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Evidence
Evidence
Evidence
Evidence
Evidence
Evidence
Evidence
Evidence
Evidence
Evidence
Evidence
Evidence
Evidence
Evidence
Evidence
Evidence
Evidence
Evidence
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Evidence

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  • 1. Evidence
  • 2. Objectives <ul><li>Inferring species relationships </li></ul><ul><li>Compare similarities in DNA </li></ul><ul><li>Diagram species relationships </li></ul><ul><li>Assess how new species form </li></ul>
  • 3. Species Relationships <ul><li>Fossil record </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Order to species formation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Single cells to amphibians to reptiles to birds/mammals… </li></ul></ul></ul>
  • 4. Initial Stages
  • 5. Species Relationships <ul><li>Embryology </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Similar developmental stages </li></ul></ul>
  • 6. Species Relationships <ul><li>Body Structure </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Homologous Structures </li></ul></ul>150
  • 7. DNA Similarities <ul><li>DNA makes proteins which make body parts </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Telltale Molecules Laboratory </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>DNA gets damaged every day </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>This damage can be passed on to future generations </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>The more changes in DNA then the longer two species have separated from each other </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>So genetic researchers use DNA changes </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li> to compare relationships </li></ul></ul></ul>
  • 8. DNA Similarities <ul><li>Matches with expectations from fossils, embryology, and body structures </li></ul>
  • 9. Diagram Relationships 152
  • 10. Human Evolutionary Tree
  • 11. Human Travels
  • 12. What is a Species? <ul><li>A group of animals that can produce fertile offspring </li></ul>
  • 13. How do new species form? Group of individuals become isolated Develop different traits over time 153
  • 14. How do new species form?
  • 15. Colorado Squirrel Wildlife Species   &gt;  Species Profiles   &gt;  Mammals   &gt;  Ground Squirrel Ground Squirrel P r inter friendly version Calendar | Site Map | About Us | Privacy Policy | Disabled Accessibility Ground Squirrel P r inter friendly version Ground Squirrel P r inter friendly version Colorado is home to many different species of ground squirrel: The thirteen-lined and the spotted ground squirrels; the grizzled brown rock squirrel, with its distinctive long tail; the brownish gray, obscurely dappled Wyoming ground squirrel; the white-tailed pronghorn squirrel and the golden mantel squirrel. Nearly every part of Colorado is home to at least one species of ground squirrel. All ground squirrels are active in the day; most are common and readily identified and observed. Ground squirrels range in size from tiny spotted ground squirrels, barely larger than a chipmunk, to rock squirrels 20 inches long or as large as some tree squirrels Home | Shop | Maps | Volunteer | FAQ | Contact | Colorado Department of Natural Resources                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 Hunting     Fishing     Viewing     Rules/Regs     Education     Wildlife Species     Land/Water     Research     News &amp; Media   <ul><li>  </li></ul><ul><li>Hunting </li></ul><ul><li>Fishing </li></ul><ul><li>Viewing </li></ul><ul><li>Rules/ Regs </li></ul><ul><li>Education </li></ul><ul><li>Wildlife Species </li></ul><ul><li>Land/Water </li></ul><ul><li>Research </li></ul><ul><li>News &amp; Media </li></ul><ul><li>Wildlife Commission </li></ul>Wildlife Commission   Last Updated: 5/2/2006 D escription: Colorado is home to many different species of ground squirrel: The thirteen-lined and the spotted ground squirrels; the grizzled brown rock squirrel, with its distinctive long tail; the brownish gray, obscurely dappled Wyoming ground squirrel; the white-tailed pronghorn squirrel and the golden mantel squirrel. Nearly every part of Colorado is home to at least one species of ground squirrel. All ground squirrels are active in the day; most are common and readily identified and observed. Ground squirrels range in size from tiny spotted ground squirrels, barely larger than a chipmunk, to rock squirrels 20 inches long or as large as some tree squirrels . Range: On the grasslands of the eastern plains (and also in the southwest) are the thirteen-lined and spotted ground squirrels. Along the foothills and on western mesas and canyons lives the rock squirrel. The Wyoming ground squirrel lives in mountain parks and sagebrush-covered basins. The white-tailed Pronghorn squirrel lives in the hot desert shrub-lands of western valleys. And the golden-mantled ground squirrel lives throughout the mountains. Diet: Ground squirrels feed mostly on seeds and fruits, although most will eat flowers, buds and some leaves and insects as available. In fact, the thirteen-lined ground squirrel thrives on grasshoppers in season, making it a valuable citizen on grazing lands. Most ground squirrels store fat for the winter and are deep hibernators. The rock squirrel is an exception, arousing to feed periodically on stored seeds and acorns through the winter. Reproduction: Most ground squirrels mate in spring and have a single litter of a half dozen or more young a year after a gestation period of about a month. The rock squirrel is, again, the exception to the rule, females often has two litters. Genus Spermophilus Wildlife Species Species Profiles Comprehensive Wildlife Conservation Strategy Species of Concern Coexisting With Wildlife Colorado Wildlife Heritage Foundation - - - - - - D escription: Colorado is home to many different species of ground squirrel: The thirteen-lined and the spotted ground squirrels; the grizzled brown rock squirrel, with its distinctive long tail; the brownish gray, obscurely dappled Wyoming ground squirrel; the white-tailed pronghorn squirrel and the golden mantel squirrel. Nearly every part of Colorado is home to at least one species of ground squirrel. All ground squirrels are active in the day; most are common and readily identified and observed. Ground squirrels range in size from tiny spotted ground squirrels, barely larger than a chipmunk, to rock squirrels 20 inches long or as large as some tree squirrels . Range: On the grasslands of the eastern plains (and also in the southwest) are the thirteen-lined and spotted ground squirrels. Along the foothills and on western mesas and canyons lives the rock squirrel. The Wyoming ground squirrel lives in mountain parks and sagebrush-covered basins. The white-tailed Pronghorn squirrel lives in the hot desert shrub-lands of western valleys. And the golden-mantled ground squirrel lives throughout the mountains. Diet: Ground squirrels feed mostly on seeds and fruits, although most will eat flowers, buds and some leaves and insects as available. In fact, the thirteen-lined ground squirrel thrives on grasshoppers in season, making it a valuable citizen on grazing lands. Most ground squirrels store fat for the winter and are deep hibernators. The rock squirrel is an exception, arousing to feed periodically on stored seeds and acorns through the winter. Reproduction: Most ground squirrels mate in spring and have a single litter of a half dozen or more young a year after a gestation period of about a month. The rock squirrel is, again, the exception to the rule, females often has two litters. Genus Spermophilus D escription: Colorado is home to many different species of ground squirrel: The thirteen-lined and the spotted ground squirrels; the grizzled brown rock squirrel, with its distinctive long tail; the brownish gray, obscurely dappled Wyoming ground squirrel; the white-tailed pronghorn squirrel and the golden mantel squirrel. Nearly every part of Colorado is home to at least one species of ground squirrel. All ground squirrels are active in the day; most are common and readily identified and observed. Ground squirrels range in size from tiny spotted ground squirrels, barely larger than a chipmunk, to rock squirrels 20 inches long or as large as some tree squirrels . Range: On the grasslands of the eastern plains (and also in the southwest) are the thirteen-lined and spotted ground squirrels. Along the foothills and on western mesas and canyons lives the rock squirrel. The Wyoming ground squirrel lives in mountain parks and sagebrush-covered basins. The white-tailed Pronghorn squirrel lives in the hot desert shrub-lands of western valleys. And the golden-mantled ground squirrel lives throughout the mountains. Diet: Ground squirrels feed mostly on seeds and fruits, although most will eat flowers, buds and some leaves and insects as available. In fact, the thirteen-lined ground squirrel thrives on grasshoppers in season, making it a valuable citizen on grazing lands. Most ground squirrels store fat for the winter and are deep hibernators. The rock squirrel is an exception, arousing to feed periodically on stored seeds and acorns through the winter. Reproduction: Most ground squirrels mate in spring and have a single litter of a half dozen or more young a year after a gestation period of about a month. The rock squirrel is, again, the exception to the rule, females often has two litters. Genus Spermophilus
  • 16. Colorado Tree Squirrels Colorado is home to three kinds of tree squirrels. The rusty red fox squirrel: the Abert’s squirrel which has a striking black or salt-and-pepper gray coat and magnificent ear-tufts: and the smaller but noisier pine squirrel, or chickaree. Abert’s and fox squirrels are about the same size (up to 20 inches long and two pounds in weight), although Abert’s has longer fur and therefore looks larger. The pine squirrel is much smaller – up to 14 inches long and weighing only about nine ounces. http://wildlife.state.co.us/WildlifeSpecies/Profiles/Mammals/TreeSquirrel.htm
  • 17. Quiz <ul><li>1. Evidence for species relationships </li></ul><ul><li>2. DNA Similarities </li></ul><ul><li>3. Diagram Trees </li></ul><ul><li>4. How do species form? </li></ul>
  • 18. Review for Exam

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