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Learning 3.0 Training Magazine Presentation: Gamification of Learning & Instruction
Learning 3.0 Training Magazine Presentation: Gamification of Learning & Instruction
Learning 3.0 Training Magazine Presentation: Gamification of Learning & Instruction
Learning 3.0 Training Magazine Presentation: Gamification of Learning & Instruction
Learning 3.0 Training Magazine Presentation: Gamification of Learning & Instruction
Learning 3.0 Training Magazine Presentation: Gamification of Learning & Instruction
Learning 3.0 Training Magazine Presentation: Gamification of Learning & Instruction
Learning 3.0 Training Magazine Presentation: Gamification of Learning & Instruction
Learning 3.0 Training Magazine Presentation: Gamification of Learning & Instruction
Learning 3.0 Training Magazine Presentation: Gamification of Learning & Instruction
Learning 3.0 Training Magazine Presentation: Gamification of Learning & Instruction
Learning 3.0 Training Magazine Presentation: Gamification of Learning & Instruction
Learning 3.0 Training Magazine Presentation: Gamification of Learning & Instruction
Learning 3.0 Training Magazine Presentation: Gamification of Learning & Instruction
Learning 3.0 Training Magazine Presentation: Gamification of Learning & Instruction
Learning 3.0 Training Magazine Presentation: Gamification of Learning & Instruction
Learning 3.0 Training Magazine Presentation: Gamification of Learning & Instruction
Learning 3.0 Training Magazine Presentation: Gamification of Learning & Instruction
Learning 3.0 Training Magazine Presentation: Gamification of Learning & Instruction
Learning 3.0 Training Magazine Presentation: Gamification of Learning & Instruction
Learning 3.0 Training Magazine Presentation: Gamification of Learning & Instruction
Learning 3.0 Training Magazine Presentation: Gamification of Learning & Instruction
Learning 3.0 Training Magazine Presentation: Gamification of Learning & Instruction
Learning 3.0 Training Magazine Presentation: Gamification of Learning & Instruction
Learning 3.0 Training Magazine Presentation: Gamification of Learning & Instruction
Learning 3.0 Training Magazine Presentation: Gamification of Learning & Instruction
Learning 3.0 Training Magazine Presentation: Gamification of Learning & Instruction
Learning 3.0 Training Magazine Presentation: Gamification of Learning & Instruction
Learning 3.0 Training Magazine Presentation: Gamification of Learning & Instruction
Learning 3.0 Training Magazine Presentation: Gamification of Learning & Instruction
Learning 3.0 Training Magazine Presentation: Gamification of Learning & Instruction
Learning 3.0 Training Magazine Presentation: Gamification of Learning & Instruction
Learning 3.0 Training Magazine Presentation: Gamification of Learning & Instruction
Learning 3.0 Training Magazine Presentation: Gamification of Learning & Instruction
Learning 3.0 Training Magazine Presentation: Gamification of Learning & Instruction
Learning 3.0 Training Magazine Presentation: Gamification of Learning & Instruction
Learning 3.0 Training Magazine Presentation: Gamification of Learning & Instruction
Learning 3.0 Training Magazine Presentation: Gamification of Learning & Instruction
Learning 3.0 Training Magazine Presentation: Gamification of Learning & Instruction
Learning 3.0 Training Magazine Presentation: Gamification of Learning & Instruction
Learning 3.0 Training Magazine Presentation: Gamification of Learning & Instruction
Learning 3.0 Training Magazine Presentation: Gamification of Learning & Instruction
Learning 3.0 Training Magazine Presentation: Gamification of Learning & Instruction
Learning 3.0 Training Magazine Presentation: Gamification of Learning & Instruction
Learning 3.0 Training Magazine Presentation: Gamification of Learning & Instruction
Learning 3.0 Training Magazine Presentation: Gamification of Learning & Instruction
Learning 3.0 Training Magazine Presentation: Gamification of Learning & Instruction
Learning 3.0 Training Magazine Presentation: Gamification of Learning & Instruction
Learning 3.0 Training Magazine Presentation: Gamification of Learning & Instruction
Learning 3.0 Training Magazine Presentation: Gamification of Learning & Instruction
Learning 3.0 Training Magazine Presentation: Gamification of Learning & Instruction
Learning 3.0 Training Magazine Presentation: Gamification of Learning & Instruction
Learning 3.0 Training Magazine Presentation: Gamification of Learning & Instruction
Learning 3.0 Training Magazine Presentation: Gamification of Learning & Instruction
Learning 3.0 Training Magazine Presentation: Gamification of Learning & Instruction
Learning 3.0 Training Magazine Presentation: Gamification of Learning & Instruction
Learning 3.0 Training Magazine Presentation: Gamification of Learning & Instruction
Learning 3.0 Training Magazine Presentation: Gamification of Learning & Instruction
Learning 3.0 Training Magazine Presentation: Gamification of Learning & Instruction
Learning 3.0 Training Magazine Presentation: Gamification of Learning & Instruction
Learning 3.0 Training Magazine Presentation: Gamification of Learning & Instruction
Learning 3.0 Training Magazine Presentation: Gamification of Learning & Instruction
Learning 3.0 Training Magazine Presentation: Gamification of Learning & Instruction
Learning 3.0 Training Magazine Presentation: Gamification of Learning & Instruction
Learning 3.0 Training Magazine Presentation: Gamification of Learning & Instruction
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Learning 3.0 Training Magazine Presentation: Gamification of Learning & Instruction

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  • First introduced to me by Sebastian Deterding
  • Clark, R., Mayer, R. (2011) E-Learning and the Science of Instruction: Proven Guidelines for Consumers and Designers of Multimedia Learning. New York: Pfeiffer. Pg.194
  • Cognitive, Behavioral, Affective
  • Transcript

    • 1. Gamification of Learning and Instruction By Karl M. Kapp Learning 3.0 Conference Bloomsburg UniversityTwitter:@kkapp October 24, 2012
    • 2. Google “Kapp Notes” 2012 New Book: “The Gamification of Learning and Instruction” September 2011 Training Quarterly ArticleImproving Training: Thinking Like a Game Developer September 2012 Training Quarterly ArticleFive Gaming Elements for Effective e-Learning
    • 3. Agenda 1 2 How do you apply game-based strategiesWhat does research say about to the presentation of learning content?games and game elements forlearning? ractivit 3 Inte y Games What elements from games can be added to traditional e-learning? Gam ificati on
    • 4. Are games/simulationseffective for learning? How does Gamification fit into all of this?
    • 5. Let’s PlayFact or Fishy…
    • 6. Rules Take out• A statement is presented your text- – If “true” indicate: FactX machines – If “false” indicate: FishyX• Text Response: Standard Texting Fees Apply!
    • 7. Simulation/games have to be entertaining to be educational?Sitzmann, T. (2011) A meta-analytic examination of the instructional effectiveness of computer-basedsimulation games. Personnel Psychology .Review of 65 studies. Chapter 4 “The Gamification of Learning andInstruction.”
    • 8. FISHY!Sitzmann, T. (2011) A meta-analytic examination of the instructional effectiveness of computer-based simulation games.Personnel Psychology .Review of 65 studies. Chapter 4 “The Gamification of Learning and Instruction.”
    • 9. Simulation/games build more confidence for on the job application of learned knowledge than classroom instruction.Sitzmann, T. (2011) A meta-analytic examination of the instructional effectiveness of computer-basedsimulation games. Personnel Psychology .Review of 65 studies. Chapter 4 “The Gamification of Learning andInstruction.”
    • 10. Fact, 20% higher confidence levels.Sitzmann, T. (2011) A meta-analytic examination of the instructional effectiveness of computer-basedsimulation games. Personnel Psychology .Review of 65 studies. Chapter 4 “The Gamification of Learning andInstruction.”
    • 11. In a Meta-Analysis…Knowledge retention forgame/simulation was 17%higher than a lecture. Is that Fact or Fishy?
    • 12. Fact! Delivery Method vs. % Higher Game/Simulation Lecture 17% Discussion 5%Sitzmann, T. (2011) A meta-analytic examination of the instructional effectiveness of computer-basedsimulation games. Personnel Psychology .Review of 65 studies. Chapter 4 “The Gamification of Learning andInstruction.”
    • 13. Fact! Retention/ % Higher Type of Knowledge Retention 9% Declarative 11% Procedural 14%Sitzmann, T. (2011) A meta-analytic examination of the instructional effectiveness of computer-basedsimulation games. Personnel Psychology .Review of 65 studies. Chapter 4 “The Gamification of Learning andInstruction.”
    • 14. Fact! Retention It wasn’t the game, it was % Higher level of activity in the game. Type of Knowledge Retention 9% In other words, the Procedural engagement of the learner in 14% the game leads to learning. Declarative 11%Sitzmann, T. (2011) A meta-analytic examination of the instructional effectiveness of computer-basedsimulation games. Personnel Psychology .Review of 65 studies. Chapter 4 “The Gamification of Learning andInstruction.”
    • 15. Example Image Courtesy of Enspire Learning
    • 16. Evidence-Based Recommendations1) Use a game/simulation to provide a context for the learning.2) Don’t focus on “entertainment.”3) Carefully craft the simulation/game to provide opportunities to increase engagement and interactivity to increase learning.
    • 17. Wait a minute, games can be expensive. Level of Interactivity Type of Low Medium High Type of Game Play Knowledge (Customer Taught Development)Exploration/Simulation $25,000- $35,000- $50,000- Problem-Engine/Free Play Area $35,000 $50,000 $150,000 SolvingBranching story, On-Line $10,000- $15,000- $30,000- ConceptualBoard Games $15,000 $30,000 $50,000 Knowledge/ RulesMatching, Trivia Games, $1,500- $3,000- $5,000- DeclarativeDrag and Drop Games $3,000 $5,000 $20,000 Knowledge/ Fact/Jargon
    • 18. Use game-based mechanics,aesthetics and game thinking toengage people, motivate action, promote learning, and solve problems. Gamificatio n
    • 19. Gaming (Serious ) Games Gamification Simulations Course HeroWhole Part Toys Playful Design Legos iPhone PlayingFrom Game Design Elements to Gamefulness: Defining “Gamification”, Deterding, S. et. al
    • 20. http://www.coursehero.com/courses/
    • 21. 2 weeks after launching Courses (powered by gamification), CourseHeroreceived 350 suggested edits to existing courses and 122 requests for newcourses.Another 68 people offered to augment existing courses by creating theirown course to be hosted on coursehero.com.
    • 22. For Gamified courses, the time on site for the Courses are nearlythree times as long as time onsite for all of coursehero.com.Social sharing of achievements increased nearly 400 percent inthree months.
    • 23. … it’s not all about points, badges and progress bars.
    • 24. 20% increase in profile completion.
    • 25. Elements ofGames that Aid Learning• Story• Character• Recognition• Levels• Challenges• Chance• Replayability• Aesthetics• Time• Continual Feedback
    • 26. Elements ofGames that Aid Learning• Story• Character•• NOT Enough Time  Recognition Levels• Challenges• Chance• Replayability• Aesthetics• Time• Continual Feedback
    • 27. Elements ofGames that Aid Learning1. Feedback2. Story3. Characters4. Fantasy
    • 28. Feedback
    • 29. The most helpful feedback provides specific comments about errors and suggestions for improvement. It also encourages learners to focus their attention thoughtfully on the task rather than on simply getting the right answer.Shute, V. J., Ventura, M., Bauer, M. I., & Zapata-Rivera, D. (2009). Melding the power of serious games andembedded assessment to monitor and foster learning: Flow and grow. In U. Ritterfeld, M. J. Cody, & P.Vorderer (Eds.), Serious Games: Mechanisms and Effects. Philadelphia, PA: Routledge/LEA. 295-321.
    • 30. Games like The Sims provide feedback on many dimensions which provide opportunities to consider tradeoffs and higher level cognitive thinking.
    • 31. Leaderboards provide opportunities for players toreceive feedback about theirperformance as compared to others. Comparative and relative feedback
    • 32. Focused Feedback encourages activity.
    • 33. Story
    • 34. Learners remember facts better…When presented in a bulletedlist as opposed to whenpresented in a story.Is that Fact or Fishy?
    • 35. FISHY: Researchers have found that FISHY: Researchers have found that Yep, People tend to remember facts Yep, People tend to remember facts the human brain has a natural the human brain has a natural more accurately if they encounter more accurately if they encounter affinity for narrative construction. affinity for narrative construction. them in a story rather than in a list. them in a story rather than in a list. And they rate legal arguments as more convincing when built into narrative tales rather than on legal precedent.Carey, B. (2007) this is Your Life (and How You Tell it). The New York Times. Melanie Green Carey, B. (2007) this is Your Life (and How You Tell it). The New York Times. Melanie Greenhttp://www.unc.edu/~mcgreen/research.html. Chapter 2 “The Gamification of Learning and http://www.unc.edu/~mcgreen/research.html. Chapter 2 “The Gamification of Learning andInstruction. Instruction.
    • 36. Story Elements 1. Characters2. Plot (something has to happen). 3. Ten s ion 4. Resolution te rs pr ob le m C ha ra ct er en co u n n si on 5. Conclusion Pr ob le m bu il ds te re d A so lu ti on is of fe te d /p os it iv e R es u lt s ar e pr es en
    • 37. NikePlus Stats for Karl
    • 38. Recommendations• Embed facts to be learned in the context of stories.• Use stories that are related to the context of the desired learning outcome.
    • 39. We’ve Always W anted Characters
    • 40. An on-screen character isdistracting to the learner..Is that Fact or Fishy?
    • 41. FISHY: On transfer tests involving different word problems, the group who had a character generated 30% more correct answers than the group with on-screen text. Animated pedagogical agents (characters) can be aids to learning. A “realistic” character did not facilitate learning any better than a “cartoon-like” character.Clark, R., Mayer, R. (2011) E-Learning and the Science of Instruction: Proven Guidelines for Consumers and Designers ofMultimedia Learning. New York: Pfeiffer. Pg. 194.
    • 42. Research indicates that learners perceive, interact socially with and are influenced by anthropomorphic agents (characters) even when their functionality and adaptability are limited. http://codebaby.com/elearning-solutions/examples/
    • 43. Who is more likely to run 24 hours later?A.Person who watched an avatar that did notlook like them runningB.Person who watched an avatar that lookedlike them runningC.Person watching an avatar that looked likethem loitering /hanging out
    • 44. Within 24 hours of watching an avatar like themselves run, learners were more likely to run than watching an avatar not like them or watching an avatar like them loitering .Fox, J., Arena, D., & Bailenson, J.N. (2009). Virtual Reality: A survival guide for the social scientist. Journal of Media Psychology,21 (3), 95-113.
    • 45. If learners watch an avatar that looks like them exercising & losing weight, they will subsequently exercise more in the real world as compared to a control group.Fox, J., Arena, D., & Bailenson, J.N. (2009). Virtual Reality: A survival guide for the social scientist. Journal of Media Psychology, 2(3), 95-113.
    • 46. Malone’s Theory of Intrinsically Motivating InstructionChallenge Fantasy Curiosity
    • 47. Fantasy– There are both cognitive and emotional reasons forevoking fantasy. Cognitively a fantasy can help a learner applyold knowledge to understand new things and help themremember the content. Emotionally, a person can connect withthe experiences and not bring with it “real-world” concerns orfears. Image courtesy of Game On! Learning
    • 48. Evidence-Based Recommendations• Use characters/agents to model desired behavior.• Use characters/agents to provide feedback and instruction to learners.• Fantasy is an acceptable and positive element for instructional games
    • 49. Games can influencepeople to behave in apositive manner.Is that Fact or Fishy?
    • 50. Fact: Games can influence people to behave in a positive manner.Greitemeyer, T. & Osswald, S. (2010) Effective of Prosocial games on prosocial behavior.Greitemeyer, T. & Osswald, S. (2010) Effective of Prosocial games on prosocial behavior.Journal of Personality and Social Psychology. Vol. 98 .. No. 2., 211-221.Journal of Personality and Social Psychology. Vol. 98 No. 2., 211-221.
    • 51. 28% helped topick up pencils
    • 52. 33% helped topick up pencils
    • 53. 67% helped topick up pencils
    • 54. 22%intervened
    • 55. 56%intervened
    • 56. 1) Use a game/simulation to provide a context for the learning.1) Use a game/simulation to provide a context for the learning.2) Don’t focus on “entertainment.”2) Don’t focus on “entertainment.”3) Carefully craft the simulation/game to provide opportunities to increase3) Carefully craft the simulation/game to provide opportunities to increase engagement and interactivity to increase learning. engagement and interactivity to increase learning.4) Embed the game /simulation into the curriculum. Provide “set-up,”4) Embed the game /simulation into the curriculum. Provide “set-up,” game-time and debrief. game-time and debrief.5) Embed facts to be learned in the context of stories.5) Embed facts to be learned in the context of stories.6) Use stories that are related to the context of the desired outcome.6) Use stories that are related to the context of the desired outcome.7) Use characters/agents to model desired behavior.7) Use characters/agents to model desired behavior.8) Use characters/agents to provide feedback and instruction to learners.8) Use characters/agents to provide feedback and instruction to learners.
    • 57. QUESTIONS?Contact Karl viaTwitter or email Twitter:@kkapp kkapp@bloomu.edu

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