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Human Genetics

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Transcript

  • 1. Human Genetics
    110
  • 2. Students will be able to
    Understand the patterns of Human Inheritance
    Demonstrate how sex chromosomes function
    Describe sex-linked diseases
    Evaluate the effects of environment on behavior
  • 3. Single Gene with Two Alleles
    111
  • 4. Multiple Alleles
    One gene has many different versions
  • 5. Blood Typing
    One gene for standard blood type: I gene
    Three alleles A, B, O
    A modified blood surface
    B modified blood surface
    O No modification on surface
    So IA or IB or i
    112
  • 6. Blood Types due to 3 Alleles
    Genotypes
    IAIA
    IAi
    IBIB
    IBi
    ii
    IAIB
    Phenotypes
    A Blood
    A Blood
    B Blood
    B Blood
    O Blood
    AB Blood
    112
  • 7. Blood Type - Second Gene (Rh)
    Genotypes
    Rh
    No Rh
    Phenotypes
    +
    -
    So you can have A + or –
    B + or –
    AB + or –
    O + or -
  • 8. Traits with many genes
    Height (4 different genes)
    Skin color
    Weight (130 genes)
    112
  • 9. Sex Chromosomes
    Two different types X and Y
    X chromosome is complex
    Y chromosome causes male traits
    X
    Y
    X
    X
    Y
    X
    X
    X
    X
    X
    X
    Y
    113
  • 10. Sex-Linked Genes
    Genes that are present on the X chromosome
    Example: Colorblindness
    114
  • 11. Colorblindness
    XC = Normal color vision
    Xc = Color Blindness (recessive)
    XC
    Y
    XC
    Y
    XC
    XC
    XC
    Xc
    XC
    Xc
    Xc
    Y
    One copy you appear normal but have the disease gene “Carrier”
    114
  • 12. Environmental Effects
    Height
    4 genes
    Environmental Factors
    Diet
    Vitamins & Minerals
    Exercise
    Play Violin
    Muscle coordination
    Good Hearing
    Instruction & Practice
    115
  • 13. Hemophilia A
    Xh = Hemophilia A
    Xh
    X
    X
    X
    X
    X
    Xh
    Y
    Xh
    Y
    Y
    X
    What percentage will have hemophilia A?
    b. What gender are they?
  • 14. Hemophilia A
    Xh = Hemophilia A
    Xh
    X
    Xh
    X
    Xh
    Xh
    Xh
    Y
    Xh
    Y
    Y
    X
    What percentage will have hemophilia A?
    b. What gender are they?
  • 15. Hemophilia A
    Xh Y
    Father has hemophilia
    None of sons get it
    X
    X
    Xh
    X
    Xh
    Xh
    X
    Y
    X
    Y
    Y
    X
    What are the genotypes of the parents?