GIS is a relatively broad term, that can refer to anumber of technologies, processes, so it is attachedto many operations, in engineering, planning,management, transport/logistics and analysis.WHAT CAN YOU DO WITH GIS
GIS as it applies to Petroleum ExplorationIn order to recognize the subsurface geologic body comprehensively, allkind of ways are used synthetically in Petroleum Exploration.• Discovering and assessing oil and gas deposits require informationintegration culled from geology, drilling and GIS.• By gathering geophysical data to narrow the search area within largefields, exploration crews can refine their targets and apply seismictechniques more efficiently. Combining seismic and gravity methodsenables oil explorers to better define and focus projects early on, andminimize the risk of conducting expensive investigation before potentialis determined.
Ecological Engineering ApplicationEcological engineering is an emerging study ofintegrating ecology and engineering concerned withthe design, monitoring, and constructionof ecosystem. It is also known as the study of theenvironment as it relates to living or dead organisms.• A GIS based model was used in testing effects ofrestoration measures in wetlands by Prof Jar slawChormaoski University of life Science Poland.
Highlights:► The degree of degradation of wetland vegetation andsoils can be related to groundwater conditions. ► Established relation between soils, vegetation andgroundwater allows using the latter as a predictor.► Exclusion of the existing drainage system can causepositive effects on wetland vegetation.► other considered restoration scenarios do not showthe potential of change in wetland state.► Presented approach contains uncertainty whichcannot be easily quantified for soil and vegetationmapping.
BIOMASS MAP OF USA• It is a typical representation of biomass resource from Methaneemission.• Biomass is said to be the total mass of living matter in a given unitarea, in this map America has used the technological-know-how ofGIS to collect mapped data of methane emission frombiodegradable substances such as plant materials and animals andused them as Fuel.• Methane: Atmospheric methane is one of the most potent andinfluential greenhouse gases on earth, and the relative abundancemakes an attractive fuel. CH4 + CL CH3 + HCL
In this Process maps of the following are collected via GISCrop residuesThe following crops were included in this analysis: corn, wheat, soybeans,cotton, sorghum, barley, oats, rice, rye, canola, dry edible beans, dry edible peas,peanuts, potatoes, safflower, sunflower, sugarcane, and flaxseed. The quantitiesof crop residues that can be available in each county are estimated using totalgrain production, crop to residue ratio, moisture content, and taking intoconsideration the amount of residue left on the field for soil protection, grazing,and other agricultural activities. Source: USDA, National Agricultural StatisticsService; five-year average: 2003-2007.
Forest residuesThis category includes logging residues and other removablematerial left after carrying out silviculture operations and siteconversions. Logging residue comprises unused portions oftrees, cut or killed by logging and left in the woods. Otherremovable materials are the unutilized volume of trees cut orkilled during logging operations. Source: USDA, ForestServices Timber Product Output database, 2007.Primary mill residuesPrimary mill residues include wood materials (coarse and fine) and barkgenerated at manufacturing plants (primary wood-using mills) when roundwood products are processed into primary wood products, such as slabs,edgings, trimmings, sawdust, veneer clippings and cores, and pulp screenings.Source: USDA, Forest Services Timber Product Output database, 2007.
Secondary mill residuesSecondary mill residues include wood scraps and sawdust fromwoodworking shops — furniture factories, wood container and palletmills, and wholesale lumberyards. Data on the number of businesses bycounty was gathered from the U.S. Census Bureau, 2009 CountyBusiness Patterns. Urban wood wasteUrban wood waste includes wood residues from MSW (wood chips andpallets), utility tree trimming and/or private tree companies, andconstruction and demolition sites. Source: U.S. Census Bureau, 2010Population data; BioCycle Journal: "State of Garbage in America",January 2008; County Business Patterns 2009.
Methan emmission from landfillsMethane emissions from landfillsThe methane emissions are estimated for each landfill considering totalwaste in place, landfill size, and location (arid or non-arid climate), andthen aggregated to county level. Note: this dataset doesnt include alllandfills in the United States due to gaps in either precise geographiclocation or waste in place. Source: EPA, Landfill Methane OutreachProgram (LMOP), April 2008.landfilMethane emmission from manure managementThe following animal types were included in this analysis: dairy cows,beef cows, hogs and pigs, sheep, chickens and layers, broilers, and turkey.The methane emissions were calculated by animal type and manuremanagement system at a county level. Source: USDA, NationalAgricultural Statistics Service, 2002 data.
Transport or transportation : Is the movement of people, animalsand goods from one location to another. Model of transport include air,rail road, cable, pipeline, and space. The field can be dividedinto infrastructure, vehicle and operation. Transport is important since itenables trade between people, which in turn establishes civilizations.Digitalization of Road transport Infrastructure:As much as transport playing a vital role the economic growth of anycountry, With the use of GIS, satellite imageries are collected to help out inthe building/construction of roads and bridges across various Cities andtowns.
Transportation helps shape an area’s economic health and quality oflife. Not only does the transportation system provide for the mobility ofpeople and goods, it also influences patterns of growth and economicactivity by providing access to land.The demand for transport infrastructure and services in Nigeria is fastrising predominantly as rail services are being introduced in the nearfuture.
ICT/ GPS MOBILE TRANSPORT MAP APPLICATIONSMobile Transport GPS:These is a technology that helps you KEEP track ON anythingfrom your mobile device or your computer, be it car, phone etc.
GIS APPLICATION AND LAND-USE PLANNING• GIS has served as one of the world’s veritable source of income. GIS based mapping application address various spatial need of land Register.• Provides tamper-proof Records for GIS land information, which hereby reduces social conflicts on land and Litigation.• Provides detailed planning for new estates infrastructure and environmental development.• Especially for those into real estate/ urban regional planning.
Enhancement of (IGR) on Land based transaction.
WATER DISTRIBUTION:• Water supply is the provision of water by public utilities, commercial organizations, community endeavors or by individuals, usually via a system of pumps and pipes. Irrigation is covered separately.• GIS helps in the digitalization of pipe line Infrastructure.
As we continue to study deep and make researches toour scope,We’ll timely affect positively the rapid growth andtechnologicalDevelopment of our Country and the African Continentat large.