Undergraduate college students at a university in the Southeast region of the United States were chosen as participants, and data were collected in April 2009, entailing 42 usable surveys. This study demonstrated that flow experiences in 3D virtual worlds had a significant and positive impact on students' attitudes toward e-learning. This study found that the quality of engaging and pleasant experiences is influenced by three factors: the skills available to tackle challenging tasks, the perception of interactivity in the virtual learning experience, and the degree of presence sensation perceived by students.Student Attitude Toward Virtual Learning in Second Life: A FlowTheory Approach.Yu-Chih Huang1 firstname.lastname@example.orgBackman, Sheila J. Backman, Kenneth F.Source:Journal of Teaching in Travel & Tourism; Oct-Dec2010, Vol. 10 Issue 4, p312-334, 23p, 5 Charts
Teaching in Virtual Worlds By Karl M. Kapp Co-Author “Learning in 3D” Bloomsburg University
Agenda Is the use of 3D avatars appropriate? What are the competencies for teaching in a virtual world? What are the facilitation competencies needed? How does one conduct a virtual world class exercise? What does a student need to know to be competent in a virtual world class setting? Can you show me an example of a 3D virtual world learning experience?
3D Virtual World Sensibilities The Sense of Self The Death of Distance The Power of Presence The Sense of Space The Capability to Co-Create The Pervasiveness of Practice The Enrichment of Experience Source: Tony O’Driscoll and Karl Kapp. eLearning Guild 360° Report on Synchronous Learning, Essay titled “Escaping Flat Land.”
Why be a Character at All? Research indicates that human social models influence behavior, beliefs and attitudes. Bandura, A. 1986 Social foundations of thought and action: a social cognitive theory. Englewood Cliffs, NJ, USA: Prentice-Hall.
Avatar as Teacher Research also indicates that learners perceive, interact socially with and are influenced by anthropomorphic agents (avatars) even when their functionality and adaptability are limited. Baylor, A. 2009 Promoting motivation with virtual agents and avatars: R ole of visual presence and appearance. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal B Society. 364, 3559–3565
An experience as an avatar can change a person's real life perceptions. In a study conducted by Yee and Bailenson (2006), it was found that negative stereotyping of the elderly was significantly reduced when participants were placed in avatars of old people compared with those participants placed in avatars of young people. Yee, N. & Bailenson, J.N. (2006). Walk A Mile in Digital Shoes: The Impact of Embodied Perspective-Taking on The Reduction of Negative Stereotyping in Immersive Virtual Environments..Proceedings of PRESENCE 2006: The 9th Annual International Workshop on Presence. August 24 – 26, Cleveland, Ohio, USA
If learners watch an avatar that looks like them exercising & losing weight, they will subsequently exercise more in the real world as compared to a control group. Fox, J., Arena, D., & Bailenson, J.N. (2009). Virtual Reality: A survival guide for the social scientist. Journal of Media Psychology, 21 (3), 95-113.
Within 24 hours of watching an avatar like themselves run, learners were more likely to run than watching an avatar not like them or watching an avatar like them loitering . Fox, J., Arena, D., & Bailenson, J.N. (2009). Virtual Reality: A survival guide for the social scientist. Journal of Media Psychology, 21 (3), 95-113.
People tend to conform to how their avatar appears regardless of how it is perceived by others. In one study by Yee and Bailenson (2007), participants with taller avatars behaved more confidently in a negotiation task than participants with shorter avatars; specifically, they were more willing to make unfair splits in negotiation tasks. In contrast, participants with shorter avatars were more willing to accept unfair offers than those who had taller avatars.
Additionally, in subsequent research, Yee et. al. (2009) found that behavioral changes originating within a virtual environment can transfer to subsequent face-to-face interactions.
Awareness of Lag time Don’t plan a session during system maintenance or backup Stand up and smile and remain calm Establish 2 or more lines of communication Delivery rate between 130 and 170 per minute Ask learners not to speak or type unless given permission Articulate back up plan to students in advance Be aware of how you speak Request learners lock door, turn off phone Include images on whiteboard activities
Move avatar around 3D space to facilitate learning. Use gesturing and objects to engage learners. Look for raised hands. Socialize around content. Provide instruction to entire group before breaking them into small groups. Walk avatar toward person asking the question. Use “time” to manage the class. Describe activities, actions and logistics before they occur. Mute or block disruptive students. Anticipate students moving around the space as you speak.
Flow in a 3D virtual world is impacted by three factors: The skills available to tackle challenging tasks The degree of presence sensation perceived by students. The perception of interactivity in the virtual learning experience.
Authentic Practice occurring in an authentic environment.
By adding immersion to the equation, organizations can allow for higher quality learning interactions between employees who work at a distance.
Learning content not organized around the work context causes unnecessary overhead for the learner. Learners tend to prefer instructions over instruction.
Simulated environments always made sense in Medicine, Military and Aviation. Now they make sense for Factories, Call Centers, Retail Stores and other “work” environments.
Summary Avatars provide a model of acceptable social (work) behavior. An experience as an avatar can change a person’s real life perceptions The look of an avatar impacts a persons behavior in and out of world. People identify with avatars that look like them. A 3D environment allows for authentic practice. 2D environments lack immersion, depth and sense of space.