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The Role of Games and Simulations In Learning

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This presentation presents various research about simulation game learning and avatars.

This presentation presents various research about simulation game learning and avatars.

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  • 1.   The Role of Games and Simulations in Learning Twitter:@kkapp Hashtag #lrn3d By Karl M. Kapp Bloomsburg University www.learningin3d.info
  • 2. http://www.kaplaneduneering.com/kappnotes/
  • 3. Agenda
    • Is the use of 3D avatars appropriate?
    • Do simulation games make a difference in learning?
    • Are simulation games better/worse than traditional instructional methods?
    • Are simulation games better because they are simulation games or is it something else?
  • 4. Identity – no deep learning takes place unless an extended commitment of self is made for the long haul. Good video games capture players through identify. Players either inherit a strongly formed and appealing character or they get to build a character from the ground up. Players become committed to the new virtual world in which they will learn and act. James Paul Gee, University of Wisconsin-Madison
  • 5. We’ve Always Wanted Characters
  • 6. Why be a Character at All? Bandura, A. 1986 Social foundations of thought and action: a social cognitive theory . Englewood Cliffs, NJ, USA: Prentice-Hall. Research indicates that human social models influence behavior, beliefs and attitudes.
  • 7. Avatar as Teacher Baylor, A. 2009 Promoting motivation with virtual agents and avatars: R ole of visual presence and appearance. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal B Society. 364, 3559–3565 Research also indicates that learners perceive, interact socially with and are influenced by anthropomorphic agents (avatars) even when their functionality and adaptability are limited.
  • 8. Can an experience as an avatar change a person's real life perceptions? If yes, how? If no, why not?
  • 9. An experience as an avatar can change a person's real life perceptions.  In a study conducted by Yee and Bailenson (2006), it was found that negative stereotyping of the elderly was significantly reduced when participants were placed in avatars of old people compared with those participants placed in avatars of young people. Yee, N. & Bailenson, J.N. (2006).  Walk A Mile in Digital Shoes: The Impact of Embodied Perspective-Taking on The Reduction of Negative Stereotyping in Immersive Virtual Environments. . Proceedings of PRESENCE 2006: The 9th Annual International Workshop on Presence. August 24 – 26, Cleveland, Ohio, USA
  • 10. Mentor Motivator Expert Are two avatars better than one?
  • 11. Mentor Motivator Expert Baylor, A. L. & Kim, Y. (2005). Simulating instructional roles through pedagogical agents. International Journal of Artificial Intelligence in Education , 15(1), 95-115. Yes, two avatars are better than one.
  • 12. http://www.codebaby.com/showcase/elearning-showcase/
  • 13. Three groups, which is more likely to exercise within the next 24 hours? Group 1 watches an avatar that looks like them loitering Group 2 watches an avatar that does not look like themselves exercising. Group 3 watches an avatar that looks like themselves exercising.
  • 14. Fox, J., Arena, D., & Bailenson, J.N. (2009).  Virtual Reality: A survival guide for the social scientist.   Journal of Media Psychology , 21 (3), 95-113. If learners watch an avatar that looks like them exercising & losing weight, they will subsequently exercise more in the real world as compared to a control group.
  • 15. Fox, J., Arena, D., & Bailenson, J.N. (2009).  Virtual Reality: A survival guide for the social scientist.   Journal of Media Psychology , 21 (3), 95-113. Within 24 hours of watching an avatar like themselves run, learners were more likely to run than watching an avatar not like them or watching an avatar like them loitering .
  • 16. Which builds more confidence for on the job application of learned knowledge? Class room instruction. Simulation Game.
  • 17. Sitzmann, T. (in press) A meta-analytic examination of the instructional effectiveness of computer-based simulation games. Personnel Psychology . Simulation Game. 20% higher.
  • 18. Which is better for learning? 1. Stand alone simulation independent of other instructional materials 2. Simulation embedded in program of instruction
  • 19. Sitzmann, T. (in press) A meta-analytic examination of the instructional effectiveness of computer-based simulation games. Personnel Psychology .   Trainees learn more from simulations games that are embedded in a program of instruction than when simulation games are the sole instructional method.  
  • 20. Do simulations have to be entertaining to be educational?
  • 21. Sitzmann, T. (in press) A meta-analytic examination of the instructional effectiveness of computer-based simulation games. Personnel Psychology . NO
  • 22. True or False? When the majority of the instruction in a simulation game was passive, the comparison group learned more than the simulation game group.
  • 23. TRUE Sitzmann, T. (in press) A meta-analytic examination of the instructional effectiveness of computer-based simulation games. Personnel Psychology . In other words, simulations aren’t good just because they are simulations.
  • 24. Name the Percentage Type of Knowledge/Retention % Higher Declarative Procedural Retention
  • 25. Name the Percentage Sitzmann, T. (in press) A meta-analytic examination of the instructional effectiveness of computer-based simulation games. Personnel Psychology . Type of Knowledge/Retention % Higher Declarative 11% Procedural 14% Retention 9%
  • 26. Summary
    • Avatars provide a model of acceptable social (work) behavior.
    • An experience as an avatar can change a person’s real life perceptions
    • Simulations don’t have to be entertaining to be educational
    • Simulations show increases in confidence (20%), declarative knowledge was 11% higher; procedural knowledge was 14% higher and retention was 9% higher.