The “Immernet”: Immersive Learning through Games, Gamification and Virtual Worlds


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What is the immersive internet-the Immernet and why should learning and development professionals care? In this learning event, we will discuss the use of 3D avatars to change learner behaviors; we will consider how playing a video game changes a person's behavior, how storytelling helps learners memorize facts and how gamification can lead to improved health. This research-based session demonstrates how simple techniques engage and immerse learners in the content they need to learn.You will be provided with tips and techniques for matching research findings to your own immersive learning design. We'll move the concepts from research-to-practice. The presentation ends with a practical case study outlining how the research tips, techniques and practices can immerse learners in the learning experience. Discover how research-based practices can drive immersive learning experiences and behavior change.Session repeated Thursday, TH404-Apply three simple, low-tech techniques for creating engaging learning experiences.-Use four instructional design methods that encourage immersive learning.-Create learning experiences tied to interactivity, immersion and game-based elements.

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The “Immernet”: Immersive Learning through Games, Gamification and Virtual Worlds

  1. 1. The “Immernet”: Immersive Learning through Games, Gamification and Virtual  Worlds By Karl M. Kapp Bloomsburg University Gamification of Learning and Instruction  Twitter:@kkapp
  2. 2. Interactivity (I) + Immersion (I) = Sustained Engagement (E) Results in meaningful learning.
  3. 3. Interactivity (I) + Immersion (I) = Sustained Engagement (E) Results in meaningful learning.
  4. 4. Latest Slides for This Presentation Google “Kapp Notes” Ripped from the pages of “The  Gamification of Learning and  Instruction”
  5. 5. Latest Slides for This Presentation Book signing in  Google “Kapp Notes” Bookstore at  5:15 Ripped from the pages of “The  Gamification of Learning and  Instruction”
  6. 6. Agenda 1 2 What are four instructional design methods What are three simple, low‐tech  that encourage immersive learningtechniques for creating engaging learning experiences? 3 How do I, create learning experiences tied to interactivity,  immersion and game‐based elements? 
  7. 7. Malone’s Theory of Intrinsically  Motivating Instruction Challenge Fantasy Curiosity
  8. 8. ChallengeJones, B., Valdez, G., Norakowski, J., & Rasmussen, C. (1994). Designing learning and technology for educational reform. North Central Regional  Educational Laboratory. [Online]. Available: and Schlechty, P. C. (1997). Inventing better schools: An action plan for educational reform. San Francisco, CA: Jossey‐Bass. Chapter 2 “The Gamification of Learning and Instruction.”
  9. 9. Fantasy– There are both cognitive andemotional reasons for evoking fantasy.Cognitively a fantasy can help a learnerapply old knowledge to understand newthings and help them remember thecontent. Emotionally, a person canconnect with the experiences and notbring with it “real-world” concerns or fears.
  10. 10. Image Courtesy of GameOn! Learning
  11. 11. Challenge and Consolidation– Good games offer players a setof challenging problems and then let them solve these problemsuntil they have virtually routinized or automated their solutions.Games then throw a new class of problem at the players requiringthem to rethink their now, taken-for-granted mastery, learnsomething new, and integrate this new learning into their oldmastery.James Paul Gee,University of Wisconsin-Madison
  12. 12. Self‐Determination Theory• Self‐Determination Theory – Autonomy – Competence – Relatedness
  13. 13. Autonomy or Producers– Players are producers, not justconsumers, they are “writers” not just “readers.” Even at itssimplest level, players co-design games by the action they takeand decision they make.James Paul Gee, University of Wisconsin-Madison
  14. 14. Competence or Pleasantly Frustrating– Good games staywithin, but at the outer edge, of the players “regime ofcompetence” (diSessa, 2000) Challenges in a game arechallenging but feel “doable.”This is motivational. (Confidence from the ARCS model ofmotivation.)James Paul Gee, University of Wisconsin-Madison diSessa, A. A. Changing Minds: Computers, Learning and Literatcy. Cambridge, Mass.: MIT Press, 2000.
  15. 15. Performance before Competence– Good video games operateby a principle just the reverse of Most training modules:performance before competence (Cazden, 1981).Players can perform before they are competent, supported by thedesign of the game. It is learning by doing.James Paul Gee, University of Wisconsin-Madison
  16. 16. Relatedness– This is experienced when a person feelsconnected to others. It can either be in real-time or related toplayers who have played before through such items as aleaderboard or artifacts left by other players.
  17. 17. Are games effective for  learning?
  18. 18. Yes! Retention % Higher Type of Knowledge Retention 9% Procedural 14% Declarative 11%Sitzmann, T. (2011) A meta-analytic examination of the instructional effectiveness of computer-basedsimulation games. Personnel Psychology .Review of 65 studies. Chapter 4 “The Gamification of Learning andInstruction.”
  19. 19. Percentages of Impact It wasn’t the game, it was Retention level of activity in the game. % Higher Type of Knowledge Retention 9% In other words, the Procedural engagement of the learner in 14% the game leads to learning. Declarative 11%Sitzmann, T. (2011) A meta-analytic examination of the instructional effectiveness of computer-basedsimulation games. Personnel Psychology .Review of 65 studies. Chapter 4 “The Gamification of Learning andInstruction.”
  20. 20. Do simulation/games have to be entertaining to be  educational?   NOSitzmann, T. (2011) A meta-analytic examination of the instructional effectiveness of computer-basedsimulation games. Personnel Psychology .Review of 65 studies. Chapter 4 “The Gamification of Learning andInstruction.”
  21. 21. Do Simulation/games build more confidence for  on the job application of learned knowledge than  classroom instruction. Yes, 20% higher  confidence levels.Sitzmann, T. (2011) A meta-analytic examination of the instructional effectiveness of computer-basedsimulation games. Personnel Psychology .Review of 65 studies. Chapter 4 “The Gamification of Learning andInstruction.”
  22. 22. Fact: Instructional games should be embedded in  instructional programs that include  debriefing and feedback.  Engagement Instructional support to help learners  Educational understand how to use the game increases  Simulation instructional effectiveness of the gaming  Game experience. PedagogyHays, R. T. (2005). The effectiveness of instructional games: A literature review anddiscussion. Naval Air Warfare Center Training Systems Division (No 2005‐004). Chapter 4 “The Gamification of Learning and Instruction.” g
  23. 23. Example
  24. 24. Enspire Learning:
  25. 25. Enspire Learning:
  26. 26. TransferThe ability of simulations to teach skills that transfer to real‐life, on‐the‐job situations seems abundantly positive… Computer‐based simulations—assessed as an alternative to other means of training, as a supplement to other means of training, as a device to combat skill decay in experienced trainees, and as a means of improving performance levels as they stand prior to training—show positive results for transfer a majority of the time. In 22 out of 26 studies, trainees demonstrated equal or  superior transfer to the control group from simulations. Shenan Hahn ADL Research and Evaluation Team
  27. 27. Recommendations 1) Use a game/simulation to provide a context for the learning. 2) Don’t focus on “entertainment.” 3) Carefully craft the simulation/game to provide opportunities  to increase engagement and interactivity to increase  learning.
  28. 28. Use game-based mechanics,aesthetics and game thinking toengage people, motivate action, promote learning, and solve problems. Gamification
  29. 29.
  30. 30. Use  measurement achievements instead  of completion achievements to increase  intrinsic motivation through feedback. Locke, E.A., & Latham, G.P. (2002) Building a practially useful theory of goal setting and task  motivation: A 35‐year Odyssey. American Psychologist, 57(9), 705‐717 Chapter 11: “The  Gamification of Learning and Instruction”
  31. 31. Primarily use expected achievements so  players can establish goals for themselves and  create a schema of the learning environment., L.J., & Anderson (1990) The disruptive potential of immediate feedback. The proceedings of the Twelfth Annual Conference of the Cognitive Science Society, Cambridge, MA. Chapter 11: “The Gamification of Learning and Instruction”
  32. 32. Some people think Gamification is only about points,  badges and rewards…
  33. 33. … if it was, this would be the most engaging game in the  world.
  34. 34. 20% increase in profile completion.
  35. 35. … but the possibilities of “gamification” are far larger  than points, badges and rewards.
  36. 36. Elements of ImmersiveEnvironments that Aid Learning
  37. 37. Elements of ImmersiveEnvironments that Aid LearningNOT Enough Time 
  38. 38. Elements of ImmersiveEnvironments that Aid Learning
  39. 39. Elements of ImmersiveEnvironments that Aid Learning
  40. 40. Story
  41. 41. Researchers have found that the  Yep, People tend to remember facts  human brain has a natural affinity for  more accurately if they encounter  narrative construction. them in a story rather than in a list. And they rate legal arguments as more  convincing when built into narrative  tales rather than on legal precedent.Carey, B. (2007) this is Your Life (and How You Tell it). The New York Times. Melanie Green Chapter 2 “The Gamification of Learning and Instruction. 
  42. 42. Story Elements1. Characters2. Plot (something has to happen).3. Tension 4. Resolution5. Conclusion
  43. 43. NikePlus Stats for Karl
  44. 44. Re‐design the Instruction to  Start with a Challenge
  45. 45. Recommendations • Embed facts to be learned in the context of stories.• Start the learning process by providing a challenge to  the learner.• Provide a progression from simple to more difficult  tasks.• Use stories that are related to the context of the  desired learning outcome. 
  46. 46. We’ve Always Wanted Characters Characters
  47. 47. On tests involving different word problems, the group who had  a character explain the problems generated 30% more correct  answers than the group with  just on‐screen text. Animated pedagogical agents (characters) can be aids  to learning.  A “realistic” character did not facilitate  learning any better than a “cartoon‐like” character.Clark, R., Mayer, R. (2011) E-Learning and the Science of Instruction: Proven Guidelines for Consumers and Designers ofMultimedia Learning. New York: Pfeiffer. Pg. 194. Chapter 4 “The Gamificaiton of Learning and Instruciton”
  48. 48. Avatar as Teacher Research indicates that learners perceive, interact  socially with and are influenced by anthropomorphic  agents (characters) even when their functionality and  adaptability are limited.Baylor, A. 2009 Promoting motivation with virtual agents and avatars: R ole of visual presence and appearance. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal B  Society. 364, 3559–3565. Chapter 4 “The Gamification of Learning and Instruction”
  49. 49. Are two avatars better than  one?Motivator Mentor Expert
  50. 50. Yes, two avatars are better  than one. Motivator MentorBaylor, A. L. & Kim, Y. (2005). Simulating instructional roles throughpedagogical agents. International Journal of Artificial Intelligence inEducation, 15(1), 95-115. Chapter 4 “The Gamification of Learning and ExpertInstruction”
  51. 51.‐solutions/examples/
  52. 52.‐solutions/examples/
  53. 53. Recommendations • Use characters/agents to model desired behavior.• Use characters/agents to provide feedback and  instruction to learners.• Characters should  speak in a natural, conversational tone.• Use two characters, one for coaching and one for  expertise is better than just having one character trying to  do both.
  54. 54. Levels
  55. 55. Games provide different levels for different points of  entry. 
  56. 56. Scaffolding: Process of controlling the task elements that initially are  beyond the learner’s capacity.  Guided Practice. Step‐by‐step  instructions and then fading of  instruction Having different entry points into a learning module  provides players with a comfort level that they can  enter the learning and be successful.
  57. 57. Many of the instructional methods that are effective for  novices either have no effect or, in some cases, depress  the learning of learners with more expertise.   Training designed for learners with greater prior knowledge requires different instruction methods than  training designed for novice learners.  Clark, R., Nguyen, F. & Sweller, J. (2006) Efficiency in Learning: Evidence‐based guidelines to manage cognitive load. Pfeiffer. Page 247. Chapter 7 and 7  of “The Gamification of Learning and Instruction.
  58. 58. Recommendations • Allow different entry points into the instruction.• Provide a level demonstrating the needed skill, task or  concept, create a level with guided practice and create a  level  that allows the player complete freedom to perform  the task or apply the concept on his or her own.
  59. 59. Do not view virtual worlds  as a next step in “how” classroom‐based learning  will be delivered.
  60. 60. Instead, ask what kind of  learning can this new  technology can enable.
  61. 61. Human interaction around a task where peer‐to‐peer or  group learning is enabled.
  62. 62. By adding immersion to the equation, organizations can allow  for higher quality learning interactions between employees  who work at a distance.
  63. 63. Learning content not organized around the work context  causes unnecessary overhead for the learner. Learners tend to prefer  instructions over  instruction.
  64. 64. Simulated environments always made sense in Medicine, Military and Aviation. Now they make sense  for Factories, Call Centers, Retail Stores and other  “work” environments.
  65. 65. First Experiment indicated that playing the game Darfur is Dying resulted in a greater willingness to help the Darfurian people than reading a text conveying same information.Peng, W., Lee, M., & Heeter. (2010) The effects of a serious game on role taking and willingness to help. Journal ofCommunications. 60, 723-724. Chapter 5 of “The Gamificaiton of Learning and Instruction.
  66. 66. Second Experiment indicated that playing the game Darfur is Dying resulted in a greater role taking and willingness to help than either game watching or text reading.Peng, W., Lee, M., & Heeter. (2010) The effects of a serious game on role taking and willingness to help. Journal ofCommunications. 60, 723-724. Chapter 5 of “The Gamificaiton of Learning and Instruction.
  67. 67. Take‐Away1) Interactivity of games leads to higher knowledge retention  for declarative and procedural knowledge.2) Embed facts to be learned in the context of stories. 3) Games/Simulations do not need to be fun to be educational.4) On screen characters can enhance e‐learning.5) Two on screen characters (mentor and expert) are better  then one.6) Use stories rather than bulleted lists to present facts.7) Present learners with a difficult challenge to engage and  motivate them. 8) Use stories that are related to the context of the desired  learning outcome. 9) Allow different entry points/levels into the instruction.10) Games can be more influential than reading about a subject.
  68. 68. Contact Karl via  Race you to Book Twitter or email Store! Twitter:@kkapp