Sculpture is a three dimensional artwork created by shaping or combining hard and/or plastic material, sound, and/or text and or light, commonly stone (either rock or marble), metal, glass, or wood. Some sculptures are created directly by finding or carving; others are assembled, built together and fired, welded, molded, or cast. Sculptures are often painted. A person who creates sculptures is called a sculptor .
Because sculpture involves the use of materials that can be molded or modulated, it is considered one of the plastic arts. The majority of public art is sculpture. Many sculptures together in a garden setting may be referred to as a sculpture garden
Methods in Sculpture
Carving is a subtractive process; that is, it involves removing unwanted portions of the raw materials to reveal the form that the artist has visualized. Wood, stone and ivory are materials employed in this process.
It is an additive process. It means building the forms, using highly plastic materials such as clay or wax.
3. Casting is a complex process wherein you need to create negative mold.
Types of Sculpture
A relief is a sculptured artwork where a modelled form is raised, or in sunken-relief lowered.
Kinds of Relief Sculpture:
Bas or low relief
- is the quality of an projecting image where the overall depth is shallow. The background is very compressed or completely flat, as on most coins, on which all images are in low-relief.
Sample of Bas Relief
b. High relief is where the most prominent elements of the composition are undercut and rendered at more than 50% in the round against the background. All cultures and periods where large sculptures were created used this technique as one of their sculptural options.
c. Sunken-relief, also known as intaglio or hollow-relief, is where the image is made by carving into a flat surface - usually the images are mostly linear in nature. It is most notably associated with the Art of Ancient Egypt, where the strong sunlight usually needed to make the technique successful for images is present most of the time. In the sculpture of many cultures, including Europe, it is mostly used for inscriptions.
2. Free-standing Sculpture is one which can be seen from more than one position. The statues of saints in our churches are examples of it.
The most commonly used because of its durability, high gloss when polished and its resistance to fire.
Heavy and breaks easily.
Michaelangelo: The Pieta
Rich color and smooth texture
Can support itself in many positions which is impossible for stones.