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    Ecosystem1 Ecosystem1 Presentation Transcript

    • ““Introducing EcologyIntroducing Ecology””Write everythingWrite everythingthat isthat is UnderlinedUnderlined
    • 13.1 Ecologists Study Relationships / 13.2 Biotic & Abioticthe study of the relationships betweenthe study of the relationships betweenbiotic and abiotic factors in environmentsbiotic and abiotic factors in environmentsthe study of the relationships betweenthe study of the relationships betweenbiotic and abiotic factors in environmentsbiotic and abiotic factors in environmentsecoeco (G) root home, abode(G) root home, abodeecoeco (G) root home, abode(G) root home, abodeecoecoclimateclimateecoecoclimateclimateecoecosystemsystemecoecosystemsystemecoecotourismtourismecoecotourismtourismlog, -o, ylog, -o, y (G) suffix study of(G) suffix study oflog, -o, ylog, -o, y (G) suffix study of(G) suffix study ofzozoologyologyzozoologyologyepidemiepidemiologyologyepidemiepidemiologyologyclimatclimatologyologyclimatclimatologyologyEcologyEcology
    • 13.1 Ecologists Study Relationships / 13.2 Biotic & AbioticOrganismOrganismOrganismOrganism2.2.An organism is anAn organism is anindividual living thingindividual living thing(such as an alligator)(such as an alligator)
    • 13.1 Ecologists Study Relationships / 13.2 Biotic & AbioticOrganismOrganismPopulationPopulationPopulationPopulation3.3.A population is a groupA population is a groupof the same speciesof the same speciesthat lives in one area.that lives in one area.
    • 13.1 Ecologists Study Relationships / 13.2 Biotic & AbioticOrganismOrganismPopulationPopulationCommunityCommunityCommunityCommunity4.4.A community is aA community is agroup of differentgroup of differentspecies that livespecies that livetogether in one area.together in one area.
    • 13.1 Ecologists Study Relationships / 13.2 Biotic & AbioticWhile the earth is huge, life is found in a very narrow layer, calledthe biosphere. If the earth could be shrunk to the size of an apple,the biosphere would be no thicker than the apples skin.
    • 13.1 Ecologists Study Relationships / 13.2 Biotic & AbioticThe biosphere, like the human body, is made up of systemsthat interact and are dependent on each other.The biosphere’s systems are called ECOSYSTEMS.
    • 13.1 Ecologists Study Relationships / 13.2 Biotic & AbioticOrganismOrganismPopulationPopulationCommunityCommunityEcosystemEcosystemEcosystemEcosystem5.5. An ecosystem includes all ofAn ecosystem includes all ofthe organisms as well as thethe organisms as well as theother nonliving things in aother nonliving things in agiven areagiven area.. (such as climate, soil,(such as climate, soil,water, rocks)water, rocks)
    • 13.1 Ecologists Study Relationships / 13.2 Biotic & AbioticOrganismOrganismPopulationPopulationCommunityCommunityEcosystemEcosystemBiomeBiome6.6. A biome is a major regional orA biome is a major regional orglobal community of organismsglobal community of organismscharacterized by the climatecharacterized by the climateconditions and plant communitiesconditions and plant communitiesthat thrive there.that thrive there.
    • 13.1 Ecologists Study Relationships / 13.2 Biotic & Abiotica major regional or global biotica major regional or global bioticcommunity, acommunity, a super ecosystemsuper ecosystem, defined, definedchiefly by the dominant forms of plant lifechiefly by the dominant forms of plant lifeand the prevailing climateand the prevailing climatea major regional or global biotica major regional or global bioticcommunity, acommunity, a super ecosystemsuper ecosystem, defined, definedchiefly by the dominant forms of plant lifechiefly by the dominant forms of plant lifeand the prevailing climateand the prevailing climateBiome
    • 13.1 Ecologists Study Relationships / 13.2 Biotic & Abioticdesertdesertdesertdesertgrasslandgrasslandgrasslandgrasslandtropical rain foresttropical rain foresttropical rain foresttropical rain forestdeciduous forestdeciduous forestdeciduous forestdeciduous forestconiferous forestconiferous forestconiferous forestconiferous foresttundratundratundratundraMajor Biomes of the Worldoceanoceanoceanocean
    • 13.1 Ecologists Study Relationships / 13.2 Biotic & AbioticLevels of Organizationsmallest unit ofsmallest unit ofliving thingsliving thingssmallest unit ofsmallest unit ofliving thingsliving thingsgroup of similar cellsgroup of similar cellsorganized to workorganized to worktogethertogethergroup of similar cellsgroup of similar cellsorganized to workorganized to worktogethertogethergroup of differentgroup of differentkinds of tissueskinds of tissuesworking togetherworking togethergroup of differentgroup of differentkinds of tissueskinds of tissuesworking togetherworking togethergroup of organsgroup of organsworking togetherworking togethergroup of organsgroup of organsworking togetherworking togetherone individual livingone individual livingthingthingone individual livingone individual livingthingthingall organisms of theall organisms of thesame kind living insame kind living inone areaone areaall organisms of theall organisms of thesame kind living insame kind living inone areaone areaall interactingall interactingpopulations in anpopulations in anecosystemecosystemall interactingall interactingpopulations in anpopulations in anecosystemecosystemall living andall living andnonliving thingsnonliving thingsinteracting within ainteracting within acertain areacertain areaall living andall living andnonliving thingsnonliving thingsinteracting within ainteracting within acertain areacertain arealarge region withlarge region withtypical plants andtypical plants andanimals that includesanimals that includesseveral ecosystemsseveral ecosystemslarge region withlarge region withtypical plants andtypical plants andanimals that includesanimals that includesseveral ecosystemsseveral ecosystemscell
    • 13.1 Ecologists Study Relationships / 13.2 Biotic & AbioticSection 13.2 KEY CONCEPTSection 13.2 KEY CONCEPT::Every ecosystem includes bothEvery ecosystem includes bothliving and nonliving factors.living and nonliving factors.
    • 13.1 Ecologists Study Relationships / 13.2 Biotic & AbioticIII.III. Elements in an EcosystemElements in an Ecosystem1.1. Biotic factors are living things.Biotic factors are living things.• Remember,Remember, BIOBIO meansmeans LIFELIFE! (like! (likeBioBiology)logy)a.a. plantsplantsb.b. animalsanimalsc.c. fungifungid.d. bacteriabacteria
    • 13.1 Ecologists Study Relationships / 13.2 Biotic & AbioticExamples of BioticFactorsinclude plants,include plants,animals, fungi,animals, fungi,microorganismsmicroorganismsinclude plants,include plants,animals, fungi,animals, fungi,microorganismsmicroorganisms
    • 13.1 Ecologists Study Relationships / 13.2 Biotic & Abiotic2.2. Abiotic factors are nonliving things.Abiotic factors are nonliving things.• Remember, “Remember, “AA” means” means NOTNOT (like(likeAsymmetricalAsymmetrical meansmeans notnot symmetrical)symmetrical)a.a. sunlightsunlightb.b. temperaturetemperaturec.c. windwindd.d. MoistureMoisturei.i. Water, rain, cloudsWater, rain, cloudse.e. soilsoil
    • 13.1 Ecologists Study Relationships / 13.2 Biotic & AbioticExamples of AbioticFactorsinclude air,include air,water, soil,water, soil,temperature,temperature,wind, source ofwind, source ofenergy (usuallyenergy (usuallysun)sun)include air,include air,water, soil,water, soil,temperature,temperature,wind, source ofwind, source ofenergy (usuallyenergy (usuallysun)sun)
    • 13.1 Ecologists Study Relationships / 13.2 Biotic & AbioticEcological NicheEcological Niche• A plants or animals ecological niche is a way of lifeA plants or animals ecological niche is a way of lifethat is unique to that species.that is unique to that species.• Niche and habitat are not the same. While manyNiche and habitat are not the same. While manyspecies may share a habitat, this is not true of aspecies may share a habitat, this is not true of aniche. Each plant and animal species is a member ofniche. Each plant and animal species is a member ofa community.a community.• The niche describes the species role or functionThe niche describes the species role or functionwithin this community.within this community.
    • 13.1 Ecologists Study Relationships / 13.2 Biotic & Abiotic• For example, the red foxs habitat, which might includeFor example, the red foxs habitat, which might includeforest edges, meadows and the bank of a river, is sharedforest edges, meadows and the bank of a river, is sharedwith many animals .with many animals .• The niche of the red fox is that of a predator which feedsThe niche of the red fox is that of a predator which feedson the small mammals, amphibians, insects, and fruiton the small mammals, amphibians, insects, and fruitfound in this habitat. Red foxes are active at night. Theyfound in this habitat. Red foxes are active at night. Theyprovide blood for blackflies and mosquitoes, and are hostprovide blood for blackflies and mosquitoes, and are hostto numerous diseases. The scraps, or carrion, left behindto numerous diseases. The scraps, or carrion, left behindafter a foxs meal provide food for many small scavengersafter a foxs meal provide food for many small scavengersand decomposers. This, then, is the ecological niche of theand decomposers. This, then, is the ecological niche of thered fox.red fox.• Only the red fox occupies this niche in the meadow-forestOnly the red fox occupies this niche in the meadow-forestedge communities. In other plant communities differentedge communities. In other plant communities differentspecies of animal may occupy a similar niche to that of thespecies of animal may occupy a similar niche to that of thered foxred fox..
    • 13.1 Ecologists Study Relationships / 13.2 Biotic & AbioticKeystoneKeystone3.3. Changing one factor in an ecosystemChanging one factor in an ecosystemcan affectcan affect manymany other factors.other factors.4.4. A keystone species is a species thatA keystone species is a species thathas an unusually large effect on itshas an unusually large effect on itsecosystem.ecosystem.If you moved this stone theIf you moved this stone thewhole arch would fall downwhole arch would fall down
    • 13.1 Ecologists Study Relationships / 13.2 Biotic & Abioticcreation ofwetlandecosystemincreased waterfowlPopulationincreasedfishpopulationnesting sitesfor birdskeystone species5.5.Keystone species form andKeystone species form andmaintain a complex web ofmaintain a complex web oflife.life.
    • 13.1 Ecologists Study Relationships / 13.2 Biotic & AbioticChapter 13-1 & 13-2 Review questionsChapter 13-1 & 13-2 Review questions1.1. What is Ecology?What is Ecology?2.2. Define organism, population, community, biome,Define organism, population, community, biome,biotic, and abiotic factors.biotic, and abiotic factors.3.3. Give two examples of biotic and abiotic factors.Give two examples of biotic and abiotic factors.4.4. What is a keystone species?What is a keystone species?5.5. What does every ecosystem include?What does every ecosystem include?