Thorax and Abdomin


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Thorax and Abdomin

  1. 1. chapter 20 <ul><li>Thorax and Abdomen </li></ul>Author name here for Edited books The Thorax and Abdomen
  2. 2. Functional Anatomy <ul><li>Thoracic Cavity </li></ul><ul><li>Three sections </li></ul><ul><li>Two separate pleural cavities housing the left and right lungs </li></ul><ul><li>Mediastinum which houses the heart, the thoracic parts of the great vessels, the trachea, and the left and right bronchi </li></ul>
  3. 3. Thoracic Cavity & Skeletal Rib Cage
  4. 4. Functional Anatomy <ul><li>Abdominal Cavity (Divided into four quadrants) </li></ul><ul><li>Contains the hollow and solid organs </li></ul><ul><li>Stomach Large and small intestines </li></ul><ul><li>Ureters Bladder </li></ul><ul><li>Liver Spleen </li></ul><ul><li>Pancreas Kidneys </li></ul>
  5. 5. Organs of the Abdominal Cavity
  6. 6. Posterior View
  7. 7. Cardiovascular System <ul><li>Most cardiovascular conditions are serious. </li></ul><ul><li>Injury and illness can alter the balance that controls blood pressure and volume and can alter the body's homeostatic mechanisms. </li></ul><ul><li>It is important to recognizing the signs and symptoms, causes, and potential consequences of these illnesses and conditions and the timely referral of these conditions. </li></ul>
  8. 8. Hypertrophic Cardiomyopathy <ul><li>Serious disease of the myocardium result </li></ul><ul><li>in the enlargement of the muscle cells of the ventricular septum and left ventricular walls </li></ul><ul><li>Unknown etiology </li></ul><ul><li>Enlarged left ventricle is abnormally stiff, causing a backflow of blood to the atria and lungs and a reduced blood flow to the body </li></ul><ul><li>Signs and symptoms include shortness of breath, angina, dizziness, and fainting </li></ul>
  9. 9. Hypertrophic Cardiomyopathy <ul><li>Often undetected </li></ul><ul><li>Has a wide range of effects </li></ul><ul><li>No symptoms  normal life </li></ul><ul><li>Progressive symptoms that limit activity </li></ul><ul><li>Sudden death during physical activity </li></ul><ul><li>These athletes have no idea that they have the condition. </li></ul>
  10. 10. Cardiac Contusion <ul><li>MOI: blunt trauma to the chest in which the heart is compressed between the sternum and the spine. </li></ul><ul><li>Signs and symptoms </li></ul><ul><li>Chest pain Neck vein distension </li></ul><ul><li>Possible arrhythmia Muffled heart tones </li></ul><ul><li>Changes in an electrocardiogram </li></ul><ul><li>Signs and symptoms of shock or respiratory or cardiac distress may also be present </li></ul><ul><li>Requires immediate medical referral </li></ul>
  11. 11. Cardiac Concussion <ul><li>Characterized by immediate cardiac arrest and sudden death due to a localized, blunt trauma </li></ul><ul><li>Blow to the chest from a sport implement </li></ul><ul><li>Immediate collapse </li></ul><ul><li>Sudden death </li></ul><ul><li>MOI is uncertain </li></ul><ul><li>Premature heart beat precipitated by the impact  ventricular fibrillation </li></ul><ul><li>Resuscitation often fails </li></ul><ul><li>Importance of having an AED </li></ul>
  12. 12. Respiratory System <ul><li>Lung Infections </li></ul><ul><li>Asthma </li></ul><ul><li>Internal Injuries </li></ul>
  13. 13. Lung Infections <ul><li>Bronchitis </li></ul><ul><li>Inflammation of the bronchial tree </li></ul><ul><li>Acute & Chronic </li></ul><ul><li>Acute Bronchitis </li></ul><ul><ul><li>associated with a URI </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>or occurs secondary to a bacterial infection </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>nasal discharge, slight fever, general achiness, and sore throat </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Hissing or Crackling (rales) may be heard with ausculation </li></ul></ul>
  14. 14. Lung Infections <ul><li>Bronchitis </li></ul><ul><li>Inflammation of the bronchial tree </li></ul><ul><li>Acute & Chronic </li></ul><ul><li>Chronic Bronchitis </li></ul><ul><ul><li>occurs commonly in adults </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Results from such diseases as emphysema or pulmonary fibrosis </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Common for smokers </li></ul></ul>
  15. 15. Lung Infections <ul><li>Bronchitis </li></ul><ul><li>Inflammation of the bronchial tree </li></ul><ul><li>Acute & Chronic </li></ul><ul><li>Treatment </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Bed rest until fever is reduced </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Medication for symptom relief </li></ul></ul>
  16. 16. Asthma <ul><li>Respiratory condition characterized by paroxysms of dyspnea, coughing, and wheezing </li></ul><ul><li>Usually triggered by an environmental irritant, allergen, medication, or exercise </li></ul><ul><li>Causes a reactive narrowing of the </li></ul><ul><ul><li>trachea, </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>bronchi, </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>bronchioles </li></ul></ul>
  17. 17. Asthma <ul><li>Signs and symptoms </li></ul><ul><ul><li>acute episode </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>spasmodic coughing </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>chest pain and tightness </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>wheezing </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>increased heart rate </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>rapid and shallow breathing </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>may eventually appear cyanotic </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Treatment </li></ul><ul><ul><li>-Common medications include bronchial dilators </li></ul></ul>
  18. 18. Exercise-Induced Asthma <ul><li>Symptoms of reactive airway disease only occurs with exercise </li></ul><ul><li>Usually does not include lung inflammation </li></ul><ul><li>Unknown etiology </li></ul><ul><li>Occurs in young athletes with no history of asthma </li></ul><ul><li>Repetitive cough and slight wheezing either during intense exercise or after activity </li></ul><ul><li>Athletes may feel that they lack endurance </li></ul><ul><li>Feel out of shape, very fatigued </li></ul>
  19. 19. Pneumothorax <ul><li>Surrounding each lung is a pleural sac. </li></ul><ul><li>Parietal Pleura – adheres to the external wall of the pleural cavity </li></ul><ul><li>Viseral pleura – adheres to the surface of the lungs </li></ul><ul><li>Serous fluid – </li></ul><ul><ul><li>between the 2 layers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>it reduces friction </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Allows the two layers to move freely on one another during breathing </li></ul></ul>
  20. 20. Pneumothorax <ul><li>Occurs when air enters the pleural sac, separating the lung from the chest wall and reducing its volume </li></ul><ul><li>The lung collapses </li></ul><ul><li>Penetrating Injury </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Rib fracture </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Hard blow to the chest </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Spontaneous pneumothorax occurs more often in sport as a result of small ruptures in the outer surface of the lung </li></ul>
  21. 21. Pneumothorax
  22. 22. Spontaneous Pneumothorax <ul><li>Occurs more often in sport as a result of small ruptures in the outer surface of the lung. </li></ul><ul><li>MOI: Intense bout of activity </li></ul><ul><li>Signs and symptoms </li></ul><ul><li>Upper chest pain </li></ul><ul><li>Dyspnea (difficulty with breathing) </li></ul><ul><li>Shortness of breath, Light-headedness </li></ul><ul><li>Decreased breath sounds upon auscultation, Cyanosis may be evident </li></ul><ul><li>Requires immediate referral </li></ul>
  23. 23. Organs of the Abdominal Cavity
  24. 24. Abdominal Internal Injuries <ul><li>Internal injuries are less likely to occur to the hollow organs </li></ul><ul><li>Solid abdominal organs as highly vascularized structures that hemorrhage significantly if injured </li></ul><ul><li>Suspect internal abdominal injury with direct blunt trauma to the abdomen </li></ul>
  25. 25. Posterior View
  26. 26. Abdominal Internal Injuries <ul><li>Splenic rupture </li></ul><ul><li>Most common cause of death due to abdominal trauma in sport </li></ul><ul><li>A rapidly progressive injury </li></ul><ul><li>If not detected early can lead to internal hemorrhage and possible death </li></ul><ul><li>Sits in the URQ </li></ul><ul><li>Protected by the 9 th & 10 th rib </li></ul><ul><li>Reservoir for RBC, produces antibodies that help fight infection and illness </li></ul>
  27. 27. Abdominal Internal Injuries <ul><li>Splenic rupture </li></ul><ul><li>Athlete is most susceptible to injury after a systemic illness, such as mononucleosis (spleen enlarges) </li></ul><ul><li>Signs and symptoms </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Upper left quadrant flank pain and nausea </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Shock </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Abdominal rigidity and rebound tenderness </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Positive Kehr's sign (pain radiating into left shoulder and partially into arm) </li></ul></ul>
  28. 28. Abdominal Internal Injuries <ul><li>Kidney contusion </li></ul><ul><li>Results from a severe blow to the lower back between T12 and L3 </li></ul><ul><li>Signs and symptoms </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Deep ache in lower back </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Muscle guarding </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Hematuria (may require urinalysis) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Nausea and vomiting </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Possible shock </li></ul></ul>