Hey… What’s the Big Idea?• How does geography play a role in the development of Greek culture?• Why is government important?• What factors led to the decline of the Greek civilization?• How does war affect society?• What is the legacy of Greek Culture?• What can America learn from Greece?
Note Taking Strategies…• Cornell Style..• 2 columns – Record – take notes, main ideas and facts – Reduce – summaries the notes you’ve taken – Recite – read only your summary and practice – Reflect – read all and find connections/relationships – Review – to retain… 20 minutes/week
More strategies..• Short hand – abbreviate and use symbols Examples: - civilization = cvzn - Greek = gk - BCE and CE = b.• Don’t worry about spelling or mistakes… keep writing…
Greek Civilization• Grew from Minoan and Mycenaean civilizations.• Both thrived in the Aegean area for 1,400 years (2500 BCE to 1100 BCE)• Minoans – lived on Crete (an island)• Mycenaean – lived on the mainland
Today’s Essential Question• How does geography play a role in the development of Greek culture?• http://prezi.com/idsr8vitowic/greek-geography/
Marathon• 490 B.C. - Athenian troops defeated a large Persian invasion force on the plain of Marathon, (about 25 miles from Athens)• Athenians sent a military courier named Phidippides to bring news of the victory at Marathon.• "Rejoice, we conquer”• Then he died.
Olympic Games• Every 4 years at Olympia• Greek Men• 776 BCE until 393 CE• Abolished by Christian Byzantine Emperor Theodosius I. (EC… Why?) http://www.perseus.tufts.edu/Olympics/
OlympicsMain Sports• Boxing• Discus (part of Pentathlon)• Equestrian Events• Javelin (part of Pentathlon)• Jumping• Pankration• Pentathlon• Running• Wrestling
Greek’s Geography• Mountains make up ¾ of mainland• Fertile plains lie between mts. and sea good for farming• many harbors suitable for trading
Greek Geography• Mountains – protection and isolation (much like Indus Valley) – Made attack difficult – Limited travel / communication – Never united under one government• The Sea – Way of life – Fishermen, traders, pirates
Other Greek Professions• Actor • Fisherman• Athlete • Marble Quarrying• Banker • Market Trader• Blacksmith • Merchant• Craftsmen • Mining• Doctor • Teacher• Farmer
Minoans • From the Island of Crete • Sea traders• Easy to trade to Mesopotamia and Egypt,China•Fleets carried goods, and protected Cretefrom attack
Mycenaeans• Originally from Southeast Asia – Rapid population growth, migrated west. – Intermarried with locals (Hellenes/original Greeks) – Relied heavily on Conquest (in lieu of trade) – Warrior aristocracy – Great Engineers • Bridges and fortification walls
Mycenaean CultureKingdoms Centered on a hilltop (a fortress) Stone walls Nobles lived outside the walls
Mycenaean Culture • Palaces were administrative buildings and places of production – artisans insides • Tax collections – Wheat, livestock, honey • Great record keeping – Wealth of everyone in the city – Had banks which would exchange foreign currency
Mixing of Culture / Dark Ages • Mycenaeans adopted Minoan culture – Metalworking, shipbuilding, navigation – Worship Minoan’s Earth Mother • 1400s BCE - Mycenaeans conquered Minoans – Fighting destroyed hilltop fortresses – Start of the “Dark Ages”
Greek “Dark Ages”• Archaeology shows a collapse of civilization in the eastern Mediterranean• The great palaces and cities of the Myceneans were destroyed or abandoned.
Greek “Dark Ages” • The Greek language largely ceased to be written. • Dark age pottery has simple geometric designs and lacks the figurative decoration of Mycenean ware. (compare to the pottery on page 140)
Greek “Dark Ages” • Greeks lived in fewer and smaller settlements, suggesting famine and depopulation • foreign goods have not been found at archaeological sites, suggesting minimal international trade. • Contact was also lost between foreign powers during this period, yielding little cultural progress or growth of any sort. – Egypt, Mesopotamia impacted… – Suggesting it may have had “global” impact • http://www.historyforkids.org/learn/greeks/histor y/darkages.htm
Poets and Heroes• Bards – singing poets who passed down stories from generation to generation• Homer – blind poet, “composed” two of the most famous Greek Epic Poems… – The Iliad and The Odyssey – Homer never wrote it down…
Discovering Greece• Heinrich Schliemann• 1870• Homer’s Epics… fact or fiction?• 12th or 13th Century BCE – Trojan War as told by Homer…
The Works of HomerThe Iliad The Odyssey• A prince, Paris falls in • The wanderings of love with and steals Odysseus, a Helen, the wife of a Mycenaean King. Mycenaean King after• To avenge the kidnapping the fall of Troy. the Mycenaeans attempt to take Troy.• For 10 years they are unsuccessful until…• The Trojan Horse
Greek Values • Schools used Iliad and Odyssey to teach values – Greek pride – Love of nature – Loyalty – Strive for excellence – Importance of marriage
Persian Wars• A series of conflicts between several Greek city-states and the Persian Empire• Fought from 500 BC to 448 BC• Allied Greeks successfully defeated the invasions.
The Golden Age of Greece• After Persian Wars Athens emerged as a powerful, confident city-state, ready for expansion• Athens was burned in Persian Wars• Led by Pericles, determined to rebuild the city
The Greek Mind• Socrates – Socratic Method, ask questions instead of giving answers…• Plato – Developed Political Science• Aristotle – Encouraged modest living
Pericles• Rebuilt temples and palaces better than ever• The Parthenon
Athenian Life under Pericles• Aspasia – woman known for intelligence – Prosecuted for ‘impiety’ – Acquitted by Pericles• Delian League – Pericles alligned with other city-states (except Sparta) – Greece grew richer – Common currency – Greece policed all of Aegean area – Freed Ionia from Persian rule• Essentially an Athenian Empire
Peloponnesian War• Anti-Athenian Alliance (led by Sparta)• Greece vs. Sparta• Sparta had no navy – Struck a deal with Persians – Ionia for gold to build a fleet• The Plague – Kills Pericles• Should Athens continue?
The End of Greece • Athenian allies switch sides.. • Athens surrenders in 404 BC – 27 years of battle • Greek city-states destroyed – Lost ability to govern themselves – Sparta tried to rule, overthrown by several city-states (Thebes) – Thebans overthrown by other city-states… – Greece was at its weakest… – Allowed for a Great Macedonian Leader to take over…
Alexander the Great• http://darkwing.uoregon.edu/~atlas/europe/interactive/ma p23.html