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Houston, ASTD: What Research Tells Us about Games, Gamification and Learning
 

Houston, ASTD: What Research Tells Us about Games, Gamification and Learning

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his decidedly unacademic presentation provides a broad scientific overview of what we know from research about the effectiveness today’s technology for changing learner behaviors through games.

his decidedly unacademic presentation provides a broad scientific overview of what we know from research about the effectiveness today’s technology for changing learner behaviors through games.

We will discuss the use of 3D avatars to change learner behaviors; we will consider how playing a video game changes a person’s behavior and how storytelling helps learners memorize facts. We’ll answer questions like: Are two avatars better in an e-learning module than one? Does the appearance of an avatar impact the person when they’ve finished working with the avatar? Do serious games have to be entertaining to be educational?

This engaging, exciting session shows you how to use the existing research literature in your own design and delivery of online learning.

You will be provided with tips and techniques for matching research findings to your own e-learning design. We’ll move the concepts from research-to-practice. Discover how research-based practices really fit in with today's fast-paced need for quick, effective instruction online instruction.

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    Houston, ASTD: What Research Tells Us about Games, Gamification and Learning Houston, ASTD: What Research Tells Us about Games, Gamification and Learning Presentation Transcript

    • What Research Tells us About Games, Gamification and Learning By Karl M. Kapp Bloomsburg University April 25, 2012 Twitter:@kkapp
    • Google “Kapp Notes” www.kaplaneduneering.com/kappnotes Blog Book Tour Learning Circuits Blog 2012 New Book: “The Gamification of Learning and Instruction” September 2011 Training Quarterly Article Improving Training: Thinking Like a Game Developer July 2011 T&D ArticleMatching the Right Instruction to the Right Content
    • Based on the Book.
    • Agenda 1 2 How do you apply game-based strategiesWhat does research say about to the presentation of learning content?games and game elements forlearning? 3 4 Ten tips for creating e-learningWhat are 3 principles for adding games and simulations to changeserious games to learning curriculums? behavior.
    • 10,000 hrs of Game play 13 hours of console games a 87% of 8- to 17- week year olds play video games Digital divisions. Report by the Pew /Internet: Pew Internet & American Life. at home. US Department of Commerce
    • Almost 43% of the gamers are female and 26% of those females are over 18. Females play 5 hours a week of console games. They make up the majority of PC gamers at 63%.Digital divisions. Report by the Pew /Internet: Pew Internet & American Life.US Department of Commerce
    • What Research Says aboutGames for Learning
    • Percentages of Impact Type of % Higher Knowledge/ Retention Declarative 11% Procedural 14% Retention 9%Sitzmann, T. (2011) A meta-analytic examination of the instructional effectivenessof computer-based simulation games. Personnel Psychology .Review of 65 studies
    • Percentages of Impact It wasn’t the game, it was level Typegame. of activity in the of % Higher Knowledge/ Retention Declarative 11% In other words, the engagement Procedural of the learner in the game leads 14% to learning. Retention 9%Sitzmann, T. (2011) A meta-analytic examination of the instructional effectivenessof computer-based simulation games. Personnel Psychology .Review of 65 studies
    • Do simulation/games have to be entertaining to be educational?
    • NOSitzmann, T. (2011) A meta-analytic examination of the instructional effectivenessof computer-based simulation games. Personnel Psychology .
    • Simulation/games build more confidence foron the job application of learned knowledge than classroom instruction. 20% higher confidence levels. Sitzmann, T. (2011) A meta-analytic examination of the instructional effectiveness of computer-based simulation games. Personnel Psychology .
    • A math facts game deployed on a handled computer encouraged learners to complete greater number of problems at an increased level of difficulty. Learners playing the handheld game completed nearly 3 times the number of problems in 19 days and voluntarily increased the level of difficulty.Lee, J., Luchini, K., Michael, B., Norris, C., & Soloway, E. (2004). More than just fun and games:Assessing the value of educational video games in the classroom. Paper presented at the CHI 04Extended Abstracts on Human Factors in Computing Systems, Vienna, Austria.
    • ..it’s the instructional methods andnot the delivery system thatprovides the active ingredients forlearning…in a game/simulation. --Jeanne Farrington
    • Engagement Learning Game Game PedagogyAdapted from Aldrich, C. Learning by Doing. Pfeiffer, page 80
    • Instructional games should be embedded in instructional programs that include debriefing and feedback. Engagement Instructional support to help learners understand Educational the game increases how to use instructionalSimulation effectiveness of the gaming Game experience. PedagogyHays, R. T. (2005). The effectiveness of instructional games: A literature review anddiscussion. Naval Air Warfare Center Training Systems Division (No 2005-004). Aldrich, C. Learning by Doing. Pfeiffer, page 80
    • Recommendations1) Provide a context for the learning.2) Don’t focus on “entertainment.”3) Carefully craft the simulation/game to provide opportunities to increase engagement and interactivity to increase learning.
    • Use game-based mechanics,aesthetics and game thinking toengage people, motivate action, promote learning, and solve problems. Gamification
    • Four Elements ofGames that Aid Learning1. Avatars2. Stories & Challenges3. Levels4. Feedback
    • We’ve Always Wanted Characters Avatars
    • Why be a Character at All? Research indicates that human social models influence behavior, beliefs and attitudes.Bandura, A. 1986 Social foundations of thought and action: a social cognitive theory. Englewood Cliffs, NJ, USA: Prentice-Hall.
    • Avatar as Teacher Research indicates that learners perceive, interact socially with and are influenced by anthropomorphic agents (avatars) even when their functionality and adaptability are limited.Baylor, A. 2009 Promoting motivation with virtual agents and avatars: R ole of visual presence and appearance. PhilosophicalTransactions of the Royal B Society. 364, 3559–3565
    • An experience as an avatar can change a persons real life perceptions. In a study conducted by Yee and Bailenson (2006), it was found that negative stereotyping of the elderly was significantly reduced when participants were placed in avatars of old people compared with those participants placed in avatars of young people.Yee, N. & Bailenson, J.N. (2006). Walk A Mile in Digital Shoes: The Impact of Embodied Perspective-Taking on TheReduction of Negative Stereotyping in Immersive Virtual Environments.. Proceedings of PRESENCE 2006: The 9th AnnualInternational Workshop on Presence. August 24 – 26, Cleveland, Ohio, USA
    • Who is more likely to run 24 hours later?A. Person who watched an avatar not like them runningB. Person who watch an avatar like them runningC. Person watching an avatar like them loitering
    • Within 24 hours of watching an avatar like themselves run, learners were more likely to run than watching an avatar not like them or watching an avatar like them loitering .Fox, J., Arena, D., & Bailenson, J.N. (2009). Virtual Reality: A survival guide for the social scientist. Journal of Media Psychology, 21 (3), 95-113.
    • If learners watch an avatar that looks like them exercising & losing weight, they will subsequently exercise more in the real world as compared to a control group.Fox, J., Arena, D., & Bailenson, J.N. (2009). Virtual Reality: A survival guide for the social scientist. Journal of Media Psychology, 21 (3), 95-113.
    • Are two avatars better than one?Motivator Mentor Expert
    • Motivator Yes, two avatars are better than one. MentorBaylor, A. L. & Kim, Y. (2005). Simulating instructional roles through pedagogicalagents. International Journal of Artificial Intelligence in Education, 15(1), 95-115. Expert
    • http://www.codebaby.com/showcase/elearning-showcase/
    • First Person View
    • Third Person View“Seeing oneself as acting in a movie or a play is notmerely fantasy or indulgence; it is fundamental tohow people work out who it is they are, and maybecome.” Ben Casey Carey, B. (2007) This is Your Life (and How You Tell it). The New York Times. And Sestir, M. & Green, M. C. (2010). You are who you watch: Identification and transportation effects on temporary self-concept. Social Influence, 5, 272-288 and research by Libby, L.K., Shaeffer, E.M., Eibach, R.P., & Slemmer, J.A. ( 2007) Picture yourself at the polls: Visual perspective in mental imagery affects self-perception and behavior. Psychological Science. Vol. 18: 199-203.
    • Recommendations• Use avatars to model desired behavior.• Allow/encourage learners to craft avatars that look like themselves for maximum learning impact.• Use two avatars in e-learning instead of one. One to provide knowledge, and one to provide motivation.• Create the third-person perspective to allow learners to observe desired behavior.
    • Stories & Challenges
    • Provide a challengeJones, B., Valdez, G., Norakowski, J., & Rasmussen, C. (1994). Designing learning and technologyfor educational reform. North Central Regional Educational Laboratory. [Online]. Available:http://www.ncrtec.org/capacity/profile/profwww.htm and Schlechty, P. C. (1997). Inventingbetter schools: An action plan for educational reform. San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass
    • Re-design the Instruction to Start with a Challenge
    • Researchers have found that the Yep, People tend to remember facts human brain has a natural affinity for more accurately if they encounter narrative construction. them in a story rather than in a list. And they rate legal arguments as more convincing when built into narrative tales rather than on legal precedent.Carey, B. (2007) this is Your Life (and How You Tell it). The New York Times. MelanieGreen http://www.unc.edu/~mcgreen/research.html
    • Story Elements1. Characters2. Plot (something has to happen).3. Tension 4. Resolution5. Conclusion
    • NikePlus Stats for Karl
    • Challenge and Consolidation– Good games offer players a setof challenging problems and then let them solve these problemsuntil they have virtually routinized or automated their solutions.Games then throw a new class of problem at the players requiringthem to rethink their now, taken-for-granted mastery, learnsomething new, and integrate this new learning into their oldmastery.James Paul Gee,University of Wisconsin-Madison
    • Recommendations• Embed facts to be learned in the context of stories.• Start the learning process by providing a challenge to the learner.• Provide a progression from simple to more difficult tasks.• Use stories that are related to the context of the desired learning outcome.
    • Levels
    • Scaffolding: Process of controllingthe task elements that initially are beyond the learner’s capacity. Guided Practice. Step-by-step instructions and then fading of instruction
    • Once that task is accomplished, the learner is then led to accomplishanother goal which builds upon the previous.
    • Level One: Talking with the receptionist.
    • Level Two: Talking with the nurse gatekeeper.
    • Level Three: Talking with the physician.
    • Level One:Demonstration
    • Level Two: Guided Practice
    • Level Three:PerformanceAssessment
    • Recommendations• Provide different entry points into the instruction.• Provide different learner experiences within the same e-learning module.• Consider “leveling up” learner challenges.
    • Feedback
    • Games like The Sims provide feedback on many dimensions which provide opportunities to consider tradeoffs and higher level cognitive thinking.
    • Leaderboards provide opportunities for players toreceive feedback about theirperformance as compared to others.
    • Recommendations• Provide authentic and realistic feedback.• Feedback should be continuous through out the learning.• Feedback should be instructional and provide knowledge of learner’s performance.• Allow learners to create their own social “leaderboard” of friends.
    • Putting It All Together
    • Fostering Pro-Social BehaviorGreitemeyer, T. & Osswald, S. (2010) Effective of Prosocial games on prosocial behavior.Journal of Personality and Social Psychology. Vol. 98 . No. 2., 211-221.
    • 28% helped topick up pencils
    • 33% helped topick up pencils
    • 67% helped topick up pencils
    • 22% intervened
    • 56% intervened
    • Learned Procedure
    • Summary 1 2 Apply stories, avatars, feedback andGames/Simulations are effective levels as effective game elements tofor learning because of learner learning.engagement. 3 4 Four motivational aspects of gamesProvide support materials as part of that improve learning recallcurriculum, “fun” doesn’t need and application are: interactivity,to be the goal. context, challenge, and story.
    • Go ahead…jump in!
    • Questions/More Information• http://www.kaplaneduneering.com/kappnotes/ – Recommended books – Samples and Examples• Email: kkapp@bloomu.edu• Email: karlkapp@gmail.com• Twitter: @kkapp• Pinterest: Gamification Happenings• Facebook: http://www.facebook.com/gamificationLI “The Gamification of Learning and Instruction”