The Gamification ofLearning and Instruction - a Preview: What Research Tells Us about 3D Avatars, Storytelling & Serious Games for Learning By Karl M. Kapp Bloomsburg University Twitter: @kkapp #learning3point0
Topics 2 1 How can game levels serve as scaffolding for learning new concepts? What does research say about 3D avatars, storytelling and games/simulations for learning? 4 3 How do games use operant conditioning to encourage and sustain learner activity? How do different types of games teach different content? 5 Can games positively impact behavior?
Google “Kapp Notes” www.kaplaneduneering.com/kappnotes 2012 New Book: “The Gamification of Learning and Instruction” July 2011 T&D Article Matching the Right Instruction to the Right Content September 2011 Training Quarterly Article Improving Training: Thinking Like a Game Developer
..it’s the instructional methods and not the delivery system that provides the active ingredients for learning. …Jeanne Farrington
Let’s look at the ingredients
3D Avatars, Storytelling Games
Identity– no deep learning takes place unless an extended commitment of self is made for the long haul. Good video games capture players through identify. Players either inherit a strongly formed and appealing character or they get to build a character from the ground up. Players become committed to the new virtual world in which they will learn and act. Why should the identify of being and doing “science,” “math,” “healthcare” or “sales” be any different? James Paul Gee, University of Wisconsin-Madison
We’ve Always Wanted Characters
Why be a Character at All? Research indicates that human social models influence behavior, beliefs and attitudes. Bandura, A. 1986 Social foundations of thought and action: a social cognitive theory. Englewood Cliffs, NJ, USA: Prentice-Hall.
Avatar as Teacher Research also indicates that learners perceive, interact socially with and are influenced by anthropomorphic agents (avatars) even when their functionality and adaptability are limited. Baylor, A. 2009 Promoting motivation with virtual agents and avatars: R ole of visual presence and appearance. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal B Society. 364, 3559–3565
Can an experience as an avatar change a person's real life perceptions?YesNoNot Sure?
An experience as an avatar can change a person's real life perceptions. In a study conducted by Yee and Bailenson (2006), it was found that negative stereotyping of the elderly was significantly reduced when participants were placed in avatars of old people compared with those participants placed in avatars of young people. Yee, N. & Bailenson, J.N. (2006). Walk A Mile in Digital Shoes: The Impact of Embodied Perspective-Taking on The Reduction of Negative Stereotyping in Immersive Virtual Environments..Proceedings of PRESENCE 2006: The 9th Annual International Workshop on Presence. August 24 – 26, Cleveland, Ohio, USA
Are two avatars better than one? Motivator Mentor Expert
Motivator Yes, two avatars are better than one. Mentor Baylor, A. L. & Kim, Y. (2005). Simulating instructional roles through pedagogical agents. International Journal of Artificial Intelligence in Education, 15(1), 95-115. Expert
Three groups: Which is more likely to exercise within the next 24 hours? Group 1 watches an avatar that looks like them loitering Group 2 watches an avatar that does not look like themselves exercising. Group 3 watches an avatar that looks like themselves exercising.
If learners watch an avatar that looks like them exercising & losing weight, they will subsequently exercise more in the real world as compared to a control group. Fox, J., Arena, D., & Bailenson, J.N. (2009). Virtual Reality: A survival guide for the social scientist. Journal of Media Psychology, 21 (3), 95-113.
Within 24 hours of watching an avatar like themselves run, learners were more likely to run than watching an avatar not like them or watching an avatar like them loitering . Fox, J., Arena, D., & Bailenson, J.N. (2009). Virtual Reality: A survival guide for the social scientist. Journal of Media Psychology, 21 (3), 95-113.
People tend to conform to how their avatar appears regardless of how it is perceived by others. In one study by Yee and Bailenson (2007), participants with taller avatars behaved more confidently in a negotiation task than participants with shorter avatars; specifically, they were more willing to make unfair splits in negotiation tasks. In contrast, participants with shorter avatars were more willing to accept unfair offers than those who had taller avatars.
Additionally, in subsequent research, Yee et. al. (2009) found that behavioral changes originating within a virtual environment can transfer to subsequent face-to-face interactions.
Which builds more confidence for on the job application of learned knowledge? Class room instruction. Simulation Game.
Simulation Game. 20% higher. Sitzmann, T. (2011) A meta-analytic examination of the instructional effectiveness of computer-based simulation games. Personnel Psychology.
First Person View
Third Person View
Yep, People tend to remember facts more accurately if they encounter them in a story rather than in a list. Researchers have found that the human brain has a natural affinity for narrative construction. And they rate legal arguments as more convincing when built into narrative tales rather than on legal precedent.
Game Levels as Scaffolding
Scaffolding: Process of controlling the task elements that initially are beyond the learner’s capacity. Guided Practice. Step-by-step instructions and then fading of instruction
Once that task is accomplished, the learner is then led to accomplish another goal which builds upon the previous.
Level One: Talking with the receptionist.
Level Two: Talking with the nurse gatekeeper.
Level Three: Talking with the physician.
How Do Different Types of Games Teach Different Content?
Declarative Knowledge Games Matching Multiple Choice Organization-Drag/Drop
Conceptual Knowledge Games Examples Non-Examples Results of Conceptual Understanding
Problem Solving Knowledge Games Branching Simulation
Problem Solving Knowledge Games Virtual 3D Environments
How do games use operant conditioning to encourage and sustain learner activity?
In Super Mario Brothers, coins are collected by having the character bump a box. Sometimes the box yields great rewards, sometimes no.
This is known as a variable ratio reinforcement schedule.
The value, or size, of an anticipated reward influences the motivational signal sent to the brain only within the contexts of the reward system. The uncertainty of an outcome influences the brain’s response to reward, uncertain rewards release more dopamine than predictable rewards.
In many games coins or rewards are collected and motivate the player to continue. This is extrinsic motivation which keeps players playing to get more rewards.
Games like The Sims tap into the intrinsic motivation. Most people have desired career paths, a certain type of home and luxuries they’d like to acquire.
Problems with Extrinsic Motivation In a learning situation, little or no transfer is likely to take place if the learner is only motivated by the reward at the end. Extrinsic Rewards can interfere with intrinsic motivation and, in some cases, undermine that motivation.
Many games combine intrinsic and extrinsic motivation to keep players engaged.
Leaderboards provide opportunities for players to receive feedback about their performance as compared to others. Create a leaderboard among “friends”.
Can games impact behavior?
28% helped to pick up pencils
33% helped to pick up pencils
67% helped to pick up pencils
Summary 2 1 Game levels provide scaffolding for Advancing the learner from one knowledge Level to another 3D avatars, storytelling and games/simulations all enhance learning and person’s experience. 4 3 Games use operant conditioning to encourage and sustain learner activity. Different games are used to teach different content. 5 Games can positively impact behavior.
Questions/More Information http://www.kaplaneduneering.com/kappnotes/ Recommended books Samples and Examples Slides Learning in 3D www.learningin3d.info Gadgets, Games and Gizmos for Learning www.gadgetsgamesandgizmos.com Email: firstname.lastname@example.org Email: email@example.com Look for new Gamification Book in Spring 2012