Basics of Computer For Begginers

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Basics Of Computers for Beginners

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Basics of Computer For Begginers

  1. 1. Overview  What is a Computer?  Evolution of Computer  Generations of Computer  Classification of Computer  Block Diagram of Computer
  2. 2. P R O C E S S O R Input Data Output Data Alphanume ric Alphanume ric Binary Digits
  3. 3. Evolution Of Computer ERA Mechanical Electrical ABACU S Blaise Pascal Calculato r Electric Motor Calculatin g Computer 500 BC 1642 1941 Konard Zuse 1889 Herman Hollerith
  4. 4. Generations of Computer
  5. 5. Classification of Computer Super Computer Main Frame Computer Mini Computer Micro Comput er Desktop Compute r Laptop Palmtop/ PDA/ Digital Notes
  6. 6. PERIPHERALS
  7. 7. BASIC BLOCK DIAGRAM
  8. 8. © Oxford University Press 2013. All rights reserved. Differences
  9. 9. CPUMost of the processing takes place in CPU. During processing, it locates and executes the program instructions. It also fetches data from memory and input/output devices and sends data back. Registers Control Unit ALU
  10. 10. HardwareHardware is the physical components of a computer that includes all mechanical, electrical, electronic and magnetic parts attached to it. Input and Output Devices CPU Memory Storage Devices Interface Unit Mouse JoyStic k Touchpa d Webca m Scanne r Monito r Printe r Projector s LCD Panels Speaker s
  11. 11. OUTPUT DEVICES VDU Printer Plotters Speakers Speech Synthesizer
  12. 12. SOFTWARE  Set of machine-readable instructions that directs a computer's processor to perform specific operations. Software System EmbeddedApplication Computer to operate Uses compute r to perform Control Machine s or devices
  13. 13. SOFTWARE COMPONENTS APPLICATION SOFTWARE Database Desktop Publication Word Processing Spreadsheets Payroll Presentation tools Multimedia Applications
  14. 14. Memory
  15. 15. The memory unit is composed of an ordered sequence of storage cells, each capable of storing one byte of data. Primary Memory Secondary Memory
  16. 16. PRIMARY MEMORY Primary memory is considered as a main memory that is accessed directly by the computer, so as to store and retrieve. loses all its data when the power is turned off. Two Technologies: RAM and ROM Much Faster and costlier than Secondary memory
  17. 17. RAM Every computer comes with a certain amount of physical memory which is actually chips that hold data. part of hardware that stores operating system’s application programs and currently running processes that can be accessed randomly, i.e. in any order that the user desires. Data in RAM stays for only as long as the computer is running, and gets deleted as soon as computer is switched off. RAM usually comes in the form of microchips of different sizes such as 256MB, 512MB, 1GB, 2GB etc.
  18. 18. ROM Every computer comes fitted with this memory that holds instructions for starting up the computer.  data written permanently on it and is not reusable. These are generally in the form of CD-ROM or Floppy Disk that can load the OS to the RAM.
  19. 19. SECONDARY MEMORY Secondary memory is not directly accessed through CPU . The secondary memory is accessible in the form of Mass storage devices such as hard disk, memory chips, Pen drive, floppy disk storage media, CD and DVD. The information can be retrieved even if the power is turned off because the data will not be destructed until and unless the user erases it.
  20. 20. STORAGE DEVICES Hard disk drivers Internal high capacity drivers Stores Operating System High Speed,Faster Capacity-40/80GB
  21. 21. Floppy Disk Small Disks Portable Very Slow Capacity 1.44MB CD ROM Capacity-650MB and more… DVD Drives Capacity-17GB Faster than CD not than HDD
  22. 22. Impact on Computer Performance CPU Speed RAM size Hard Disk Drive Capacity
  23. 23. INTERFACE UNIT The interface unit interconnects the CPU with memory and also with the various input/output (I/O) devices. It is a set of parallel wires or lines which connects all the internal computer components to the CPU and main memory.
  24. 24. Depending on the type of data transmitted, a bus can be classified into the following three types:  Data bus : The bus used to carry actual data.  Address bus memory or Input/output device : Addresses travel via the address bus.  Control bus: This bus carries control information between the CPU and other devices within the computer.
  25. 25. BUS BASED MEMORY ORGANIZATION
  26. 26. MOTHER BOARD
  27. 27. MICROSOFT EXCEL
  28. 28. MEN U BAR TOOL BAR RIBBO N FORMULA BAR WOR KSHE ET CELL
  29. 29. NUMBER SYSTEM BINARY HEXADECIMAL DECIMAL One digit in hex corresponds to four binary digits (bits), so the internal representation of one byte can be represented either by eight binary digits or two hexadecimal digits. Less commonly used is the octal (base 8) number system, where one digit in octal corresponds to three binary digits (bits).
  30. 30. POSITIONAL NUMBER SYSTEM The actual number of symbols used in a positional number system depends on its base (also called the radix). The highest numerical symbol always has a value of one less than the base. The decimal number system has a base of 10, so the numeral with the highest value is 9; the octal number system has a base of 8, so the numeral with the highest value is 7, the binary number system has a base of 2, so the numeral with the highest value is 1, etc.
  31. 31. DECIMAL SYSTEM 1 2 7 510 5 x 100 = 5 x 1 = 5 7 x 101 = 7 x 10 = 70 2 x 102 = 2 x 100 = 200 1 x 103 = 1 x 1000 = 1000 ------ 1275 10 Each position represents a specific power of base 10. =1 0 10 3 10 0 n 1 10 0 n
  32. 32. TRY THIS: Expand the following decimal number: 5 1 3 010
  33. 33. BINARY SYSTEM Each position of the binary number represents a successive power of two. Decimal Binary Decimal Binary 0 0 16 10000 1 1 17 10001 2 10 18 10010 3 11 19 10011 4 100 20 10100 5 101 21 10101 6 110 22 10110 7 111 23 10111 8 1000 24 11000 9 1001 25 11001 10 1010 26 11010 11 1011 27 11011 12 1100 28 11100 13 1101 29 11101 14 1110 30 11110 15 1111 31 11111
  34. 34. BINARY to DECIMAL To determine the value of a binary number (10012, for example), we can expand the number using the positional weights as follows: 1 0 0 12 1 x = 1 x 1 = 1 0 x = 0 x 2 = 0 0 x = 0 x 4 = 0 1 x = 1 x 8 = 8 ------ 9 10 0 2 1 2 2 2 3 2
  35. 35. TRY THIS: Convert the following binary numbers to their decimal equivalents: (a) 1 1 0 0 1 1 02
  36. 36. DECIMAL to BINARY Remainder Method (1) Divide the decimal number by the base (in the case of binary, divide by 2). (2) Indicate the remainder to the right. (3) Continue dividing into each quotient (and indicating the remainder) until the divide operation produces a zero quotient. (4) The base 2 number is the numeric remainder reading from the last division to the first (if you start at the bottom, the answer will read from top to bottom).
  37. 37. TRY THIS: Convert the following decimal numbers to their binary equivalents: (a) 4910 (b) 2110
  38. 38. BINARY ADDITION Adding two binary numbers together is easy, keeping in mind the following four addition rules: (1) 0 + 0 = 0 (2) 0 + 1 = 1 (3) 1 + 0 = 1 (4) 1 + 1 = 10
  39. 39. BINARY SUBTRACTION 11010101 - 1001011 (1) Compute the one's complement of 10010112 by subtracting each digit from 1 (note that a leading zero was added to the 7- digit subtrahend to make it the same size as the 8-digit minuend): 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 - 0 - 1 - 0 - 0 - 1 - 0 - 1 - 1 1 0 1 1 0 1 0 0 2 2 2 MINUEND - SUBTRAHEND = DIFFERENCE
  40. 40. (2) Add 1 to the one's complement of the subtrahend, giving the two's complement of the subtrahend: 1 0 1 1 0 1 0 0 + 1 1 0 1 1 0 1 0 1 (3) Add the two's complement of the subtrahend to the minuend and drop the high-order 1, giving the difference: 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 0 1 0 1 0 1 + 1 0 1 1 0 1 0 1
  41. 41. OCTAL NUMBER SYSTEM The base of the octal number system is eight, so each position of the octal number represents a successive power of eight. From right to left, the successive positions of the octal number are weighted 1, 8, 64, 512, etc. A list of the first several powers of 8 follows: 80= 1 = 8 = 64 83= 512 …84 = 4096 85 = 32768 18 18 28
  42. 42. OCTAL to DECIMAL 3 6 78 7 x 80 = 7 x 1 = 7 6 x 81 = 6 x 8 = 48 3 x 82 = 3 x 64 = 192 ------ 247 10
  43. 43. TRY THIS: Convert the following octal numbers to their decimal equivalents: (a) 5 3 68
  44. 44. DECIMAL to OCTAL (1) Divide the decimal number by the base (in the case of octal, divide by 8). (2) Indicate the remainder to the right. (3) Continue dividing into each quotient (and indicating the remainder) until the divide operation produces a zero quotient. (4) The base 8 number is the numeric remainder reading from the last division to the first (if you start at the bottom, the answer will read from top to bottom).
  45. 45. HEXADECIMAL SYSTEM The hexadecimal number system uses not only the Arabic numerals 0 through 9, but also uses the letters A, B, C, D, E, and F to represent the equivalent of 1010 through 1510, respectively.
  46. 46. HEXADECIMAL to DECIMAL How to convert from hex to decimal A regular decimal number is the sum of the digits multiplied with its power of 10. Example #1 137 in base 10 is equal to each digit multiplied with its corresponding power of 10: 13710 = 1×102 +3×101 +7×100 = 100+30+7
  47. 47. COMPUTER CHARACTER SET AND DATA REPRESENTATION ASCII (pronounced "as-key", stands for American Standard Code for Information Interchange) is (used on most minicomputers and PCs) 32 through 127 of the ASCII character set, which encompass (letters, numbers, and special characters). 0-31---->Control Characters(modems, printers, and keyboards work)Eg:Printers character 12 for “form feed” 128-255Box Drawing Characters Eg:Making dialog box,non-GUI..
  48. 48. EBCDIC (pronounced "eb-suh-dick", stands for Extended Binary Coded Decimal Interchange Code) (used on IBM mainframes)
  49. 49. FLOW CHART A flow chart is a graphical or symbolic representation of a process. Each step in the process is represented by a different symbol and contains a short description of the process step. The flow chart symbols are linked together with arrows showing the process flow direction.

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