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My fossil fuels ppt

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  • Al Granberg, http://www.propublica.org/special/hydraulic-fracturing-national
  • Transcript

    • 1. Fossil FuelsOSSIL FUELS 85% of the world’s commercial energy COAL NATURAL GAS OIL
    • 2. Generating Electricity For many years, we have generated electricity in much the same way:
    • 3. Fossil Fuels • Fossil fuels are forms of stored solar energy – Plants convert solar energy to chemical energy through photosynthesis – Incomplete decomposed organic matter then covered up – Converted to oil, natural gas, and coal • Provide 90% of energy consumed
    • 4. These fuels were dug out of the ground. They had taken millions of years to make and so are called FOSSIL FUELS and are NONRENEWABLE. COAL Made from the remains of plants which died millions of years ago
    • 5. Coal • Classified according to its energy and sulfur content – – – – Anthracite Bituminous Subbituminous Lignite • Energy content greatest in anthracite and lowest in lignite • Lower sulfur coal (Lignite) emits less sulfur dioxide
    • 6. Coal cheaper, but polluting Much Eastern U.S. coal has high-sulfur content, more expensive to mine Much Western U.S. coal has low-sulfur content, cheaper to mine But mining in semi-arid West more damaging to land.
    • 7. Effects on health • Black Lung Disease (miners) • Respiratory illnesses (public)
    • 8. Effects on land • Coal sludge releases • Hardpan at strip mines • Mountaintop removal • Huge water use – Slurry pipelines
    • 9. Effects on air • Greenhouse gases – 3/4 sulfur dioxide – 1/3 nitrogen oxides – 1/2 carbon dioxide • Toxics – Mercury – Uranium
    • 10. Energy lost from coal 65% wer plants lost in power plants 10% lost on transmission lines (stray voltage)
    • 11. The Future of Coal • Burning of coal – produces 60% of electricity used and – 25% of total energy consumed in US • Coal 90% of our energy reserves
    • 12. The Future of Coal • Clean Air Amendments of 1990 mandate reducing these emissions. • Option for cleaner coal include: – Chemical and/or physical cleaning of coal prior to combustion. – New boiler designs that permit lower temp of combustion. – Injection of material rich in calcium carbonate into the gases following burning. • Scrubbers-removes sulfur dioxides
    • 13. Coal scrubbers
    • 14. The Future of Coal – Conversion of coal at power plants into gas before burning. – Convert coal to oil. – Consumer education about energy conservation and efficiency to reduce the demand for energy. – Development of zero emissions coal-burning electric power plants
    • 15. NATURAL GAS Methane, other Gases in bedrock
    • 16. OIL and NATURAL GAS (Methane) Made from the decayed remains of sea creatures which died millions of years ago
    • 17. Advantages of natural gas • Cleaner to burn – Half as much CO2 as coal • More efficient – 10% energy lost • Provides energy independence for the U.S.
    • 18. Disadvantages of natural gas • Difficult to transport – Pipelines – Liquified Natural Gas (LNG) tankers • Can be polluting, dangerous when extracted -Groundwater contamination -Earthquakes
    • 19. OIL (PETROLEUM) Buried organic matter rich in hydrocarbons
    • 20. Petroleum Production • Primary production – Involves simply pumping the oil from wells – Recovers only 25% of petroleum in reservoir • Enhanced recovery – Increase the amount recovered to about 60% – Steam, water, or chemicals injected into the reservoir to push oil towards wells
    • 21. Oil in the Twenty-First Century – For every three barrels of oil we consume, we are finding only one barrel. – Forecasts that predict a decline in production of oil are based on many assumptions but most expert agree it is coming in the next few decades. – In the US production of oil as we know it now will end by 2090. World production by 2100.
    • 22. Exxon Valdez • March 24, 1989 • 10.8 gallons • 1100 miles of Alaskan coast • Valdez was carrying 53 million gallons • Impact on environment
    • 23. Exxon Valdez, Alaska 1989
    • 24. Prince William Sound fishing industry damaged
    • 25. Deep Water Horizon • • • • April 20 – July 15, 2010 Gulf of Mexico, Louisiana 205.8 million gallons Effectively dead September 19, 2010
    • 26. Effects on Wildlife
    • 27. OIL SKIMMING BOATS Attempts to contain spill DISPERSANTS BREAK UP OIL CONTAINMENT BOOMS
    • 28. Clean-up efforts
    • 29. Oil in Ecuador • Ecuador 2nd largest S. America producer – 70% of exports • Drilling in Amazon rainforest
    • 30. So why do we still burn fossil fuels for our energy?