They want a challenge, work virtually and can handle multiple tasking
First introduced to me by Sebastian Deterding
Motivation slides from Workshop
John Keller’sARCS Model of Motivation
Attention• What keeps your attention during a game?
AttentionVariability Change of tone, movement, media, and environment, new challenges. Going from one level to the next.Concreteness Use visual images, anecdotes and biographies.Conflict An adversary, an obstacle to overcome. A challenge that faces the player.
AttentionHumor Include humor within the game (need to be careful).Discovery What is over here? What if I try this?Participation Actively doing something that makes a difference within the game space. Social aspects of games.
Most games have challengesthat serve to gain the learner’s attention. Starting with a challenge encourages action and curiosity. Jones, B., Valdez, G., Norakowski, J., & Rasmussen, C. (1994). Designing learning and technology for educational reform. North Jones, B., Valdez, G., Norakowski, J., & Rasmussen, C. (1994). Designing learning and technology for educational reform. North Central Regional Educational Laboratory. [Online]. Available: http://www.ncrtec.org/capacity/profile/profwww.htm and Central Regional Educational Laboratory. [Online]. Available: http://www.ncrtec.org/capacity/profile/profwww.htm and Schlechty, P. C. (1997). Inventing better schools: An action plan for educational reform. San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass Schlechty, P. C. (1997). Inventing better schools: An action plan for educational reform. San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass
• How are you going to gain and maintain the ATTENTION of the learner?
Relevance• When does the a game or learning event seem relevant to the learner?
RelevanceExperience Show how new learning is related to prior knowledge and related to learner interests.Present Worth Explain the current value of the instruction.Future Use Relate information to future goals and activities.
RelevanceModeling Show how the actions in the game model real-life actions.Choice Allow learners to make relevant choices throughout the game.
What are some specificRELEVANCE activities or contentyou can add to keep your trainingmotivating for the learner?
Confidence What makes a person feel confident when they are playing a game?
Success helps Success helps people feel people feel confident. confident.
Scaffolding: Process of controllingthe task elements that initially are beyond the learner’s capacity. Guided Practice. Step-by-step instructions and then fading of instruction Having different entry points into a learning module provides players with the confidence that they can enter the learning and be successful.
Risk Taking– Good video games lower the consequences offailure; players can start from the Last saved game when theyfail.In fact, in a game, failure is a good thing. Players actually usefailure as way of finding out information with the game.James Paul Gee, University of Wisconsin-Madison
ConfidenceLearning Inform players of the goals,Requirements objectives, and requirements of the game.Difficulty Sequence information and action in the order of increasing difficulty at a reasonable pace.
ConfidenceExpectations Provide a preview of what is in store for the player so they can have realistic expectations.Attributions Help player attribute their success to the amount of effort they spend. This can translate as coins, points or rewards.
What are some specificCONFIDENCE activities orcontent you can add to keepyour training motivating for thelearner?
SatisfactionWhen do you feelsatisfied with the agame or learningevent?
Simulation/games build more confidence for on the job application of learned knowledge than classroom instruction. 20% higher confidence levels.Sitzmann, T. (2011) A meta-analytic examination of the instructional effectiveness of computer-basedsimulation games. Personnel Psychology .Review of 65 studies. Chapter 4 “The Gamification of Learning andInstruction.”
SatisfactionPositive Outcomes Winning, receiving constructive feedback, praise, and personal attention.Realistic Setting Successfully using skills in a realistic setting.Overcoming When an obstacle isObstacles overcome, please feel satisfaction.
What are some specificSATISFATION activities orcontent you can add to yourinstruction to keep the trainingmotivating for the learner?
Intrinsic and extrinsic motivation can be viewedas two largely mutually independent constructsrather than the opposite ends of a singledimension.Research indicates that in the classroom intrinsicand extrinsic motivation do coexist.
Extrinsic Motivation• External motivations that encourage people to continue an activity even when they are not internally motivated – Extrinsic motivation is least likely to work when the external rewards are functionally superfluous (not needed to engage the learner) and not informative about the student’s level of ability or knowledge level regarding the task
Badges, Points , Awards and Leaderboards are all Extrinsic Motivators …Extrinsic Motivators work best when paired with intrinsic motivation…
Pressing a button and watching a bar progress has no intrinsic value and leads to little motivation.
On the other hand, having a progress bar here led to 20% increase in profile completions.
In games like Super Mario Brothers, coins are collected and players are rewarded for having a large number of coins. This is extrinsic motivation which keeps players playing to get more coins.
Use coins, points and rewards to provide feedbackon performance, updates on progress and level of correctness.
Intrinsic Motivation• Internal motivation elements are what keeps the players interest for the longest time. Tapping into the underlying intrinsic motivation engages the player and keeps them returning to the game.
Games like The Sims tap into the intrinsic motivation most people have regarding desired career paths. Rewards for high performanceappears to strengthen the perception of freedom of action
Autonomy or Producers– Players are producers, not justconsumers, they are “writers” not just “readers.” Even at itssimplest level, players co-design games by the action they takeand decision they make.James Paul Gee, University of Wisconsin-Madison
Competence or Pleasantly Frustrating– Good games staywithin, but at the outer edge, of the players “regime ofcompetence” (diSessa, 2000) Challenges in a game arechallenging but feel “doable.”This is motivational. (Confidence from the ARCS model ofmotivation.)James Paul Gee, University of Wisconsin-Madison diSessa, A. A. Changing Minds: Computers, Learning and Literatcy. Cambridge, Mass.: MIT Press, 2000.
Performance before Competence– Good video games operateby a principle just the reverse of Most training modules:performance before competence (Cazden, 1981).Players can perform before they are competent, supported by thedesign of the game. It is learning by doing.James Paul Gee, University of Wisconsin-Madison
Relatedness– This is experienced when a person feelsconnected to others. It can either be in real-time or related toplayers who have played before through such items as aleaderboard or artifacts left by other players.
Malone’s Theory of Intrinsically Motivating InstructionChallenge Fantasy Curiosity
Fantasy– There are both cognitive and emotional reasons forevoking fantasy. Cognitively a fantasy can help a learner applyold knowledge to understand new things and help themremember the content. Emotionally, a person can connect withthe experiences and not bring with it “real-world” concerns orfears.
Curiosity– Game environments can evoke a learner’s curiosityby providing an optimal level of informational complexity and anovel and exciting game space. Cognitive curiosity is evoked bymaking learners believe their knowledge structures areinconsistent or incomplete. Provide surprising and constructivefeedback.