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The CloudStack developmentstory and future visionSheng Liang, CTO Cloud Platforms, Citrix SystemsAugust 29, 2012
AWS is setting the standard…as measured by capacity… Total Number of Objects Stored in Amazon S3 Every day through 2011, 762B AWS added the same Peak Requests: amount of server 500,000+ per second processing capacity, on average, that it took to run 262B the Amazon online retailing 102B operation in 2000, when it 2.9B 14B 40B was a $2.76bn company. Q4 2006 Q4 2007 Q4 2008 Q4 2009 Q4 2010 Q4 2011 Prickett-Morgan. “AWS Cloud Double Fluffs in 2011.” The Source: UBS Register, 6 Jan 2012.
…data center footprint and geographicdistribution… …the company said that with the opening of its AWS data center in São Paulo, Brazil in mid- December, the company has doubled its AWS data- center footprint. AWS Regions Amazon Edge Locations (CloudFront & Route 53) Prickett-Morgan. “AWS Cloud Double Fluffs in 2011.” The Register, 6 Jan 2012.
…and, most importantly, revenue… $M Amazon Web Services Revenue Model $1,400 It has been estimated $1,200 All Other that AWS could be a $1 $1,000 billion business for the $800 online retailer come $600 next year…could hit $400 $2.5B in 2014. $200 $0 Hickey, Andrew. “Amazon Q3 Cloud Revenue 2006e 2007e 2008e 2009e 2010e 2011e Skyrockets” CRN. 26 Oct 2011. Source: UBS
How did Amazon build its Cloud? Amazon eCommerce Platform AWS API (EC2, S3, …) Amazon Proprietary Orchestration Software Open Source Xen Hypervisor Networking Servers Storage
How can we build a cloud using CloudStack? Amazon eCommerce Platform User Portal AWS API (EC2, S3, …) Cloud API “Cloud OS or Data Center Amazon Proprietary CloudStack Software Apache Orchestration OS” VMware KVM OVM XenServer Hyper-V Bare-Metal Open Source Xen Hypervisor Networking Servers Storage
The Virtual Datacenter OS allows businesses to efficientlypool all types of hardware resources - servers, storage andnetwork – into an aggregated on-premise cloud VMware press release Sept 15, 2008
Eucalyptus is the only cloud architecture to support thesame application programming interfaces (APIs) as publicclouds, and today Eucalyptus is fully compatible with theAmazon AWS public cloud infrastructure. Eucalyptus Systems Press Release April 2009
2.0 AWS 2.2 3.0 Quality 4.X Prototype 1.0 GA Refactor Compatibility Refactor Improvements Refactor2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 Sept 2008: Nov 2009: May 2010: July 2011: April 2012: VMOps CloudStack Cloud.com Citrix Apache Founded 1.0 GA Launch & Acquires CloudStack CloudStack Cloud.com 2.0 GA
2.0 AWS 2.2 3.0 Quality 4.X Prototype 1.0 GA Refactor Compatibility Refactor Improvements Refactor2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 • Initial target: hosting companies like Rackspace and Savvis • 3 engineers built a fully functional prototype in 5 months • Use the demo to sell to early customers (ReliaCloud, CloudCentral, 1800hosting.com, Go Daddy, etc.)
2.0 AWS 2.2 3.0 Quality 4.X Prototype 1.0 GA Refactor Compatibility Refactor Improvements Refactor2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 • Took 6 more months to make 1.0 software production ready • Deployed on 5 production customers
2.0 AWS 2.2 3.0 Quality 4.X Prototype 1.0 GA Refactor Compatibility Refactor Improvements Refactor2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 • Product first, architecture second • From web hosting to enterprise workload • Multi-hypervisor, SAN, and VLAN support • Learn needs of enterprise workload from: Tata Communications, Korea Telecom, Macquarie Telecom • Competition: vCloud Express
2.0 AWS 2.2 3.0 Quality 4.X Prototype 1.0 GA Refactor Compatibility Refactor Improvements Refactor2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 • Private cloud demand picked up • Zynga wanted private cloud • Support Amazon-style flat networking and security groups • Competition: Eucalyptus
2.0 AWS 2.2 3.0 Quality 4.X Prototype 1.0 GA Refactor Compatibility Refactor Improvements Refactor2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 • Second major refactoring of CloudStack code • Network-as-a-service combing both Amazon and traditional style networking • More flexible orchestration engine
2.0 AWS 2.2 3.0 Quality 4.X Prototype 1.0 GA Refactor Compatibility Refactor Improvements Refactor2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 • Citrix acquisition • Rapid growth of CloudStack user base • Quality is more important than new features
2.0 AWS 2.2 3.0 Quality 4.X Prototype 1.0 GA Refactor Compatibility Refactor Improvements Refactor2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 • Third major refactoring of CloudStack code • Apache contribution drive rapid growth of CloudStack developer base • Apache license compliance • Services framework • Hadoop integration
+• Optimize Hadoop on cloud infrastructure• Use HDFS as object store
How is cloud different from legacyinfrastructure?
• Server failure comes from: 8% ᵒ70% - hard disk ᵒ - RAID controller 6% ᵒ - memory 5% ᵒ18% - other factors • Application can still fail for Annual Failure Rate of servers other reasons: ᵒNetwork failure ᵒSoftware bugs Kashi Venkatesh Vishwanath and ᵒHuman admin error Nachiappan Nagappan, Characterizing Cloud Computing Hardware Reliability, SoCC’10 #CitrixSynergy23
Internet Core Routers … Access Routers Aggregation Switches Load Balancers… Top of Rack Switches Servers
• Bugs in failover 40% Effectiveness of network redundancy in reducing failures mechanism • Incorrect configuration • Protocol issues such as TCP back- off, timeouts, and Phillipa Gill, Navendu Jain & Nachiappan spanning tree Nagappan, Understanding Network Failures in Data Centers: Measurement, Analysis reconfiguration and Implications, SIGCOMM 2011 #CitrixSynergy25
Cloud workloads Traditional-Style Amazon-StyleReliable hardware, backup entire Tell users to expect failure.cloud, and restore for users when Users to build apps that canfailure happens withstand infrastructure failure Link Aggregation VM Backup/Snapshots Storage Multi-pathing Ephemeral Resources VM HA, Fault Tolerance Chaos Monkey VM Live Migration Multi-site Redundancy
Designing a zone for a traditional workload HypervisorTraditional-Style Availability Zone vSphere or XenServer Enterprise vCenter/XenCenter Storage Enterprise Networking (e.g., VLAN) SAN Networking Hypervisor Hypervisor Hypervisor L2 VLANs Cluster Cluster Cluster Network Services Enterprise Storage (e.g., SAN) Load Balancing VPN Multi-tier Apps Multi-tier VLANs OVF
Designing a zone for an Amazon-style workload Amazon-Style Availability Zone Software Defined Networks Hypervisor (e.g., Security Groups, EIP, ELB,...) XenServer Advanced Server Server Server Server Storage Racks Racks Racks Racks Local EBS Object store Server Server Server Server Networking Racks Racks Racks Racks L3 SDN based L2 Elastic IP Server Server Server Server Network Services Racks Racks Racks Racks Security Groups ELB GSLB Elastic Block Storage Multi-tier Apps 3rd Party Tools (e.g., RightScale, enStratus CloudFormation )
CloudStack can Support Both Styles Apache CloudStack Traditional Traditional AWS-style AWS-style AWS-style Style Style Availability Availability Availability Availability Availability Zone Zone Zone Zone Zone
146 Companies 238 Developers Global User Groups Service Providers 100’s of Production Clouds 32,000 Community Members Enterprises Universities
Apache CloudStack community projects• SDN • Smart Storage ᵒNicira ᵒHadoop + S3 API for object store ᵒMidokura ᵒNetApp (FlexPod, object store) ᵒBig Switch Networks ᵒBasho RIAK CS ᵒStratosphere ᵒCaringo object store ᵒCloudian S3• Backup/DR ᵒSungard • PaaS ᵒCloudFoundry implementation through• Networking IronFoundry and Stackato teams ᵒCisco (VXLAN, Nexus) ᵒEngine Yard ᵒBrocade (ADX) ᵒCumulogic ᵒGigaSpaces
“The Apache Way”• Collaborative software development• Commercial-friendly standard license• Consistently high quality software• Respectful, honest, technical-based interaction• Faithful implementation of standards• Security as a mandatory feature