Learning 3.0 gamification

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  • A study of nursery-school children who liked to play with marking pens illustrates the point. A group of children who indicated they liked to play with markers received a promised reward after playing with the makers. Later when the researchers observed what that group chose to play with it turned out they played with the markers less than children in the control group who received no reward

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  • 1. The Gamification ofLearning and Instruction - a Preview:
    What Research Tells Us about 3D Avatars, Storytelling & Serious Games for Learning
    By Karl M. Kapp
    Bloomsburg University
    Twitter: @kkapp
    #learning3point0
  • 2. Topics
    2
    1
    How can game levels serve
    as scaffolding for learning new concepts?
    What does research say about 3D avatars, storytelling and games/simulations for learning?
    4
    3
    How do games use operant conditioning
    to encourage and sustain learner activity?
    How do different types of games
    teach different content?
    5
    Can games positively impact behavior?
  • 3. Google “Kapp Notes”
    www.kaplaneduneering.com/kappnotes
    2012 New Book:
    “The Gamification of Learning and Instruction”
    July 2011 T&D Article
    Matching the Right Instruction to the Right Content
    September 2011 Training Quarterly Article
    Improving Training: Thinking Like a Game Developer
  • 4. ..it’s the instructional methods and not the delivery system that provides the active ingredients for learning.
    …Jeanne Farrington
  • 5. Let’s look at the ingredients
  • 6. 3D Avatars, Storytelling
    Games
  • 7. Identity– no deep learning takes place unless an
    extended commitment of self is made for the long haul.
    Good video games capture players through identify.
    Players either inherit a strongly formed and
    appealing character or they get to build a character
    from the ground up.
    Players become committed to the new virtual world
    in which they will learn and act.
    Why should the identify of being and doing “science,”
    “math,” “healthcare” or “sales” be any different?
    James Paul Gee, University of Wisconsin-Madison
  • 8. We’ve Always Wanted Characters
  • 9. Why be a Character at All?
    Research indicates that human social models influence behavior, beliefs and attitudes.
    Bandura, A. 1986 Social foundations of thought and action: a social cognitive theory. Englewood Cliffs, NJ, USA: Prentice-Hall.
  • 10. Avatar as Teacher
    Research also indicates that learners perceive, interact socially with and are influenced by anthropomorphic agents (avatars) even when their functionality and adaptability are limited.
    Baylor, A. 2009 Promoting motivation with virtual agents and avatars: R ole of visual presence and appearance. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal B Society. 364, 3559–3565
  • 11. Can an experience as an avatar change a person's real life perceptions?YesNoNot Sure?
  • 12. An experience as an avatar can change a person's real life perceptions. In a study conducted by Yee and Bailenson (2006), it was found that negative stereotyping of the elderly was significantly reduced when participants were placed in avatars of old people compared with those participants placed in avatars of young people.
    Yee, N. & Bailenson, J.N. (2006).  Walk A Mile in Digital Shoes: The Impact of Embodied Perspective-Taking on The
    Reduction of Negative Stereotyping in Immersive Virtual Environments..Proceedings of PRESENCE 2006: The 9th Annual International Workshop on Presence. August 24 – 26, Cleveland, Ohio, USA
  • 13. Are two avatars better than one?
    Motivator
    Mentor
    Expert
  • 14. Motivator
    Yes, two avatars are better than one.
    Mentor
    Baylor, A. L. & Kim, Y. (2005). Simulating instructional roles through pedagogical agents. International Journal of Artificial Intelligence in Education, 15(1), 95-115.
    Expert
  • 15. http://www.codebaby.com/showcase/elearning-showcase/
  • 16. Three groups: Which is more likely to exercise within the next 24 hours?
    Group 1 watches an avatar that looks like them loitering
    Group 2 watches an avatar that does not look like themselves exercising.
    Group 3 watches an avatar that looks like themselves exercising.
  • 17. If learners watch an avatar that looks like them exercising & losing weight, they will subsequently exercise more in the real world as compared to a control group.
    Fox, J., Arena, D., & Bailenson, J.N. (2009). Virtual Reality: A survival guide for the social scientist. Journal of Media Psychology, 21 (3), 95-113.
  • 18. Within 24 hours of watching an avatar like themselves run, learners were more likely to run than watching an avatar not like them or watching an avatar like them loitering .
    Fox, J., Arena, D., & Bailenson, J.N. (2009). Virtual Reality: A survival guide for the social scientist. Journal of Media Psychology, 21 (3), 95-113.
  • 19. People tend to conform to how their avatar appears regardless of how it is perceived by others. In one study by Yee and Bailenson (2007), participants with taller avatars behaved more confidently in a negotiation task than participants with shorter avatars; specifically, they were more willing to make unfair splits in negotiation tasks. In contrast, participants with shorter avatars were more willing to accept unfair offers than those who had taller avatars. 
     
    Additionally, in subsequent research, Yee et. al. (2009) found that behavioral changes originating within a virtual environment can transfer to subsequent face-to-face interactions.
  • 20. Which builds more confidence for on the job application of learned knowledge?
    Class room instruction.
    Simulation Game.
  • 21. Simulation Game.
    20% higher.
    Sitzmann, T. (2011) A meta-analytic examination of the instructional effectiveness of computer-based simulation games. Personnel Psychology.
  • 22. First Person View
  • 23. Third Person View
  • 24. Yep, People tend to remember facts more accurately if they encounter them in a story rather than in a list.
    Researchers have found that the human brain has a natural affinity for narrative construction.
    And they rate legal arguments as more convincing when built into narrative tales rather than on legal precedent.
  • 25. Game Levels as
    Scaffolding
  • 26. Scaffolding: Process of controlling the task elements that initially are beyond the learner’s capacity.
    Guided Practice. Step-by-step instructions and then fading of instruction
  • 27. Once that task is accomplished, the learner is then led to accomplish another goal which builds upon the previous.
  • 28. Level One: Talking with the receptionist.
  • 29. Level Two: Talking with the nurse gatekeeper.
  • 30. Level Three: Talking with the physician.
  • 31. How Do Different
    Types of Games Teach
    Different
    Content?
  • 32. Declarative Knowledge Games
    Matching
    Multiple Choice
    Organization-Drag/Drop
  • 33. Conceptual
    Knowledge Games
    Examples
    Non-Examples
    Results of Conceptual Understanding
  • 34. Problem Solving
    Knowledge Games
    Branching Simulation
  • 35. Problem Solving
    Knowledge Games
    Virtual 3D Environments
  • 36. How do games use
    operant conditioning
    to encourage and
    sustain learner activity?
  • 37. In Super Mario Brothers, coins are collected by having the character bump a box. Sometimes the box yields great rewards, sometimes no.
  • 38. This is known as a variable ratio reinforcement schedule.
  • 39. The value, or size, of an anticipated reward influences the motivational signal sent to the brain only within the contexts of the reward system.
    The uncertainty of an outcome influences the brain’s response to reward, uncertain rewards release more dopamine than predictable rewards.
  • 40. In many games coins or rewards are collected and motivate the player to continue. This is extrinsic motivation which keeps players playing to get more rewards.
  • 41. Games like The Sims tap into the intrinsic motivation. Most people have desired career paths, a certain type of home and luxuries they’d like to acquire.
  • 42. Problems with Extrinsic Motivation
    In a learning situation, little or no transfer is likely to take place if the learner is only motivated by the reward at the end.
    Extrinsic Rewards can interfere with intrinsic motivation and, in some cases, undermine that motivation.
  • 43. Many games combine intrinsic and extrinsic motivation to keep players engaged.
  • 44. Leaderboards provide opportunities for players to receive feedback about their performance as compared to others.
    Create a leaderboard among “friends”.
  • 45.
  • 46. Can games impact
    behavior?
  • 47. Experimental Condition
  • 48. 28% helped to pick up pencils
  • 49. 33% helped to pick up pencils
  • 50. 67% helped to pick up pencils
  • 51.
  • 52. 22% intervened
  • 53. 56% intervened
  • 54.
  • 55. Summary
    2
    1
    Game levels provide scaffolding for
    Advancing the learner from one knowledge
    Level to another
    3D avatars, storytelling and games/simulations all enhance
    learning and person’s experience.
    4
    3
    Games use operant conditioning
    to encourage and sustain learner activity.
    Different games are used to
    teach different content.
    5
    Games can positively impact behavior.
  • 56. Questions/More Information
    http://www.kaplaneduneering.com/kappnotes/
    Recommended books
    Samples and Examples
    Slides
    Learning in 3D
    www.learningin3d.info
    Gadgets, Games and Gizmos for Learning
    www.gadgetsgamesandgizmos.com
    Email: kkapp@bloomu.edu
    Email: karlkapp@gmail.com
    Look for new Gamification Book in Spring 2012