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Medicated children
 

Medicated children

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  • I did my project on medicated children looking at more the add and adhd aspect.
  • ADD AND ADHD is a biological, brain based condition that is characterized by poor attention and distractibility and/or hyperactive and impulsive behaviors. It is one of the most common mental disorders that develop in children.
  • The exact cause of ADHD has not been determined, however the condition is thought to have a genetic and biological component. ADHD tends to occur among family members. Many research studies currently focus on identifying which genes, or combination of genes, may cause a person to be more susceptible to ADHD.
  • What is the difference between ADD and ADHD? Well the difference is that Attention deficit disorder (ADD) is a general term frequently used to describe individuals that have attention deficit hyperactivity disorder without the hyperactive and impulsive behaviors. The terms ADD and ADHD are often used interchangeably for both those who do and those who do not have symptoms of hyperactivity and impulsiveness.
  • Symptoms of ADD include the following: The child… Often does not give close attention to details or makes careless mistakes in schoolwork, work, or other activities. Often has trouble keeping attention on tasks or play activities. Often does not seem to listen when spoken to directly. Often does not follow instructions and fails to finish schoolwork, chores, or duties in the workplace (not due to oppositional behavior or failure to understand instructions). Often has trouble organizing activities. Often avoids, dislikes, or doesn't want to do things that take a lot of mental effort for a long period of time (such as schoolwork or homework). Often loses things needed for tasks and activities (e.g. toys, school assignments, pencils, books, or tools). Is often easily distracted. Is often forgetful in daily activities.
  • There are 3 different types of ADHD Inattentive Hyperactive-impulsive Combined type. In order to be diagnosed with ADD or ADHD children must show at least 6 behavioral symptoms of inattention and/or hyperactivity for at least 6 months, and these symptoms must be inconsistent with the child's age. Some of the symptoms must have been present before the child was 7 years old, and the symptoms must happen in 2 or more settings, such as at home and at school.
  • Symptoms of Inattentive type include: Lack of attention to details/makes careless mistakes Unable to pay attention for a long time Poor listening skills Doesn’t follow through on tasks Organization is difficult Avoids tasks requiring sustained mental effort Loses things Easily distracted Forgetful
  • Symptoms of Hyperactive-impulsive type include: Fidgeting/squirming Leaving seat Inappropriate running/climbing Difficulty with quiet activities Often interrupts/intrudes on others Often “on the go“ Excessive talking Blurting answers Can’t wait his or her turn
  • Symptoms of combined type include: criteria for both inattentive and hyperactive–impulsive types
  • A child's primary care doctor can determine whether the child has ADHD using standard guidelines developed by the American Academy of Pediatrics. These diagnosis guidelines are for children 6 to 12 years of age. Know that it is very difficult to diagnose ADHD in children younger than 5 years of age. That's because many preschool children have some ADHD symptoms in various situations. In addition, children change very rapidly during the preschool years. It is also difficult to diagnose ADHD once a child becomes a teenager. The process of diagnosing ADHD requires several steps and involves gathering a lot of information from multiple sources. You, your child, your child's school, and other caregivers should be involved in assessing your child's behavior. A physician can conduct a medical history to help put a child's behavior in context. They will ask what symptoms a child is showing, how long the symptoms have occurred, and how the behavior affects a child and his/her family.
  • Some medications for ADHD include Ritalin Adderall Dexedrine Cylert Daytrana Patch These medicines come in both short- and long-acting dosages. Short-acting stimulants peak after several hours, and must be taken 2-3 times a day, which include Ritalin (3-4hours) Adderall (3-6 hours) Dexedrine (3-5 hours) Long-acting or extended-release stimulants last 8-12 hours, and are usually taken just once a day, which include Daytrana Patch (about 9 hours) Cylert (12-24 hours)
  • The beneficial effects of stimulant adhd medication treatment can be dramatic. Attention to class work can improve to the extent that the child is no longer distinguishable from classmates; activity level can decline to within normal limits and impulsivity can be substantially reduced. Even associated difficulties such as disruptive behavior and peer relationship problems sometimes show dramatic improvement. Interactions between parent and child and between the child and his or her siblings have also been shown to improve. Academically, many children show clear improvements in the quantity and quality of the work they complete. It remains to be seen, however, whether these short term changes result in long term gains in children's academic, behavioral, and social functioning.
  • As with any medication, stimulant adhd medication used in treating ADHD can produce adverse side effects in some children. These can include: Sleep difficulties Stomach aches Headaches Appetite reduction Drowsiness Irritability Nervousness Nervous tics Hallucinations Bizarre behavior
  • While doing some research I came across this study published in the American Journal of Family Therapy , lead researcher Dr. Robert M. Pressman announces for the first time a direct link between bedtime routines and behavior that mimics ADHD in children. The findings propose that of the over 5 million children who are now being treated with ADHD medication, a majority may be suffering from Faux-ADHD, a disorder linked to irregular bedtimes and bed sharing, and does not require medication. The study conducted by researchers at the New England Center for Pediatric Psychology and the Rhode Island College Department of Special Education suggests that simple adjustments to bedtime habits, rather than medication, can eliminate ADHD-like behavior, such as poor attention and hyperactivity. Although only 5-9 percent of children have ADHD, according to the study, 33 percent of children surveyed were recommended ADHD medication. Unlike ADHD, Faux-ADHD is up to eight times more responsive to changes in bedtime routines. The study consisted of 704 parents of children, ages 2-13, who were being seen in pediatricians' offices. Selection of offices was made by cluster sampling in Providence, RI, resulting in 14 data collection sites. Data was collected by a questionnaire constructed to assess 14 categorical responses. The chi-square test was used to analyze categorical pairs. "Pediatricians, therapists, and parents need to reassess the questions asked when diagnosing ADHD," said Dr. Pressman. "Bedtime habits must be reviewed at intake and bedtime problems explored before ADHD medication is considered."
  • Dr. Barkley argues that the fundamental deficit in individuals with ADHD is one of self-control, and that problems with attention are a secondary characteristic of the disorder. He emphasizes that during the course of development, control over a child’s behavior gradually shifts from external sources to being increasingly governed by internal rules and standards. Controlling one’s behavior by internal rules and standards is what is meant by the term “self-control”. For example, young children have very little ability to refrain from acting on an impulse — i.e. to “inhibit” their behavior. Instead, it is more typical for a young child to “act out” the things that pop into his or her mind. In addition, when a young child is able to refrain from acting on impulse, it is often because something in the immediate surroundings keeps them from doing so. For example, the child may refrain from throwing a toy when frustrated because his mother is present, and he knows he will be punished if he throws it. This is different from an older child who may also have the impulse to smash a toy, but who does not act on this impulse because he/she can anticipate the following consequences: 1. He won’t have the toy to play with later on; 2. His parents would be upset if he broke his new toy; 3. He would be upset for let­ting down his parents; 4. He would be upset because he let his temper get out of control — he let him­self down; In this example, the child has learned to “inhibit” and regulate their behavior based on internal controls and guidelines, rather than requiring the immediate threat of external consequences. Research supporting best practice in treatment for ADHD can be understood in light of Barkley's (1997) theoretical model in which a deficit in inhibition is identified as the fundamental problem. The combination of psycho-stimulants and behavioral-psychosocial interventions is thought to be most beneficial because psycho-stimulants address the deficit in inhibition directly by altering the chemistry of the brain while behavioral-psychosocial interventions can provide strategies for improving deficit areas and can address family system issues
  • Russell Barkley, PhD has done extensive research on ADHD and ADD. He also found that Boys are most likely to be diagnosed ADHD.  75% of boys with ADD are also hyperactive while 60% of girls with ADD are also hyperactive. 40 % of children with ADHD have a parent with ADHD. 50% of children with ADHD also have trouble sleeping. Children with ADHD develop 30% slower than non ADHD children. 65 % of children with ADHD have discipline problems. 25% of children with ADHD have a serious learning disability. One half of ADHD children have poor listening comprehension. Parents of a child with ADHD are three times as likely to divorce. Teens with ADHD have four times as many car accidents and have seven times as many second accidents.
  • Coping Tips for ADHD When necessary, ask the teacher to repeat instructions rather than guess. Don’t be afraid to write things down as you’re listening, or take notes. Break large assignments or job tasks into small, simple tasks. Set a deadline for each task and reward yourself as you complete each one. Each day, make a list of what you need to do. Plan the best order for doing each task. Then make a schedule for doing them. Use a calendar or daily planner to keep yourself on track. Work in a quiet area. Do one thing at a time. Give yourself short breaks. Reward yourself for achieving small milestones along the way. Post notes to yourself to help remind yourself of things you need to do. Store similar things together. For example, keep all your Xbox or PS3 games in one place, and DVDs or CDs in another. Create a routine. Get yourself ready for school at the same time, in the same way, every day. Exercise, eat a balanced diet and get enough sleep .
  • I chose to do this as my project because I think that a lot of children are being diagnosed with ADD or ADHD because parents are getting overwhelmed and bringing their children to the doctors if they are more hyperactive than normal or the school systems recommend taking a child to the doctors to get checked out. Some parents think that putting their child on medication is going to fix everything. Right now my brother is going through this process with my nephew. My brother has full custody of him and his mother comes twice a week for supervised visits. My nephew acts out at school and the school quickly settled on that he has ADHD and autism. My brother took him to see his doctor and she was totally against the autism speculation but recommended the daytrana patch. I personally don’t think he had ADHD because his outburst happen mainly at school and he’ll fully admit he’s bored at school because he wants to play his video games. He will also say that the patch doesn’t help him. Doing this project not only informed me but I sat down with my brother to inform him that maybe he should look into therapy for my nephews issues instead of putting him on a stimulant medication.

Medicated children Medicated children Presentation Transcript

  • Medicated Children: A closer look at ADD/ADHD Kim Kling
  • What is ADD/ADHD:
    • A biological, brain based condition that is characterized by poor attention and distractibility and/or hyperactive and impulsive behaviors. It is one of the most common mental disorders that develop in children.
  • What is ADHD caused by:
    • The exact cause of ADHD has not been determined, however the condition is thought to have a genetic and biological component. ADHD tends to occur among family members. Many research studies currently focus on identifying which genes, or combination of genes, may cause a person to be more susceptible to ADHD.
  • Difference Between ADD and ADHD:
    • Attention deficit disorder (ADD) is a general term frequently used to describe individuals that have attention deficit hyperactivity disorder without the hyperactive and impulsive behaviors.
  • ADD Symptoms:
    • Often does not give close attention to details or makes careless mistakes in schoolwork, work, or other activities.
    • Often has trouble keeping attention on tasks or play activities.
    • Often does not seem to listen when spoken to directly.
    • Often does not follow instructions and fails to finish schoolwork, chores, or duties in the workplace (not due to oppositional behavior or failure to understand instructions).
    • Often has trouble organizing activities.
    • Often avoids, dislikes, or doesn't want to do things that take a lot of mental effort for a long period of time (such as schoolwork or homework).
    • Often loses things needed for tasks and activities (e.g. toys, school assignments, pencils, books, or tools).
    • Is often easily distracted.
    • Is often forgetful in daily activities.
  • Types of ADHD:
    • There are 3 different types of ADHD
      • Inattentive
      • Hyperactive-impulsive
      • Combined type.
  • Inattentive Type:
    • Lack of attention to details/makes careless mistakes
    • Unable to pay attention for a long time
    • Poor listening skills
    • Doesn’t follow through on tasks
    • Organization is difficult
    • Avoids tasks requiring sustained mental effort
    • Loses things
    • Easily distracted
    • Forgetful
  • Hyperactive-impulsive Type
    • Fidgeting/squirming
    • Leaving seat
    • Inappropriate running/climbing
    • Difficulty with quiet activities
    • Often interrupts/intrudes on others
    • Often “on the go“
    • Excessive talking
    • Blurting answers
    • Can’t wait his or her turn
  • Combined Type
    • Meeting criteria for both inattentive and hyperactive–impulsive types
  • How Is ADHD Diagnosed?
    • A child's primary care doctor can determine whether the child has ADHD using standard guidelines developed by the American Academy of Pediatrics.
    • It is very difficult to diagnose ADHD in children younger than 5 years of age because many preschool children have some ADHD symptoms in various situations. In addition, children change very rapidly during the preschool years.
    • The process of diagnosing ADHD requires several steps and involves gathering a lot of information from multiple sources. Parents, the child, the child's school, and other caregivers should be involved in assessing the child's behavior.
    • A physician can conduct a medical history to help put a child's behavior in context. They will ask what symptoms a child is showing, how long the symptoms have occurred, and how the behavior affects a child and his/her family.
  • Common ADHD MEDICATIONS:
    • Ritalin
    • Adderall
    • Dexedrine
    • Cylert
    • Daytrana Patch
  • Some Benefits of stimulant ADHD medication:
    • Attention to class work
    • Activity level can decline to within normal limits
    • Impulsivity can be substantially reduced.
    • Improved disruptive behavior and peer relationship problems
    • Interactions between parent and child and between the child and his or her siblings have also been shown to improve.
    • Academics show clear improvements in the quantity and quality of the work
  • Some Effects of stimulant ADHD medication:
    • Sleep difficulties
    • Stomach aches
    • Headaches
    • Appetite reduction
    • Drowsiness
    • Irritability
    • Nervousness
    • Nervous tics
    • Hallucinations
    • Bizarre behavior
  • Direct link between bedtime routines and behavior that mimics ADHD in children.
    • Children who did not sleep in their own beds ...
      • Had ADHD-like behaviors seven times more frequently than children who always slept in their own bed.
      • Hit, pushed, or kicked their parents 13 times more frequently than children who always slept in their own bed.
    • Children who did not have a regular bedtime ...
      • Had ADHD-like behaviors eight times more frequently than children who had a regular bedtime.
      • Hit, pushed or kicked their parents 10 times more frequently than children who had a regular bedtime.
  • Barkley’s Theory of ADHD
    • Research supporting best practice in treatment for ADHD can be understood in light of Barkley's (1997) theoretical model in which a deficit in inhibition is identified as the fundamental problem. The combination of psycho-stimulants and behavioral-psychosocial interventions is thought to be most beneficial because psycho-stimulants address the deficit in inhibition directly by altering the chemistry of the brain while behavioral-psychosocial interventions can provide strategies for improving deficit areas and can address family system issues
  • Statistics found by Russell Barkley
    • Boys are most likely to be diagnosed ADHD. 
    • 75% of boys with ADD are also hyperactive while 60% of girls with ADD are also hyperactive.
    • 40 % of children with ADHD have a parent with ADHD.
    • 50% of children with ADHD also have trouble sleeping.
    • Children with ADHD develop 30% slower than non ADHD children.
    • 65 % of children with ADHD have discipline problems.
    • 25% of children with ADHD have a serious learning disability.
    • One half of ADHD children have poor listening comprehension.
    • Parents of a child with ADHD are three times as likely to divorce.
    • Teens with ADHD have four times as many car accidents and have seven times as many second accidents.
    • When necessary, ask the teacher to repeat instructions rather than guess.
    • Break large assignments or job tasks into small, simple tasks. Set a deadline for each task and reward yourself as you complete each one.
    • Each day, make a list of what you need to do. Plan the best order for doing each task. Then make a schedule for doing them. Use a calendar or daily planner to keep yourself on track.
    • Work in a quiet area. Do one thing at a time. Give yourself short breaks. Reward yourself for achieving small milestones along the way.
    • Post notes to yourself to help remind yourself of things you need to do.
    • Store similar things together. For example, keep all your Xbox or PS3 games in one place, and DVDs or CDs in another.
    • Create a routine. Get yourself ready for school at the same time, in the same way, every day.
    • Exercise, eat a balanced diet and get enough sleep.
    Coping tips for children who suffer from ADD/ADHD:
  • Resources
    • &quot;Study: How Many Kids Treated for ADHD Are 'unnecessarily' Medicated?&quot; Behavioral Healthcare . 28 Sept. 2011. Web. 21 Nov. 2011. <http://www.behavioral.net/ME2/dirmod.asp?type=news>.
    • &quot;Adhd Medications.&quot; ADHD Information and Support To Help Your Chi . 2011. Web. 21 Nov. 2011. <http://www.adhdnews.com/adhd-medication.htm>.
    • &quot;What Are the Symptoms of ADHD?&quot; ADHD Medication and Focalin XR (dexmethylphenidate Hydrochloride) . Web. 21 Nov. 2011. <http://www.focalinxr.com/info/about-adhd/symptoms.jsp>.
    • &quot;What Is ADHD (attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder)?&quot; ADHD Medication and Focalin XR (dexmethylphenidate Hydrochloride) . Web. 21 Nov. 2011. <http://www.focalinxr.com/info/about-adhd.jsp>.
    • Dominationtn, PopUp. &quot;Self-Regulation and Barkley's Theory of ADHD | SharpBrains.&quot; Brain Fitness and Cognitive Health Authority: Market Research and Advisory Services | SharpBrains . Web. 21 Nov. 2011. <http://www.sharpbrains.com/blog/2008/02/23/self-regulation-and-barkleys-theory-of-adhd/>.
    • &quot;Self-management and ADHD: a Literature Review | Behavior Analyst Today, The | Find Articles.&quot; Find Articles | News Articles, Magazine Back Issues & Reference Articles on All Topics . Web. 22 Nov. 2011. <http://findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_6884/is_1_6/ai_n28321089/>.
    • &quot;Inattention and ADD ADHD - Symptoms of Inattention and ADD ADHD.&quot; ADD - ADHD - Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder and Attention Deficit Disorder Symptoms, Diagnosis, Treatment and Coping . Web. 23 Nov. 2011. <http://add.about.com/od/signsandsymptoms/a/inattention.htm>.
    • &quot;ADHD Statistics - ADHD.&quot; ADHD - Child ADHD and ADD . Web. 23 Nov. 2011. <http://adhdchild.org/articles1.html>.
    • Grohol, John M. &quot;Coping Tips for Attention Deficit Disorder | Psych Central.&quot; Psych Central - Trusted Mental Health, Depression, Bipolar, ADHD and Psychology Information . Web. 23 Nov. 2011. <http://psychcentral.com/lib/2010/coping-tips-for-attention-deficit-disorder/>.
    • &quot;ADHD/ADD In Children: Symptoms, Causes, Types, Tests, Treatments.&quot; WebMD - Better Information. Better Health. Web. 23 Nov. 2011. <http://www.webmd.com/add-adhd/guide/ast_oneadhd-children>.
    • &quot;What Is ADD - What Is ADD and ADHD.&quot; ADD - ADHD - Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder and Attention Deficit Disorder Symptoms, Diagnosis, Treatment and Coping . Web. 23 Nov. 2011. http://add.about.com/od/adhdthebasics/a/ADHDbasics.htm.