The Business Case for Game Based Learning

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Games, gamification, and game-based learning have entered into the vocabulary of trainers, e-Learning developers, and instructional designers in the past few years.

While many companies are beginning to explore ways to use games for learning, questions arise. How should games be integrated into the curriculum? Can attitudes and behavior change as a result of playing a game? What elements of games can learning designers borrow from game designers?

Creating engaging learning using game elements requires matching instructional content with the right game mechanics.

Published in: Education, Technology

The Business Case for Game Based Learning

  1. 1. Twitter:@kkapp kkapp@bloomu.edu Twitter:@kkapp kkapp@bloomu.edu By Karl M. Kapp Bloomsburg University August 6, 2013 By Karl M. Kapp Bloomsburg University August 6, 2013 The Learning Game: The Business Case for Game-Based Learning
  2. 2. 1 Agenda What is the differences among simulations, gamification, and game- based learning? 2 3 What research evidence exists to make the business case for why and how games can increase the transfer of knowledge to the job? What are the elements of games that can be applied to the design and development of learning?
  3. 3. Blog: www.karlkapp.com/kapp-notes --Slides & Additional Info. Blog: www.karlkapp.com/kapp-notes --Slides & Additional Info.
  4. 4. ResourcesResources Book: The Gamification of Learning and Instruction Book: The Gamification of Learning and Instruction Training Quarterly Article Improving Training: Thinking Like a Game Developer Training Quarterly Article Improving Training: Thinking Like a Game Developer Learning Solutions Magazine The Gamification of Retail Safety and Loss Prevention Training Learning Solutions Magazine The Gamification of Retail Safety and Loss Prevention Training New Book: The Gamification of Learning and Instruction: Fieldbook New Book: The Gamification of Learning and Instruction: Fieldbook
  5. 5. Gamification is using game-based mechanics, aesthetics and game-thinking to engage people, motivate action promote learning, and solve problems. Game-based Learning is the use of a game to teach knowledge, skills and abilities to learners using a self-contained event. Typically evokes Fantasy, Challenge and Curiosity. Definitions Simulation Learning is a realistic, controlled- risk environment where learners can practice specific behaviors and experience the impacts of their decisions.
  6. 6. Gamification + Simulation = Learning Game What is this “game” stuff?
  7. 7. Use game-elements such as: -Story -Characters -Immediate Feedback -Points, Badges, leaderboards …with caution
  8. 8. Fun Game????
  9. 9. Let’s Play Fact or Fishy…
  10. 10. Rules • A statement is presented – If “true” indicate: FactX – If “false” indicate: FishyX • Text Response: Take out  your text‐ machines Standard Texting Fees  Apply!
  11. 11. In a Meta-Analysis… It was found that Games are 90% more effective for learning than lectures. Is that Fact or Fishy?
  12. 12. Fact Type of Knowledge /Retention % Higher Declarative 11% Procedural 14% Retention 9% Sitzmann, T. (2011) A meta-analytic examination of the instructional effectiveness of computer-based simulation games. Personnel Psychology .Review of 65 studies Wouters, P., van Nimwegen, C., van Oostendorp, H., & vam der S[el. E.D. (2013), February 4). A Meta-Analysis of the Cognitive and Motivational Effects of Serious Games. Journal of Educational Psychology. Advanced online publication. Doi: 10.1037/a0031311 39 Studies. Review of 39 studies 54% conducted in the last year.
  13. 13. Type of Knowledge /Retention % Higher Declarative 11% Procedural 14% Retention 9% Percentages of Impact Over Traditional Training 17% Higher than Lectures 5% Higher than Discussion Sitzmann, T. (2011) A meta-analytic examination of the instructional effectiveness of computer-based simulation games. Personnel Psychology .Review of 65 studies
  14. 14. Type of Knowledge /Retention % Higher Declarative 11% Procedural 14% Retention 9% Percentages of Impact Sitzmann, T. (2011) A meta-analytic examination of the instructional effectiveness of computer-based simulation games. Personnel Psychology .Review of 65 studies It wasn’t the game, it was level of activity in the game. In other words, the engagement of the learner in the game leads to learning.
  15. 15. Games/Simulations must be fun to be Educational. Is that Fact or Fishy?
  16. 16. Sitzmann, T. (2011) A meta-analytic examination of the instructional effectiveness of computer-based simulation games. Personnel Psychology .
  17. 17. Sitzmann, T. (2011) A meta-analytic examination of the instructional effectiveness of computer-based simulation games. Personnel Psychology Simulation/games build more confidence for on the job application of learned knowledge than classroom instruction.
  18. 18. Fact Sitzmann, T. (2011) A meta-analytic examination of the instructional effectiveness of computer-based simulation games. Personnel Psychology . levels. 20% higher confidence levels.
  19. 19. An on-screen character is distracting to the learner. Is that Fact or Fishy?
  20. 20. On transfer tests involving different word problems, the group who had a character generated 30% more correct answers than the group with on-screen text. Animated pedagogical agents (characters) can be aids to learning. A “realistic” character did not facilitate learning any better than a “cartoon-like” character. Clark, R., Mayer, R. (2011) E-Learning and the Science of Instruction: Proven Guidelines for Consumers and Designers of Multimedia Learning. New York: Pfeiffer. Pg. 194.
  21. 21. Who is more likely to run 24 hours later? A. Person who watched an avatar that did not look like them running B. Person who watched an avatar that looked like them running C. Person watching an avatar that looked like them loitering /hanging out
  22. 22. Within 24 hours of watching an avatar like themselves run, learners were more likely to run than watching an avatar not like them or watching an avatar like them loitering . Fox, J., Arena, D., & Bailenson, J.N. (2009). Virtual Reality: A survival guide for the social scientist. Journal of Media Psychology, 21 (3), 95-113.
  23. 23. If learners watch an avatar that looks like them exercising & losing weight, they will subsequently exercise more in the real world as compared to a control group. Fox, J., Arena, D., & Bailenson, J.N. (2009). Virtual Reality: A survival guide for the social scientist. Journal of Media Psychology, 21 95-113.
  24. 24. Avatar as Teacher Research indicates that learners perceive, interact socially with and are influenced by anthropomorphic agents (avatars) even when their functionality and adaptability are limited. Baylor, A. 2009 Promoting motivation with virtual agents and avatars: R ole of visual presence and appearance. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal B Society. 364, 3559–3565
  25. 25. Learners remember facts better… When presented as bulleted list rather than presented as a story. Is that Fact or Fishy?
  26. 26. Researchers have found that the human brain has a natural affinity for narrative construction. Yep, People tend to remember facts more accurately if they encounter them in a story rather than in a list. And they rate legal arguments as more convincing when built into narrative tales rather than on legal precedent. Carey, B. (2007) this is Your Life (and How You Tell it). The New York Times. Melanie Green http://www.unc.edu/~mcgreen/research.html
  27. 27. NikePlus Stats for Karl
  28. 28. 1. Characters Story Elements 5. Conclusion 2. Plot (something has to happen). 3. Tension 4. Resolution
  29. 29. One way to engage learners is to… Present them with a difficult challenge. Is that Fact or Fishy?
  30. 30. Fact. Provide a challenge Jones, B., Valdez, G., Norakowski, J., & Rasmussen, C. (1994). Designing learning and technology for educational reform. North Central Regional Educational Laboratory. [Online]. Available: http://www.ncrtec.org/capacity/profile/profwww.htm and Schlechty, P. C. (1997). Inventing better schools: An action plan for educational reform. San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass
  31. 31. Re-design the Instruction to Start with a Challenge
  32. 32. Investigatory Training • Course Objectives – Identify the Forms Required for an Investigation – Practice Interview Techniques – Understand and Follow the Investigation Model
  33. 33. It is your first day on the job as an investigator and Jane, an employee in Accounting, just accused her boss of embezzling $10,000. What is the first thing you should do?
  34. 34. Games can influence people to behave in a pro- social manner. Is that Fact or Fishy?
  35. 35. Rosenberg, R.S. Baughman, S.L., Bailenson, J.N. (2013) Virtual Superheroes:  Using Superpowers in Virtual Reality to Encourage Prosocial Behavior. PLOS One., 8(1), 1‐9. Flying around a virtual world as a superhero made subjects nicer in the real world. physical world Fact
  36. 36. First Experiment indicated that playing the game Darfur is Dying resulted in a greater willingness to help the Darfurian people than reading a text conveying same information. Peng, W., Lee, M., & Heeter. (2010) The effects of a serious game on role taking and willingness to help. Journal of Communications. 60, 723-724. Chapter 5 of “The Gamificaiton of Learning and Instruction.
  37. 37. Second Experiment indicated that playing the game Darfur is Dying resulted in a greater role taking and willingness to help than either game watching or text reading. Peng, W., Lee, M., & Heeter. (2010) The effects of a serious game on role taking and willingness to help. Journal of Communications. 60, 723-724. Chapter 5 of “The Gamificaiton of Learning and Instruction.
  38. 38. • Increase Product Knowledge • Increase Sales of Product Putting It Together
  39. 39. ExactTarget is a global marketing organization focused on digital marketing tools – email, mobile, and web and was recently purchased by Salesforce.com. ExactTarget is a leading cloud marketing platform used by more than 6,000 companies including Coca-Cola, Gap and Nike.
  40. 40. Introducing a new product, MobileConnect and wanted to bring the sales force up-to-speed on the features and functionality of the product.
  41. 41. VENDOR http://www.theknowledgeguru.com/
  42. 42. “I can’t tell you how many people are coming to me wanting another game solution.” “The repetition of the different paths helped me retain the information.” “I’m a pretty competitive person so challenging myself to get one of the top scores added a layer of fun to learning about the MobileConnect product.” “The game was a fun way to learn about MobileConnect. I enjoyed the scenario-type questions, which put it all into context.” Player Results
  43. 43. Business Results Average contract value 2x higher than for previous mobile product. First call resolution ($35 a call/average) is up 45%. Of all the launches done in the previous two years prior to  MobileConnect, the sales team built the quickest pipeline for this  product.
  44. 44. 1) Interactivity of games leads to higher knowledge retention for declarative and procedural knowledge. 2) Games/Simulations do not need to be fun to be educational. 3) Games can be more effective for learning than lectures or discussions. 4) On screen characters can enhance e-learning. 5) Onscreen avatars can influence off-screen behavior. 6) Use stories rather than bulleted lists to present facts. 7) Present learners with a difficult challenge to engage and motivate them. 8) Games can influence people to behave in a pro-social manner. Take-Away
  45. 45. Questions ? Twitter: @kkapp Email: kkapp@bloomu.edu Blog: www.karlkapp.com/kapp-notes --Slides &Additional Info. Twitter: @kkapp Email: kkapp@bloomu.edu Blog: www.karlkapp.com/kapp-notes --Slides &Additional Info. January 2014

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