The Role of Games and Simulations in 
Learning
Twitter:@kkapp
Hashtag #lrn3d
By Karl M. Kapp
Bloomsburg University 
www.l...
http://www.kaplaneduneering.com/kappnotes/
Agenda
• Is the use of 3D avatars appropriate?
• Do simulation games make a difference in 
learning?
• Are simulation game...
Identity– no deep learning takes place unless an 
extended commitment of self is made for the long haul.
Good video games ...
We’ve Always Wanted
Characters
Why be a Characterat
All?
Research indicates that human 
social models influence behavior, 
beliefs and attitudes. 
Bandur...
Avataras Teacher
Research also indicates that learners perceive, interact 
socially with and are influenced by anthropomor...
Can an experience as an avatar
change a person's real life
perceptions?
If yes, how?
If no, why not?
An experience as an avatar
can change a person's real
life perceptions. In a study 
conducted by Yee and 
Bailenson (2006)...
Mentor
Motivator
Expert
Are two avatars better than 
one?
Mentor
Motivator
Expert
Yes, two avatars are better 
than one.
Baylor, A. L. & Kim, Y. (2005). Simulating instructional ro...
http://www.codebaby.com/showcase/elearning-showcase/
Three groups, which is 
more likely to exercise 
within the next 24 hours?
Group 1 watches an avatar that 
looks like them...
If learners watch an avatar that 
looks like them exercising & losing 
weight, they will subsequently 
exercise more in th...
Within 24 hours of watching an avatar
like themselves run, learners were
more likely to run than watching an
avatar not li...
Which builds more confidence for on
the job application of learned
knowledge?
Class room
instruction.
Simulation
Game.
Simulation
Game.
Sitzmann, T. (in press) A meta-analytic examination of the instructional
effectiveness of computer-based ...
Which is better for learning?
1. Stand alone simulation
independent of other instructional
materials
2. Simulation embedde...
Trainees learn more from simulations games that are
embedded in a program of instruction than when simulation
games are th...
Do simulations have to be entertaining to be educational?
NO
Sitzmann, T. (in press) A meta-analytic examination of the instructional
effectiveness of computer-based simulation gam...
True or False?
When the majority of the instruction
in a simulation game was passive, the
comparison group learned more th...
TRUE
In other words,
simulations aren’t good
just because they are
simulations.
Sitzmann, T. (in press) A meta-analytic ex...
Type of
Knowledge/
Retention
% Higher
Declarative
Procedural
Retention
Name the Percentage
Type of
Knowledge/
Retention
% Higher
Declarative 11%
Procedural 14%
Retention 9%
Name the Percentage
Sitzmann, T. (in pre...
Summary
• Avatars provide a model of acceptable social
(work) behavior.
• An experience as an avatar can change a person’s...
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The Role of Games and Simulations In Learning

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The Role of Games and Simulations In Learning

  1. 1.  The Role of Games and Simulations in  Learning Twitter:@kkapp Hashtag #lrn3d By Karl M. Kapp Bloomsburg University  www.learningin3d.info
  2. 2. http://www.kaplaneduneering.com/kappnotes/
  3. 3. Agenda • Is the use of 3D avatars appropriate? • Do simulation games make a difference in  learning? • Are simulation games better/worse than  traditional instructional methods?  • Are simulation games better because they are  simulation games or is it something else?
  4. 4. Identity– no deep learning takes place unless an  extended commitment of self is made for the long haul. Good video games capture players through identify. Players either inherit a strongly formed and  appealing character or they get to build a character from the ground up. Players become committed to the new virtual world  in which they will learn and act. James Paul Gee, University of Wisconsin-Madison
  5. 5. We’ve Always Wanted Characters
  6. 6. Why be a Characterat All? Research indicates that human  social models influence behavior,  beliefs and attitudes.  Bandura, A. 1986 Social foundations of thought and action: a social cognitive theory. Englewood Cliffs, NJ, USA: Prentice-Hall.
  7. 7. Avataras Teacher Research also indicates that learners perceive, interact  socially with and are influenced by anthropomorphic  agents (avatars) even when their functionality and  adaptability are limited. Baylor, A. 2009 Promoting motivation with virtual agents and avatars: R ole of visual presence and appearance. Philosophical  Transactions of the Royal B  Society. 364, 3559–3565
  8. 8. Can an experience as an avatar change a person's real life perceptions? If yes, how? If no, why not?
  9. 9. An experience as an avatar can change a person's real life perceptions. In a study  conducted by Yee and  Bailenson (2006), it was  found that negative  stereotyping of the elderly  was significantly reduced  when participants were  placed in avatars of old  people compared with those  participants placed in avatars  of young people. Yee, N. & Bailenson, J.N. (2006).  Walk A Mile in Digital Shoes: The Impact of Embodied Perspective-Taking on The Reduction of Negative Stereotyping in Immersive Virtual Environments.. Proceedings of PRESENCE 2006: The 9th Annual  International Workshop on Presence. August 24 – 26, Cleveland, Ohio, USA
  10. 10. Mentor Motivator Expert Are two avatars better than  one?
  11. 11. Mentor Motivator Expert Yes, two avatars are better  than one. Baylor, A. L. & Kim, Y. (2005). Simulating instructional roles through pedagogical agents. International Journal of Artificial Intelligence in Education, 15(1), 95-115.
  12. 12. http://www.codebaby.com/showcase/elearning-showcase/
  13. 13. Three groups, which is  more likely to exercise  within the next 24 hours? Group 1 watches an avatar that  looks like them loitering Group 2 watches an avatar that does  not look like themselves exercising. Group 3 watches an avatar that looks  like themselves exercising.
  14. 14. If learners watch an avatar that  looks like them exercising & losing  weight, they will subsequently  exercise more in the real world as  compared to a control group. Fox, J., Arena, D., & Bailenson, J.N. (2009). Virtual Reality: A survival guide for the social scientist. Journal of Media Psychology, 21 (3), 95-113.
  15. 15. Within 24 hours of watching an avatar like themselves run, learners were more likely to run than watching an avatar not like them or watching an avatar like them loitering . Fox, J., Arena, D., & Bailenson, J.N. (2009). Virtual Reality: A survival guide for the social scientist. Journal of Media Psychology, 21 (3), 95- 113.
  16. 16. Which builds more confidence for on the job application of learned knowledge? Class room instruction. Simulation Game.
  17. 17. Simulation Game. Sitzmann, T. (in press) A meta-analytic examination of the instructional effectiveness of computer-based simulation games. Personnel Psychology . 20% higher.
  18. 18. Which is better for learning? 1. Stand alone simulation independent of other instructional materials 2. Simulation embedded in program of instruction
  19. 19. Trainees learn more from simulations games that are embedded in a program of instruction than when simulation games are the sole instructional method. Sitzmann, T. (in press) A meta-analytic examination of the instructional effectiveness of computer-based simulation games. Personnel Psychology .
  20. 20. Do simulations have to be entertaining to be educational?
  21. 21. NO Sitzmann, T. (in press) A meta-analytic examination of the instructional effectiveness of computer-based simulation games. Personnel Psychology .
  22. 22. True or False? When the majority of the instruction in a simulation game was passive, the comparison group learned more than the simulation game group.
  23. 23. TRUE In other words, simulations aren’t good just because they are simulations. Sitzmann, T. (in press) A meta-analytic examination of the instructional effectiveness of computer-based simulation games. Personnel Psychology .
  24. 24. Type of Knowledge/ Retention % Higher Declarative Procedural Retention Name the Percentage
  25. 25. Type of Knowledge/ Retention % Higher Declarative 11% Procedural 14% Retention 9% Name the Percentage Sitzmann, T. (in press) A meta-analytic examination of the instructional effectiveness of computer-based simulation games. Personnel Psychology .
  26. 26. Summary • Avatars provide a model of acceptable social (work) behavior. • An experience as an avatar can change a person’s real life perceptions • Simulations don’t have to be entertaining to be educational • Simulations show increases in confidence (20%), declarative knowledge was 11% higher; procedural knowledge was 14% higher and retention was 9% higher.

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