Essentials Of Marketing


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Essentials Of Marketing

  1. 1. Think Marketing ! Produced by
  2. 2. Contents <ul><li>Marketing Mix and Key Marketing Activities </li></ul><ul><li>Developing Market Segmentation </li></ul><ul><li>Product Planning and Development </li></ul><ul><li>Promotion Mix : Advertising, Publicity, Personal Selling and Sales Promotion </li></ul><ul><li>Distribution Planning and Pricing Strategy </li></ul>If you find this presentation useful, please consider telling others about our site (
  3. 3. Marketing Mix and Market Segmentation
  4. 4. Marketing Credo There is only one valid definition of business purpose : to create a customer Peter Drucker
  5. 5. Marketing Mix Product Price Place Promotion Target Market
  6. 6. Key Marketing Activities Consumer Analysis Product Planning Price Planning Distribution Planning Promotion Planning
  7. 7. Key Marketing Activities Consumer Analysis Product Planning Examination and evaluation of consumer characteristics, needs, and purchase processes Development and maintenance of products, product assortments, product positions, brands, packaging, options, and deletion of old products Price Planning Outlines price ranges and levels, pricing techniques purchase terms, price adjustments, and the use of price as an active or passive factor
  8. 8. Key Marketing Activities Distribution Planning Establishment of channel relations, physical distribution, inventory management, warehousing, transportation, allocation of goods, and wholesaling Promotion Planning Combination of advertising, publicity, personal selling, and sales promotion to drive sales revenue
  9. 9. Product/Market Matrix Existing Products New Products Existing Markets New Markets Market Penetration Market Development Product Development Diversification
  10. 10. Product/Market Matrix Market Penetration Market Development <ul><li>The firm seeks to achieve growth with existing products in their current market segments, aiming to increase its market share </li></ul><ul><li>Effective when the market is growing or not yet saturated </li></ul><ul><li>The firm seeks growth by targeting its existing products to new market segments </li></ul><ul><li>Effective when a local or regional business looks to wider its market, new market segments are emerging due to changes in consumer life-style/demographics, and innovative uses are discovered for a mature product </li></ul>
  11. 11. Product/Market Matrix Product Development Diversification <ul><li>The firms develops new products targeted to its existing market segments </li></ul><ul><li>Effective when the firm has a core of strong brands </li></ul><ul><li>The firm seeks growth by targeting its existing products to new market segments </li></ul><ul><li>Diversification is utilized so that the firm does not become overly depend­ent on one product line </li></ul>
  12. 12. Market Segmentation The division of a market into different homogeneous groups of consumers Market Segment <ul><li>Should be: </li></ul><ul><li>measurable </li></ul><ul><li>accessible by communication and distribution channels </li></ul><ul><li>different in its response to a marketing mix </li></ul><ul><li>durable (not changing too quickly) </li></ul><ul><li>substantial enough to be profitable </li></ul>
  13. 13. Types of Market Segmentation Geographic Demographic Based on regional variables such as region, climate, population density, and population growth rate. Based on variables such as age, gender, ethnicity, education, occupation, income, and family status
  14. 14. Types of Market Segmentation Psychographic Behavioral Based on variables such as values, attitudes, and lifestyle Based on variables such as usage rate and patterns, price sensitivity, brand loyalty, and benefits sought
  15. 15. Step in Planning A Segmentation Strategy Determining characteristics and needs of consumers for the product category of the company Analyzing consumer similarities and differences Developing consumer group profiles Selecting consumer segment (s) Positioning company’s offering in relation to competition. Establishing an appropriate marketing plan
  16. 16. Product Planning and Development
  17. 17. Products : Types of Goods Types of Goods Convenience Goods Shopping Goods Specialty Goods
  18. 18. Convenience Goods Convenience Goods <ul><li>Those purchased with a minimum of effort, because the buyer has knowledge of product characteristics prior to shopping </li></ul><ul><li>The consumer does not want to search for additional information (because the item has been bought before) and will accept a substitute rather than have to frequent more than one store </li></ul>
  19. 19. Convenience Goods <ul><li>Staples are low-priced items that are routinely purchased on a regular basis, such as detergent, milk, and cereal </li></ul><ul><li>Impulse goods are items that the consumer does not plan to buy on a specific trip to a store, such as candy, a magazine, and ice cream </li></ul><ul><li>Emergency goods are items purchased out of urgent need, such as an umbrella during a rainstorm, a tire to replace a flat, or aspirin for a headache </li></ul>Convenience Goods
  20. 20. Shopping Goods Shopping Goods <ul><li>Those for which consumers lack sufficient information about product alternatives and their attributes, and therefore must acquire further knowledge in order to make a purchase decision </li></ul>
  21. 21. Shopping Goods Shopping Goods <ul><li>For attribute-based shopping goods , consumers get information about and then evaluate product features, warranty, performance, options, and other factors. The goods with the best combination of attributes is purchased. Sony electronics and Calvin Klein clothes are marketed as attribute-based shopping goods </li></ul><ul><li>For price-based shopping goods , consumers judge product attributes to be similar and look around for the least expensive item/store </li></ul>
  22. 22. Specialty Goods Specialty Goods <ul><li>Those to which consumers are brand loyal. </li></ul><ul><li>They are fully aware of these products and their attributes prior to making a purchase decision. </li></ul><ul><li>They are willing to make a significant purchase effort to acquire the brand desired and will pay a higher price than competitive products, if necessary. </li></ul><ul><li>For specialty goods, consumers will not make purchases if their brand is not available. Substitutes are not acceptable. </li></ul>
  23. 23. Services Type of Services Rented- goods Service Owned-goods service Non-goods
  24. 24. Services Rented- goods Service Owned-goods service Non-goods Involves the leasing of a good for a specified period of time. Examples include car, hotel room, apartment, and tuxedo rentals Involves an alteration or repair of a good owned by the consumer. Examples include repair services (such as automobile, watch, and plumbing), lawn care, car wash, haircut, and dry cleaning Provides personal service on the pan of the seller; it does not involve a goods. Examples include accounting, legal, and consulting services
  25. 25. Characteristics of Services <ul><li>The intangible nature of many services makes the consumer's choice more diffi­cult than with goods </li></ul><ul><li>The producer and his or her services are often inseparable </li></ul><ul><li>The perishability of services prevents storage and increases risks </li></ul><ul><li>Service quality may be variable </li></ul>
  26. 26. Product Life Cycle Introduction Growth Maturity Decline
  27. 27. Product Life Cycle Persuasive Informative Promotion Greater range of prices Depends on product Pricing Rising number of outlets Depends on product Distribution Expanding line One or two basic models Product mix Affluent mass market Innovators Customers Increasing Negative Industry profits Some None or small Competition Rapidly increasing Increasing Industry sales Expand distribution and product line Attract innovators and opinion leader to new product Marketing objective Growth Introduction Characteristics
  28. 28. Product Life Cycle Informative Competitive Promotion Selected prices Full line of prices Pricing Decreasing number of outlets Greatest number of outlets Distribution Best-sellers Full product line Product mix Laggards Mass market Customers Decreasing Decreasing Industry profits Limited Substantial Competition Decreasing Stable Industry sales (a) cut back, (b) revive, (C) terminate Maintain differential advantage as long as possible Marketing objective Decline Maturity Characteristics
  29. 29. New Product Planning Idea Generation Product Screening Concept Testing Business Analysis Product Development Test Marketing Commercial-ization
  30. 30. New Product Planning Idea Generation <ul><li>A continuous, systematic search for new product opportunities </li></ul><ul><li>It involves delineating sources of new ideas and methods for generating them </li></ul>Product Screening <ul><li>After the firm identifies potential products, it must screen them </li></ul><ul><li>Many companies use a new-product screening checklist for preliminary evaluation </li></ul>
  31. 31. Screening Checklist PRODUCTION CHARACTERISTICS OF NEW PRODUCTS Fit with production capabilities Length of time to commercialization Ease of product manufacture Availability of labor and material resources Ability to produce at competitive prices MARKETING CHARACTERISTICS OF NEW PRODUCTS Fit with marketing capabilities Effect on existing products (brands) Appeal to current consumer markets Potential length of product life cycle Existence of differential advantage Impact on image Resistance to seasonal factors GENERAL CHARACTERISTICS OF NEW PRODUCTS Profit potential Existing competition Potential competition Size of market Level of investment Patentability Level of risk
  32. 32. New Product Planning Concept Testing Business Analysis <ul><li>Concept testing presents the consumer with a proposed product and measures attitudes and intentions at this early stage of development </li></ul><ul><li>Concept testing is a quick and inexpensive way of measuring consumer enthusiasm </li></ul><ul><li>Business analysis for the remaining product concepts is much more detailed than product screening </li></ul><ul><li>Because the next step is expensive and time-consuming product development, critical use of business analysis is essential to eliminate marginal items </li></ul>
  33. 33. Business Analysis Variables Time to recoup initial costs; short- and long-run total and per-unit profits; control over price; return on investment (ROI) Profitability Product planning (engineering, patent search, product development, testing); promotion; production; distribution Required investment Short-run and long-run market shares of company and competitors; strengths and weaknesses of competitors; potential competitors; likely competitive strategies in response to new product by firm Competition Total and per unit costs; use of existing facilities and resources; startup vs. continuing costs; estimates of future raw materials and other costs; econo­mies of scale; channel needs; break-even point Cost projections Price/sales relationship; short- and long-run sales potential; speed of sales growth; rate of repurchases; channel intensity Demand projections Considerations Factors
  34. 34. New Product Planning Product Development Test Marketing <ul><li>Product development converts a product idea into a physical form and identifies a basic marketing strategy </li></ul><ul><li>It involves product construction, packaging, branding, product positioning, and attitude and usage testing. </li></ul><ul><li>Test marketing involves placing a product for sale in one or more selected areas and observing its actual performance under the proposed marketing plan. </li></ul><ul><li>The purpose is to evaluate the product and pretest marketing efforts in a real setting prior to a full-scale introduction </li></ul>
  35. 35. New Product Planning Commercial-ization <ul><li>After testing is completed, the firm is ready to introduce the product to its full target market. This is commercialization and corresponds to the introductory stage of the product life cycle </li></ul><ul><li>Commercialization involves implementing a total marketing plan and full production </li></ul>
  36. 36. Promotion Mix : Advertising, Publicity, Personal Selling and Sales Promotion
  37. 37. Promotion Mix Advertising Publicity Personal Selling Sales Promotion Target Market
  38. 38. Promotion Mix A Kodak video camera displayed at consumer photography shows Retail sales personnel explaining how a Kodak video camera works Newspaper article reporting on the unique features of a Kodak video camera Television ad for a Kodak video camera Example To stimulate short-run sales, to increase impulse purchases To deal with individual consumers, to resolve questions, to close sales To reach a mass audience with an independently reported message To appeal to a mass audience at a reasonable cost, and create awareness and favorable attitudes Major goal Moderate Moderate High Moderate Credibility High High None High Control over content and placement Moderate High Low Low Flexibility Company Company No formal sponsor in that media are not paid Company Sponsor Moderate per customer High per customer None for media space and time; can be moderate costs for press releases and publicity materials Low per viewer or reader Cost Varies Specific Uniform Uniform Message Varies Small (one-to-one) Mass Mass Audience Sales Promotion Personal Selling Publicity Advertising Factor
  39. 39. Four Key Steps to Advertise Determine message content and devise an ad Specify the location of an ad (media placement) Outline a promotion schedule Choose how many variations of a basic message to utilize
  40. 40. Things to Consider in Advertising Waste Reach Waste is the portion of an audience that is not in a firm's target market. Because media appeal to mass audiences, waste is a significant factor in advertising. Reach refers to the number of viewers or readers in the audience
  41. 41. Things to Consider in Advertising Frequency Message permanence Frequency is how often a medium can be used. It is greatest for newspapers, radio, and television, where ads may appear daily and advertising strategy may be easily changed Message permanence refers to the number of exposures one advertisement gener­ates and how long it remains with the audience
  42. 42. Things to Consider in Advertising Persuasive impact Clutter Persuasive impact is the ability of a medium to stimulate consumers. Television often has the highest persuasive impact because it is able to combine audio, video, color, animation, and other appeals. Clutter involves the number of ads that are contained in a single program, issue, etc. of a medium. Clutter is low when a limited number of ads is presented and high when many ads are presented.
  43. 43. Publicity : Poor and Good Response There is an ongoing need for publicity, strong planning, and contingency plans for bad reports. There is an infrequent need for publicity; crisis fighting is used when bad reports are circulated. Overall view of publicity Profitability is explained, data (historical and current) are provided, uses of profits are detailed: research, community development. Profits are rationalized and positive effects on the economy are cited. High profits reported Extensive news releases, statistics, and spokespeople are made available to media to present company's competitive features. The advertising campaign is stepped up. Competitor introduces new product Company spokesperson states that tests are being conducted on products, describes procedure for handling defects, and answers questions. Requests for information by media are ignored, blanket denials are issued, hostility is exhibited toward reporter of story. News story about product defects Pre-introduction news releases, product samples, and testimonials are used. Advertising is used without publicity New product introduced Company spokesperson explains the cause of the fire and company precautions to avoid it and answers questions. Requests for information by media are ignored. Fire breaks out in a company plant Good Response Poor Response Situation
  44. 44. Developing a Publicity Plan Setting objectives Outlining types of publicity Selecting media Creating publicity messages Timing publicity messages
  45. 45. Publicity Type The Red Cross makes a request for aid to tornado victims. Emergency publicity Mc Kinsey presents a biography of its president and his rise through the company. Background editorial release Apple distributes photos showing all of its personal computer products and related software Pictorial release Intel announces its new, fast-speed microprocessor Product release General Electric distributes quarterly financial data about the company. Finance release A trade association offers 10 tips on how to reduce home heating costs. Service feature article Toyota explains its goals and objectives for the 2020. Business feature article Macy's describes its decision to sell its stores in the Midwest. News publicity Example Publicity Type
  46. 46. Specific Personal Selling Objectives To maintain a good appearance by all personnel in contact with consumers To follow acceptable sales practices Image-Oriented Industry and company To ensure delivery, installation, etc. To follow up after a good or service has been purchased To follow up when a repurchase is near To reassure previous customers when making a new purchase Reminding To clearly distinguish good or service attributes from those of competitors To maximize the number of sales as a per cent of presentations To convert undecided consumers into buyers To sell complementary items, e.g., film with a camera To placate dissatisfied customers Persuasion To fully explain all good and service attributes To answer any questions To probe for any further questions Demand-Oriented Information Illustrations Type of Objective
  47. 47. Personal Selling Process Prospecting (blind, lead) Approach Customer Wants Sales Presentation Answering Questions (questions and objections) Close Follow up (satisfaction, referrals, repurchase)
  48. 48. Types of Sales Promotion Publishers Clearinghouse sponsors annual sweepstakes and awards automobiles, houses, and other prices. Consumers compete for prizes by answering questions (contests) or filling out forms for random drawings of prices (sweepstakes). Contests or sweepstakes When Sunlight dishwashing liquid was introduced, free samples were mailed to consumers. Free merchandise or services are given consumers, generally for new items. Samples First Alert home fire alarms provides $5 rebates to consumers submitting proof of purchase. A consumer submits proof-of-purchase (usually to the manufacturer) and receives an extra discount. Refund or rebate P&G mails consumers a 25-cents-off coupon for Sure deodorant, which can be redeemed at any supermarket. Manufacturers or retailers advertise special discounts for customers who redeem coupons. Coupons Illustration Characteristics Type
  49. 49. Types of Sales Promotion Savings banks offer a range of gifts for consumers opening new accounts or expanding existing ones. Consumers are given gifts for making a purchase or opening a new account. Gifts Virtually every major league baseball team has an annual &quot;Old Timers' Day,&quot; which attracts large crowds. Manufacturers or retailers sponsor celebrity appearances, fashion shows, and other activities. Special events Chewing gum sales in supermarkets are high because displays arc placed at checkout counters. In-store displays remind customers and generate impulse purchases. Point-of-purchase displays Some stores run I-cent sales, whereby the consumer buys one item and gets a second one for a penny. Consumers receive discounts for purchasing in quantity Bonus or multipacks Illustration Characteristics Type
  50. 50. Sales Promotion Advantages <ul><li>It helps attract customer traffic and maintain brand or store loyalty </li></ul><ul><li>Quick results can be achieved </li></ul><ul><li>Some forms of sales promotion (calendars, t-shirts. Pens, etc) provide value to the consumer and are retained by them; and these forms can provide a reminder function </li></ul><ul><li>Impulse purchases can be increased through in-store displays </li></ul>
  51. 51. Sales Promotion Disadvantages <ul><li>The image of the firm may be lessened if it continuously runs promotions. Consumers may view discounts as representing a decline in product quality and believe the firm could not sell its offerings without them. </li></ul><ul><li>When coupons, rebates, or other special deals are used frequently, consumers may not make purchases if the items are sold at regular prices. Instead, they will stock up each time there is a promotion. </li></ul>
  52. 52. Sales Promotion Disadvantages <ul><li>Sometimes sales promotions shift the focus away from the product onto secondary factors. Consumers may be attracted by calendars, coupons, or sweepstakes instead of by product quality, functions, and durability. In the short run this generates consumer enthusiasm. In the long run this may have adverse effects on a brand's image and on sales, because a product-related differential advantage has not been developed. </li></ul>
  53. 53. Distribution Planning and Pricing Strategy
  54. 54. Distribution Planning <ul><li>Distribution planning is systematic decision making regarding the physical movement and transfer of ownership of a product from producer to consumer. </li></ul><ul><li>It includes transportation, storage, and customer transactions. </li></ul><ul><li>Distribution functions are carried out through a channel of distribution, which is comprised of all the organizations or people involved in the process. </li></ul><ul><li>These organizations or people are known as channel members or middlemen. </li></ul>
  55. 55. Intensity of Channel Coverage Many in number, convenience-oriented Moderate in number, brand conscious, somewhat willing to travel to store Few in number, trend setters, willing to travel to store, brand loyal Customers Many in number, all types of outlets Moderate in number, well-established, better stores Few in number, well-established reputable stores Channel members Widespread market coverage, channel acceptance, sales volume and profits Moderate market coverage, solid image, some channel control and loyalty, good sales and profits Prestige image, channel control and loyalty, price stability and high profit margins Objectives Intensive Distribution Selective Distribution Exclusive Distribution Characteristics
  56. 56. Intensity of Channel Coverage Groceries, household products, magazines Furniture, clothing, watches Automobiles, designer clothes, caviar Examples Limited channel control May be difficult to carve out a niche Limited sales potential Major Disadvantages Mass advertising, nearby location, items in stock Promotional mix, pleasant shopping conditions, good service Personal selling, pleasant shopping conditions, good service Marketing Emphasis Intensive Distribution Selective Distribution Exclusive Distribution Characteristics
  57. 57. Methods of Channel Cooperation Proper installation and servicing of products Product guarantees Product quality Attractive in-store displays, knowledgeable salespeople, participation in cooperative programs Sales force training, sales force incentives, development of national advertising campaign, cooperative programs Promotion Proper time allowed for delivery, shipments immediately checked for accuracy Prompt filling of orders, adherence to scheduled dates Delivery Good shelf location and space, enthusiasm for product, assistance in test marketing Thorough testing, adequate promotional support New-product introduction Channel Member Action Manufacturer Action Factor
  58. 58. Pushing and Pulling Strategy Manufacturer Channel members Consumers Manufacturer Channel members Consumers Pushing Strategy Pulling Strategy
  59. 59. Price Planning A Price Represents the value of a good or service for both the seller and the buyer Price Planning Systematic decision making by an organization regarding all aspects of pricing
  60. 60. Factors Affecting Pricing Decisions Consumers Competitors Channel Members Government Cost Total Effects on Price Decisions
  61. 61. Consumers and Price Decisions Consumers <ul><li>The relationship between price and consumer purchases and perceptions is explained by two economic principles — the law of demand and price elasticity of demand </li></ul><ul><li>The law of demand states that consumers usually purchase more units at a low price than at a high price </li></ul><ul><li>The price elasticity of demand defines the sensitivity of buyers to price changes in terms of the quantities they will purchase </li></ul>
  62. 62. Elastic Demand <ul><li>Elastic demand occurs if relatively small changes in price result in large changes in quantity demanded </li></ul><ul><li>Numerically, price elasticity is greater than 1 </li></ul><ul><li>With elastic demand, total revenue goes up when prices are decreased and goes down when prices rise </li></ul><ul><li>Inelastic demand takes place if price changes have little impact on quantity demanded </li></ul><ul><li>Price elasticity is less than 1 </li></ul><ul><li>With inelastic demand, total revenue goes up when prices are raised and goes down when prices decline </li></ul>In-elastic Demand Consumers and Price Decisions
  63. 63. Unitary Demand <ul><li>Unitary demand exists if changes in price are exactly offset by changes in quantity demanded, so that total sales revenue remains constant. </li></ul><ul><li>Price elasticity is 1 </li></ul>Consumers and Price Decisions
  64. 64. Competitors and Price Decisions Competitors <ul><li>Another element contributing to the degree of control a firm has over prices is the competitive environment within which it operates </li></ul>
  65. 65. Market-controlled price environment <ul><li>Characterized by a high level of com­petition, similar goods and services, and little control over price by individual companies </li></ul><ul><li>Characterized by moderate competi­tion, well-differentiated goods and services, and strong control over price by individual firms </li></ul>Company-controlled priced environment Competitors and Price Decisions
  66. 66. Government-controlled price environment <ul><li>Characterized by prices set by the government. Examples are public utilities, buses, taxis, and state universities </li></ul>Competitors and Price Decisions
  67. 67. Channel Members and Price Decisions Channel Members <ul><li>A wholesaler or retailer can gain stronger control over price by stressing its importance as a customer to the manufacturer, refusing to carry unprofitable product, stocking competitive items, and developing strong dealer brands so that consumers are loyal to the seller and not the manufacturer </li></ul><ul><li>Sometimes retailers engage in selling against the brand, whereby they stock merchandise, place high prices on it, and then sell other brands for lower prices. This is often done to increase the sales of their own brands </li></ul>
  68. 68. Channel Members and Price Decisions Channel Members <ul><li>To ensure channel member cooperation with price decisions, the manufacturer needs to consider four factors: channel member profit margins, price guarantees, special deals, and the impact of price increases </li></ul>
  69. 69. Government and Price Decisions Government Price fixing regulations Prohibitions against price discrimination among channel members Unfair sales acts : predatory pricing
  70. 70. Cost and Price Decisions Cost Cost of raw materials and supplies Labor cost Advertising Cost Distribution Cost Pricing Decisions
  71. 71. Price Strategy Cost-based Price Strategy Demand-based Price Strategy Competition-based Price Strategy Price Strategy
  72. 72. Price Strategy Cost-based Price Strategy Demand-based Price Strategy With a cost-based price strategy, the marketer sets prices by computing merchandise, service, and overhead costs, and then adding the desired profit to these figures The marketer sets prices after researching con­sumer desires and ascertaining the range of prices acceptable to the target market
  73. 73. Price Strategy Competition-based Price Strategy <ul><li>The marketer sets prices in accordance with competitors </li></ul><ul><li>Prices may be below the market, at the market, or above the mar­ket, depending on customer loyalty, services provided, image, real or perceived differences between brands or stores, and the competitive environment </li></ul>
  74. 74. Recommended Further Readings <ul><li>Joel Evans and Barry Berman, Marketing , Prentice Hall </li></ul><ul><li>Phillip Kotler, Marketing Management , Prentice Hall </li></ul>
  75. 75. End of Material