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Fossils
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Transcript

  • 1. Fossils
  • 2. Objectives
    • Classify the processes that lead to fossil formation
    • Understand key concepts in the study and use of fossils
    • Describe the importance of index fossils
  • 3. Fossilization
    • Frequency?
        • Rare Event
    • How?
        • Organism dies and becomes buried in sediments
  • 4. Key concepts of Fossils
    • Fossils represent the remains of once-living organisms
    • Most fossils are the remains of extinct organisms
    • The same fossils found in different rock layers indicate they are the same age
  • 5. Four types of fossils
  • 6. Petrified Fossils
    • The tissues of organism are slowly replaced by minerals
    • Organism turns into stone
  • 7. Mold
    • Organism is completely dissolved, but leaves a space in rock
  • 8. Cast
    • Mold can fill later with minerals and harden into shape of organism
  • 9. Preserved Remains
    • Organism trapped in preservative
      • Amber
      • Ice
  • 10. Relative Dating
    • Layers of sediment are laid down in order
      • Oldest layers are on the bottom
      • Layers must remain undisturbed
        • Therefore fossils in deeper layers must be older than fossils in top layers
    156
  • 11. Radioactive Dating
    • When organism dies it stops consuming radioactive material
    • All radioactive chemicals decay at a specific rate
      • Half-life = amount of time for half of the material to decay
    • The amount of decay within fossil will determine its age
    158
  • 12. Mass Extinction
    • Times in fossil evidence when many things stop appearing in one layer
    • Event has occurred multiple times in Earth’s history
    • Called a mass extinction event
    • Why?
      • Climate change
      • Asteroid impact
    162
  • 13. Gradualism
    • Organisms change slowly over time
      • Fossil evidence shows long periods of time with no change
      • Often changes occur rapidly within a fossil layer
    • Incomplete fossil records
    163
  • 14. Punctuated Equilibria
    • Organisms change rapidly in a short period of time
      • Some change gives a huge advantage and that organism replaces others
    • Long periods of no change, “Stability” in fossil record
    163
  • 15. Describing a million
    • Close your eyes and when I say, “go” mentally time one minute
    • Raise your hand and open your eyes when you think one minute has passed
    • Sit quietly until everyone has raised their hand (ready)
    • Was it easy or hard to count one minute?
    • Is it easy or hard to think about how much time is let till the end of the school year?
    • Is it easy to picture how big a million is?
  • 16. Fossilization
    • Frequency?
        • Rare Event
    • How?
        • Organism dies and becomes buried in sediments
  • 17. Key concepts of Fossils
    • Fossils represent the remains of once-living organisms
    • Most fossils are the remains of extinct organisms
    • The same fossils found in different rock layers indicate they are the same age
  • 18. Four types of fossils
    • Petrified Fossils
      • The tissues of organism are slowly replaced by minerals
      • Organism turns into stone
    • Molds
            • Organism is completely dissolved, but leaves a space in rock
    • Casts
      • Mold can fill later with minerals and harden into shape of organism
    • Preserved Remains
        • Organism trapped in preservative
          • Amber
          • Ice
  • 19. Homework Describe how fossils form