Apps BehaviorApps BehaviorApps BehaviorApps Behavior inin AndroidAndroid iOSiOS Mobile Software Engineering Prof. OP Vyas Indian Institute of Information Technology, Allahabad, India
  57. 57. BlackBerryBlackBerry Mobile App developmentMobile App developmentMobile App developmentMobile App development Mobile Software Engineering Prof. OP Vyas Indian Institute of Information Technology, Allahabad, India
  58. 58. BlackBerryBlackBerry • Research in Motion (RIMRIM) was the Canadian manufacturer of the BlackBerryBlackBerry devices, mobile devices focused on being “alwaysalways connectedconnected” with push technologies. • The company was renamed “BlackBerry” in early 2013, dropping the RIM name for the future. • Early adopters were primarily corporate users who needed to remain connected to intranets and corporate networks; then the devices appeared in new markets, becoming popular with teenagers and instant messaging fans.messaging fans. • RIM used to call all its devices “smartphones,” but others did not always consider them as falling into that category Mobile Software Engineering Prof. OP Vyas Indian Institute of Information Technology, Allahabad, India
  59. 59. BlackBerryBlackBerry • For years RIM had few devices aimed at the mass market; most of them had QWERTY keyboards and were not designed for gaming. • Many of these devices had proprietary input devices, like a scroll wheelproprietary input devices, like a scroll wheel or a touchpador a touchpad, although some touch-enabled devices were launched in the last few years, giving users more multimedia and gaming support. • Until 2012 all BlackBerry smartphones shipped with the BlackBerry OSBlackBerry OS, a proprietary operating system compatible with Java MEJava ME with extensions, and, of course, a mobile browsermobile browser.extensions, and, of course, a mobile browsermobile browser. • We can categorize the devices by operating system version. The versions available on the market in 2012 were 4.7, 5.0, 6.0, 7.0, 7.1, and the new BB10 platform. • Versions 4.7 and 5.0 should be considered legacy platforms; however, there are still some old devices in some markets working with these (more than three-year-old) versions. • All the BlackBerry devices support App World, the BlackBerry application store. Mobile Software Engineering Prof. OP Vyas Indian Institute of Information Technology, Allahabad, India
  60. 60. Mobile manufacturer and platform developerMobile manufacturer and platform developer websiteswebsites Mobile Software Engineering Prof. OP Vyas Indian Institute of Information Technology, Allahabad, India
  61. 61. Mobile AppsMobile Apps BehaviourBehaviour Ø How App can be limitedlimited to Mobile Context? Ø How the Phone features are saved from getting. Ø How can we explain Life Cycle of an App ? ØØAre there different Lifecycle for Android App orAre there different Lifecycle for Android App or iOSiOS App?App? ØØWhat is the role ofWhat is the role of UkitUkit inin iOSiOS ?? Mobile Software Engineering Prof. OP Vyas Indian Institute of Information Technology, Allahabad, India
  62. 62. Mobile Software & PhoneMobile Software & Phone • Smartphones are communications devices, so making phone calls is their most basic functionmost basic function. • It is imperative that any Mobile Software should not ‘disturb’ any of the basic phone functions of the Smartphone's. • For Mobile Website, while mobile platforms place manymobile platforms place many limitations on design and contentlimitations on design and content, they also open up new opportunities that traditional Web sites cannot provide.opportunities that traditional Web sites cannot provide. – For example, there is better integration withbetter integration with phone functionsphone functions such as direct calling and text messaging, which lets mobile sites facilitate ordering products by phone. Mobile Software Engineering Prof. OP Vyas Indian Institute of Information Technology, Allahabad, India
  63. 63. Life Cycle of Mobile AppLife Cycle of Mobile App What is the Life Cycle on iOS / Android How to have efficient Memory ManagementHow to have efficient Memory Management Apps onApps on iPhonesiPhones && Life Cycle ofLife Cycle of iOSiOS AppsApps Mobile Software Engineering Prof. OP Vyas Indian Institute of Information Technology, Allahabad, India
  64. 64. App on iOS • The application life cycle constitutes the sequence of events that occurs between the launch and termination of application. In iOS, the user launches application by tapping its icon on the Home screen. Shortly after the tap occurs, –– System displays some transitional graphicsSystem displays some transitional graphics –– Proceeds to launch your application by calling its main functionProceeds to launch your application by calling its main function –– From this point on, the bulk of the initialization work is handed overFrom this point on, the bulk of the initialization work is handed over toto UIKitUIKit,, which loads the application’s user interface and starts itswhich loads the application’s user interface and starts itstoto UIKitUIKit,, which loads the application’s user interface and starts itswhich loads the application’s user interface and starts its event loop.event loop. –– There is a predefined sequence of events that occurs from the timeThere is a predefined sequence of events that occurs from the time of application start up to the time it quits.of application start up to the time it quits. –– At key points in the application’s life,At key points in the application’s life, UIKitUIKit sends messages to thesends messages to the Third Party application's delegate object to let it know what isThird Party application's delegate object to let it know what is happening.happening. •• TheThe UIKitUIKit framework provides the classes needed to construct andframework provides the classes needed to construct and manage an application’s user interface formanage an application’s user interface for iOSiOS. It provides an. It provides an application object, event handling, drawing model, windows,application object, event handling, drawing model, windows, views, and controls specifically designed for a touch screenviews, and controls specifically designed for a touch screen interfaceinterface Mobile Software Engineering Prof. OP Vyas Indian Institute of Information Technology, Allahabad, India
  65. 65. App Life Cycle in iOS4 • Because of background applications support in iOS 4, following are the possible state of any third party application: – Not running: The application has not been launched. – Inactive: The application is running in background but not receiving events. – Active: The application is running in foreground and is receiving events. – Background: Most applications enter this state briefly on their way to being suspended. However, an application that requests extra executionapplication that requests extra execution time may remain in this statetime may remain in this state for a period of time. In addition, an application being launched directly into the background enters this state instead of the inactive state. – Suspended: The application is in the background but is not executing code. The system moves application to this state automatically and at appropriate times. While suspended, an application is essentially freeze- dried in its current state and does not execute any code. During low- memory conditions, the system purges suspended applications without notice to make more space for the foreground application. Mobile Software Engineering Prof. OP Vyas Indian Institute of Information Technology, Allahabad, India
  66. 66. App Life cycle on iOS Mobile Software Engineering Prof. OP Vyas Indian Institute of Information Technology, Allahabad, India
  67. 67. Life Cycle of Mobile AppsLife Cycle of Mobile Apps Mobile Software Engineering Prof. OP Vyas Indian Institute of Information Technology, Allahabad, India
  68. 68. Mobility & Mobile WebMobility & Mobile Web 68 Mobile Software Engineering Prof. OP Vyas Indian Institute of Information Technology, Allahabad, India
  69. 69. Mobile WebMobile Web n The Mobile Web refers to access to the world wide web, i.e. the use of browser-based Internet services, from a handheld mobile, from a handheld mobile device,device, such as a smartphone, a feature phone or a tablet computer, connected to a mobile network or other wireless network. n Traditionally, access to the Web has been via fixed-line services on large-screen laptops and desktop computers.on large-screen laptops and desktop computers. n However, the Web is becoming more accessible by portable and wireless devices. n Mobile devices are available in areas of the World where computers and fixed Internet access won’t be available for long if ever; 69 Mobile Software Engineering Prof. OP Vyas Indian Institute of Information Technology, Allahabad, India
  70. 70. Mobile WebMobile Web Ø An early 2010 ITU (International Telecommunication Union) report said that with the current growth rates, web access by people on the go — via laptops and smart mobile devices – is likely to exceed web access from desktop computers within the next five years. Ø “Accessing the Web from mobile devices is on track to surpass desktop usage in a just a year or two.” ( June 2013). ØMobile Web would require optimization of content and user navigation for effective interaction. 70 Mobile Software Engineering Prof. OP Vyas Indian Institute of Information Technology, Allahabad, India
  71. 71. Mobile WebMobile Web n With the surge of powerful mobile devices , the role of the Web as a platform for content, applications and services on these devices is increasingly important n Mobile devices with slower download request / response times, the latency of over-the-air data transmission, with "high-latency connections, slower CPUs, and less memory" force developers to rethink Web applications created for desktops with "wired connections, fast CPUs, and almost endless memory n The shift to Mobile Web access has been accelerating with the rise since 2007 of larger multitouch smartphones, and of multitouch tablet computers since 2010. n Both platforms provide better Internet access, screens, and mobile browsers- or application-based user Web experiences than previous generations of mobile devices have done. n Web designers may work separately on such pages, or pages may be automatically converted as in Mobile Wikipedia. 71 Mobile Software Engineering Prof. OP Vyas Indian Institute of Information Technology, Allahabad, India
  72. 72. Mobile WebMobile Web n The term “Mobile Web” (although often criticized) is commonly used to describe accessing the internet using a mobile device. n This definition is broad enough to cover everything from using a browser on a phone, to using highly customized apps ona browser on a phone, to using highly customized apps on smartphones or tablets. 72 Mobile Software Engineering Prof. OP Vyas Indian Institute of Information Technology, Allahabad, India
  73. 73. Mobile BrowserMobile Browser n A mobile browser, also called a microbrowser, minibrowser, or wireless internet browser (WIB), is a web browser designed for use on a mobile device such as a mobile phone or PDA. n Mobile browsers are optimized so as to display Web content most effectively for small screens on portable devices.for small screens on portable devices. Mobile browser software must be small and efficient to accommodate the low memory capacity and low-bandwidth of wireless handheld devices. n Typically they were stripped-down web browsers, but as of 2006 some mobile browsers can handle more recent technologies like CSS 2.1, JavaScript, and Ajax. 73 Mobile Software Engineering Prof. OP Vyas Indian Institute of Information Technology, Allahabad, India
  74. 74. Mobile BrowsersMobile Browsers Mobile Software Engineering Prof. OP Vyas Indian Institute of Information Technology, Allahabad, India
  75. 75. Mobile WebMobile Web n Websites designed for access from Web browsers are referred to as wireless portals or collectively as the Mobile Web. n They may automatically create "mobile" versions of each page, n “There’s an app for that” has made device-specific applications the rage of the day, with some companies starting off backwards with “we need an iPhone app” H instead of first understanding what their users actually need whenH instead of first understanding what their users actually need when they are mobile, the devices that they use, and then deciding the best approach for going mobile, which may not be an app,app, but could be a mobile website instead. H Mobile websites are universally accessible, less expensive to develop and maintain, and can be searched and accessed by most mobile phones. 75 Mobile Software Engineering Prof. OP Vyas Indian Institute of Information Technology, Allahabad, India
  76. 76. Mobile Apps & Traditional WebsiteMobile Apps & Traditional Website 76 Mobile Software Engineering Prof. OP Vyas Indian Institute of Information Technology, Allahabad, India
  77. 77. “Applike” Website“Applike” Website Ø In a more applikeapplike modelmodel, the client tends to play a bigger role. Ø Reusable markup, 77 Ø Reusable markup, code, and assets can be stored locally. ØRequesting only relevant pieces of content and not reloading the entire page reduces bandwidth and processing, and improves the sense of interactivity. Mobile Software Engineering Prof. OP Vyas Indian Institute of Information Technology, Allahabad, India
  78. 78. Mobile Software:Mobile Software: Mobile delivery methodsMobile delivery methods n Unlike traditional websites, there are following popular mobile delivery methods. H Mobile users that choose to view content in their browser are best served with either a mobile-specific site – optimized for mobile devices – H OrOr a responsive site – which re-orients / arranges itself for mobile devices. n Each delivery method has different pros and cons. n Responsive sites are more easily indexed in search engines. n We have to choose what’s right based on our project’s design context. 78 Mobile Software Engineering Prof. OP Vyas Indian Institute of Information Technology, Allahabad, India
  79. 79. Issues in Mobile Web designIssues in Mobile Web design Aspect ratioAspect ratio A device’s aspect ratio is the ratio between its longer and shorterratio between its longer and shorter dimensions. There are vertical (or portrait) devices whose displays are taller than they are wide, there are horizontal (or landscape) devices whose displays are wider than they are tall, and there are also some square screens. Our websites need to be aware of this and offer a good experience in both orientations. Mobile Software Engineering Prof. OP Vyas Indian Institute of Information Technology, Allahabad, India
  80. 80. Aspect RatioAspect Ratio •• If there is one thing mobile handset producers cannot agree on, it’sIf there is one thing mobile handset producers cannot agree on, it’s Aspect RatioAspect Ratio.. •• For years mobile devices and mobile TV options have been all over theFor years mobile devices and mobile TV options have been all over the map.map. •• Many started with aMany started with a 4:3 aspect4:3 aspect ratio, the same as television used forratio, the same as television used for decades before switching todecades before switching to 16:9 widescreen16:9 widescreen.. •• But there could be a change in the air as mobile companies see thatBut there could be a change in the air as mobile companies see that 16:9 may be16:9 may be the aspect of choice in the years to come.the aspect of choice in the years to come. Mobile Software Engineering Prof. OP Vyas Indian Institute of Information Technology, Allahabad, India
  81. 81. Aspect RatioAspect Ratio • The traditional aspect ratio of 4:3 is fairly square; it’s been the standard go-to format for many tablets and smartphones for several years now. • Thousands of apps have been developed on multiple platformsdeveloped on multiple platforms to closelyto closely adhere to the 4:3 aspect ratioadhere to the 4:3 aspect ratio, beginning with the iPhone and then with various Android variants. • The problem has been when mobile video comesmobile video comes into the picture. With older programming, such as a lot of the catalog ofpicture. With older programming, such as a lot of the catalog of content like Netflix streaming, the 4:3 ratio has not been much of a problem. • The older-style program fits better within the 4:3 framing. But widescreen content, in the form of network television shows and widescreen movies, have been a bit more of a challenge. Until now the widescreen content has had to be shrunk down to the 4:3 format, causing the 16:9 format to be displayed on a 4:3 screen, with the result being black bars on the top and the bottom of the mobile device screen. Mobile Software Engineering Prof. OP Vyas Indian Institute of Information Technology, Allahabad, India
  82. 82. Aspect Ratio: Phones & TV • Although mobile TV video is the biggest benefit of the acceptance of 16:9 aspect ratios, mobile devices do so much more, so apps and software must be reengineered to accept these new dimensions. • Apple’s next move is the rumored iPad mini, a iPad in the 7in realm. Although recent tablets have moved close to the 16:9tablets have moved close to the 16:9 format, such as the Kindle Fire HDformat, such as the Kindle Fire HD which comes in at 16:10 and 1280x800, it will be interesting to see which way Apple moves1280x800, it will be interesting to see which way Apple moves with the new iPad. –– Although theAlthough the future of television may well be 16:9future of television may well be 16:9 aspectaspect, the huge landscape of mobile, the huge landscape of mobile smartphonesmartphone and tablets for mobile content is a lot less clear.and tablets for mobile content is a lot less clear. –– But there seems to be some unity happening andBut there seems to be some unity happening and it looks like theit looks like the standard of 16:9 could also bestandard of 16:9 could also be coming to mostcoming to most, if not all, mobile devices in the, if not all, mobile devices in the coming year or two.coming year or two. Mobile Software Engineering Prof. OP Vyas Indian Institute of Information Technology, Allahabad, India
  83. 83. ØØMake the page and its structural elementsMake the page and its structural elements fit withinfit within 320 pixels320 pixels. ReduceReduce three columnsthree columns to ato a single columnsingle column.. In the original, desktop layout, three columns feltIn the original, desktop layout, three columns felt “crunched” on a mobile screen“crunched” on a mobile screen Mobile Software Engineering Prof. OP Vyas Indian Institute of Information Technology, Allahabad, India
  84. 84. Responsive Web DesignResponsive Web Design RWD is a set of techniquesset of techniques championed by web designer Ethan Marcotte. Ø Sites designed with this approach adapt their layouts according to the environment of the user’s browser, in large part by doing some nifty things with CSSwith CSS. Ø Depending on the current value of certain browser conditions like window size, device orientation, or aspect ratio, we can applywindow size, device orientation, or aspect ratio, we can apply different CSS in different circumstances. Ø By rethinking the way we do page layouts, we can make formerly one-size-fits-all column and grid layouts flow more naturally across a continuum of browser window sizes. 84 Mobile Software Engineering Prof. OP Vyas Indian Institute of Information Technology, Allahabad, India
  85. 85. Responsive Web DesignResponsive Web Design 85 Mobile Software Engineering Prof. OP Vyas Indian Institute of Information Technology, Allahabad, India
  86. 86. Mobile SoftwareMobile Software While many “classic” software engineering techniques may transfer easily to the mobile application domain, there are other areas having bonafide issues for new research and development. H Usability and User eXperience, in particular, are among the key quality attributes. H Most of the applications were relatively small, averaging several thousand lines of source code, with one or two developers responsible for conceiving, designing, anddevelopers responsible for conceiving, designing, and implementing the application; H Sharp divide between “native” applications, those that run entirely on the mobile device, and web applications, which have a small device-based client with execution occurring on a remote server; 86 Mobile Software Engineering Prof. OP Vyas Indian Institute of Information Technology, Allahabad, India
  87. 87. 87 Mobile Software Engineering Prof. OP Vyas Indian Institute of Information Technology, Allahabad, India
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