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The Great War

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Causes, events and technology of World War One.

Causes, events and technology of World War One.

Published in: Education, News & Politics

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  • 1. Legacy of the Congress of Vienna
    • Peace for 100 years
    • Nationalism
    • Ideas about power and authority changed
    • Democracy now seen as best option
  • 2.
    • Journal #5,
    • Would you ALWAYS support a friend, no matter what?
    • Why/ Why not?
    Header image courtesy of: www.usgennet.org/.../ preservation/dav1/pg185.htm
  • 3.
    • MAIN Causes of the Great War
      • M ilitarism
      • A lliances
      • I mperialism
      • N ationalism
    Header image courtesy of: www.usgennet.org/.../ preservation/dav1/pg185.htm
  • 4. Triple Entente Britain France Russia Triple Alliance Italy Germany Austria VS. Alliances
  • 5.
    • How did these alliances start?
    • 1871 – Germany is a ‘satisfied power’
      • Aimed now at keeping peace
      • France is biggest threat to peace
      • Try to isolate France by taking away allies
    • 1879 – Germany forms Dual Alliance
      • Germany
      • Austria-Hungary
      • 3 years later, Italy joins forming the Triple Alliance
    • 1881 – Germany signs treaty with Russia
      • taking another ally away from France.
    http://www.worldwar1.com/tlalli.htm#dual – For a complete timeline of all alliances
  • 6. Kaiser Wilhelm II
    • German Ruler
    • “ I and the army were born for one another”
  • 7.
    • 1890 – new German leader allows treaty with Russia to lapse
    • Russia retorts by forming an alliance with France
      • just what Germany didn’t want
      • Germany would be forced to fight from two sides
    • Germany starts building ships comparable to British ships
  • 8.
    • Britain reacts by forming an alliance with France
    • 1907 – Britain then makes another treaty with Russia and France, forming the Triple Entente
    • Britain was not bound to fight with France and Russia, but rather promised not to fight against them.
  • 9. Images courtesy of: www.spartacus.schoolnet.co.uk/ FWWtriple.htm
  • 10.
    • 1908 – Austria annexed Bosnia and Herzegovina
    • Serbia who had hoped to rule these provinces became upset.
    • Tension between Serbia and Austria grew…
      • Serbia continually vowed to take the land back
      • Austria continually vowed to crush any Serbian effort of the land…
    • Eventually the heir to the Austrian throne was killed by a Serbian nationalist …
  • 11.
    • This was the “trigger” that started it all…
    • June 1914
      • Archduke Franz Ferdinand, Heir to the Austrio-Hungary throne and his wife shot dead while visiting the capital of Serbia.
      • Assassins were Serbian,
      • Austria used the assassinations as an excuse to punish Serbia.
      • Austria gave Serbia an ultimatum, in which Serbia only honored a few demands
      • Austria was upset with this and declared war on Serbia.
      • That same day Russian troops were ordered towards the Austrian border….
      • War was now inevitable.
  • 12. What “triggered” the War?
    • http://videos.howstuffworks.com/hsw/22679-world-war-i-the-assassination-of-archduke-ferdinand-video.htm
  • 13. Neutral Countries: Netherlands, Scandinavia, Spain, Switzerland Triple Entente Britain France Russia Triple Alliance Italy Germany Austria VS. Allied Powers Britain France Russia Italy Japan Central Powers Italy Germany Austria Bulgaria Ottoman Empire Italy Germany Austria
  • 14.
    • MAIN Causes of the Great War (Review)
      • M ilitarism
      • A lliances
      • I mperialism
      • N ationalism
    Header image courtesy of: www.usgennet.org/.../ preservation/dav1/pg185.htm
      • What was the one thing that “triggered” it all….
  • 15.
    • Journal #5
      • How has technology effected warfare?
      • Can you name anything we use today on a regular basis that was originally designed for war?
  • 16.
    • This picture epitomizes 3 of the major characteristics of war during this time.
    • What do you think they are?
    Trenches Gas Masks Machine Guns Images Courtesy of Temple History Department ( www.Temple.edu/history/ ) and www.spartacus.schoolnet.co.uk/ FWWnieuport.htm and www.avault.com/featured/hidden/uboat.asp and www.msu.edu/user/ storto/afvwwi.htm
  • 17. World War One Firsts
    • http://www.history.com/videos/wwi-firsts#wwi-firsts
  • 18. Technology of killing There were new weapons not being used efficiently because they weren’t completely understood
    • Airplanes - of little importance in battle
      • Fun Facts about planes in the war…
    • Machine guns - very effective
      • Mow troops down, considered a ‘weapon of mass destruction’
    • Mustard Gas
      • Quickly became ineffective because of gas masks
      • Wind could blow gas back on aggressor
  • 19. Planes
    • The early years of war saw canvas-and-wood aircraft used primarily to function as mobile observation vehicles.
      • This was an improvement over the vulnerable Zeppelin and the immobile observation balloon.
    • Enemy pilots at first exchanged waves and later progressed to throwing bricks and other objects
      • (grenades and sometimes rope, which they hoped would tangle their enemy's propeller), which eventually progressed to guns.
    • Once the guns were mounted to their planes, the era of air combat began.
    Image - www.spartacus.schoolnet.co.uk/ FWWnieuport.htm
  • 20. Helmets
    • patented in 1915 by the Briton John L. Brodie
  • 21. Grenades
    • http://science.howstuffworks.com/grenade2.htm
    • http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Grenades
  • 22. Chemical Warfare
    • Chemical warfare was a major distinguishing factor of the war.
    • Only a small portion of casualties were caused by gas
      • Caused blindness and death by choking
      • achieved harassment and psychological effects.
    • Effective countermeasures to gas were found in gas masks
      • Its effectiveness was diminished.
      • Wind could blow gases back at aggressor
  • 23. Machine Guns
    • combination of machine guns and barbed wire responsible for greatest # of deaths
    • Guns now lighter and more mobile
      • Maxim gun from earlier wars had wheels
    • BAR (Browning Automatic Rifle)
      • Gas operated
      • 16 to 19 lbs.
      • Semi or fully automatic
  • 24. Tanks
    • Armored combat vehicle used mostly for crossing rough terrain and over barbed wire.
    • Introduced by the British in 1916
    • Armored cars used before tanks
    The name tank came when the British shipped them in crates marked "tanks“ trying to cover up what they really were Image - www.msu.edu/user/ storto/afvwwi.htm
  • 25. Submarines / U-Boats
    • German (unterseeboot)
    • Primary targets were merchant convoys bringing supplies from the United States and Canada to Europe
      • Lusitania
    Unrestricted Submarine Warfare – means you don’t have to give warning before destroying Image -- http://www.gwpda.org/naval/ub1-type.gif
  • 26.
    • Trench warfare arose when there was a revolution in firepower without similar advances in mobility and communications
    Image Courtesy of Temple History Department (www.Temple.edu/history/)
    • Trenches –
  • 27. Trenches… Images Courtesy of Temple History Department (www.Temple.edu/history/)
  • 28. Communication
    • Communication :
    • radios and telephones vital for the troops in trenches.
    • dogs and pigeons
    • Hot air balloons?
  • 29. http://www.studiolarz.com/speakman/wwi/trench01.html
  • 30. Looking ahead…
    • Early highlights of the war
    • United States’ involvement
    • Recruiting
    • Propaganda
    Image courtesy of Bishop Museum archive photos of World War I
  • 31. Neutral Countries: Netherlands, Scandinavia, Spain, Switzerland Triple Entente Britain France Russia Triple Alliance Italy Germany Austria VS. Allied Powers Britain France Russia Italy Japan Central Powers Italy Germany Austria Bulgaria Ottoman Empire Italy Germany Austria
  • 32. The U.S. Gets Involved
    • The Sinking of the Lusitania
    Image courtesy of moana.patentes.com/ gl/biografias/galeria-5.htm
  • 33.
    • Woodrow Wilson, President of the United States.
      • Wanted to remain neutral
      • But was secretly looking for an excuse to join war…
      • he found one…
    Image Courtesy of Temple History Department (www.Temple.edu/history/)
  • 34.
    • America Joins the Fight
    • • Germany seeks to control Atlantic Ocean to stop supplies to Britain
    • • Uses unrestricted submarine warfare
    • - ships near Britain sunk without warning
    • War Goes Global – see page 852
  • 35. The Sinking of the Lusitania
    • http://videos.howstuffworks.com/discovery/34620-sinking-of-the-lusitania-the-world-reacts-video.htm
  • 36. Was the sinking of the Lusitania justified?
    • U.S. claimed the Lusitania carried an innocent cargo
    • Lusitania was in fact heavily armed;*
      • 1,248 cases shells
      • 4,927 boxes of cartridges (1,000 round/box)
      • 2,000 cases of small-arms ammunition
    *Information from Howard Zinn’s A People’s History of the United States
  • 37.  
  • 38. Image Courtesy of Temple History Department (www.Temple.edu/history/)
  • 39. Bibliography
    • http://www.garrettcollege.edu/faculty/bluers -
    • Temple History Department ( http://www.temple.edu/history/01wandsout.html )
    • A People’s History of the United States – Howard Zinn, author
    • McDougal Littell – World History, Patterns of Interaction , text book
    • http://www.spartacus.schoolnet.co.uk
    • http://www.revision-notes.co.uk/revision/927.html
    • http://www.wikipedia.org/