Interactivity, Games and Gamification:      Creating Engaged Learners                 By Karl M. Kapp                 Bloo...
Torn from the book…
Google “Kapp Notes”       September 2011 Training Quarterly Article   Improving Training: Thinking Like a Game Developer  ...
Agenda          1                                   2                               How do you apply game-based strategies...
Let’s PlayFact or Fishy…
How to Play• I’ll make a statement.• You decide if the statement is a “Fact” or if it’s  not really true (false) “Fishy.”•...
Do you understand what to do        for the Fact or Fishy Game?Fact                           Fishy
Let’s PlayFact      or    Fishy
When compared to traditional training, game/simulation      training yields a 9% higher retention rate .  Fact            ...
Fact                           Retention % Higher                           Type of                           Knowledge   ...
Percentages of Impact      It wasn’t the game, it was                  Retention    level of activity in the game.        ...
Game/Simulations must to be entertaining to be educational.   Fact                                    Fishy
Do simulation/games have to be entertaining to be                         educational?                                    ...
Simulation/games build more confidence for on the jobapplication of learned knowledge than classroom instruction.    Fact ...
Fact: Simulation/games build more confidence     for on the job application of learned knowledge               than classr...
Instructional games are most effective when embedded ininstructional programs that include debriefing and feedback.     Fa...
Fact: Instructional games should be embedded in      instructional programs that include      debriefing and feedback.    ...
Enspire Learning: http://www.enspire.com/
Enspire Learning: http://www.enspire.com/
Enspire Learning: http://www.enspire.com/
Recommendations1) Use a game/simulation to provide a context for the learning.2) Don’t focus on “entertainment.”3) Careful...
Level of Interactivity      Type of                                              Type of    Game Play             Low     ...
Use game-based mechanics,aesthetics and game thinking toengage people, motivate action,  promote learning, and solve      ...
Use measurement achievements instead                of completion achievements to increase                 intrinsic motiv...
Primarily use expected achievements so                                     players can establish goals for themselves and ...
Some people think Gamification is only about            points, badges and rewards.… but the possibilities of “gamificatio...
Elements ofGames that Aid   Learning•   Story•   Character•   Recognition•   Levels•   Challenges•   Chance•   Replayabili...
Elements ofGames that Aid   Learning•   Story•   Character    Recognition••     NOT Enough Time     Levels•   Challenges•...
Three Elements ofGames that Aid   Learning1. Characters2. Story3. Challenges
We’ve Always Wanted    Characters
The use of on-screen characters to present information to alearner interferes with the learner’s performance more thanjust...
FISHY: On tests involving different word problems, the group         who had a character explain the problems generated 30...
Avatar as Teacher       Research indicates that learners perceive, interact     socially with and are influenced by anthro...
When audio is used and a character talks to the learner, thetone and conversational style needs to be formal.      Fact   ...
FISHY: When audio is used and a character talks to the learner,         the tone and conversational style needs to be INFO...
The use of two characters, one as a coach and one as an expertis better than just having one a character (mentor).      Fa...
Yes, two avatars are better                      than one.                                                         Fact   ...
http://codebaby.com/elearning-solutions/examples/
http://codebaby.com/elearning-solutions/examples/
Recommendations• Use characters/agents to model desired behavior.• Use characters/agents to provide feedback and  instruct...
Story
Learners tend to remember facts more accurately if theyencounter them in a bulleted list rather than in a story.      Fact...
FISHY: Researchers have found that the                  Yep, People tend to remember facts human brain has a natural affin...
Story Elements1.Characters2. Plot (something has to happen).3. Tension 4. Resolution5. Conclusion
NikePlus Stats for Karl
Presenting learners with a challenging task is not a goodtechnique for generating learner engagement.      Fact           ...
FISHY: Provide a                challengeJones, B., Valdez, G., Norakowski, J., & Rasmussen, C. (1994). Designing learning...
Re-design the Instruction to   Start with a Challenge
Investigatory Training• Course Objectives  – Identify the Forms Required for an Investigation  – Practice Interview Techni...
It is your first day on the job as an investigator andJane, an employee in Accounting, just accused herboss of embezzling ...
Challenge and Consolidation– Good games offer players a setof challenging problems and then let them solve these problemsu...
Recommendations• Embed facts to be learned in the context of stories.• Start the learning process by providing a challenge...
First Experiment indicated that playing the game Darfur is Dying resulted in a greater willingness to help the Darfurian p...
Second Experiment indicated that playing                                     the game Darfur is Dying resulted in a       ...
Take-Away1) Interactivity of games leads to higher knowledge retention    for declarative and procedural knowledge.2) Embe...
Questions   ?            Twitter:@kkapp            kkapp@bloomu.edu
Interactivity, Games and Gamification: Creating Engaged Learners
Interactivity, Games and Gamification: Creating Engaged Learners
Interactivity, Games and Gamification: Creating Engaged Learners
Interactivity, Games and Gamification: Creating Engaged Learners
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Interactivity, Games and Gamification: Creating Engaged Learners

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Based on the bestselling learning book, “The Gamification of Learning and Instruction” this presentation introduces, defines, and describes the concepts of gamification, games for learning and interactivity. It then dissects the elements of games and describes how they can be applied to the design and development of interactive learning.

The presentation is based on solid research including peer-reviewed results from dozens of studies that offer insights into why game-based thinking and mechanics makes for vigorous learning tools. Not all games or gamification efforts are the same, creating engaging learning using game-based thinking requires matching instructional content with the right game mechanics and game thinking. Moving beyond the theoretical considerations, the presentation explores three methods for designing interactive learning based on concepts from games.

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  • One element of engaged learning is challenging tasks. Jones, B., Valdez, G., Norakowski, J., & Rasmussen, C. (1994). Designing learning and technology for educational reform. North Central Regional ducational Laboratory. [Online]. Available: http://www.ncrtec.org/capacity/profile/profwww.htm and Schlechty, P. C. (1997). Inventing better schools: An action plan for educational reform. San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass.
  • Interactivity, Games and Gamification: Creating Engaged Learners

    1. 1. Interactivity, Games and Gamification: Creating Engaged Learners By Karl M. Kapp Bloomsburg University Gamification of Learning and Instruction August 7, 2012Twitter:@kkapp
    2. 2. Torn from the book…
    3. 3. Google “Kapp Notes” September 2011 Training Quarterly Article Improving Training: Thinking Like a Game Developer July 2012 T&D ArticleGames, Gamification and the Quest for Interactive Learning
    4. 4. Agenda 1 2 How do you apply game-based strategiesWhat does research say about to the presentation of learning content?games and game elements forlearning? 3 What elements from games can be added to traditional e-learning?
    5. 5. Let’s PlayFact or Fishy…
    6. 6. How to Play• I’ll make a statement.• You decide if the statement is a “Fact” or if it’s not really true (false) “Fishy.”• Use whiteboard feature to write your initials in the appropriate column.• See how many you can get correct.
    7. 7. Do you understand what to do for the Fact or Fishy Game?Fact Fishy
    8. 8. Let’s PlayFact or Fishy
    9. 9. When compared to traditional training, game/simulation training yields a 9% higher retention rate . Fact Fishy
    10. 10. Fact Retention % Higher Type of Knowledge Retention 9% Procedural 14% Declarative 11%Sitzmann, T. (2011) A meta-analytic examination of the instructional effectiveness of computer-basedsimulation games. Personnel Psychology .Review of 65 studies. Chapter 4 “The Gamification of Learning andInstruction.”
    11. 11. Percentages of Impact It wasn’t the game, it was Retention level of activity in the game. % Higher Type of Knowledge Retention 9% In other words, the Procedural engagement of the learner in 14% the game leads to learning. Declarative 11%Sitzmann, T. (2011) A meta-analytic examination of the instructional effectiveness of computer-basedsimulation games. Personnel Psychology .Review of 65 studies. Chapter 4 “The Gamification of Learning andInstruction.”
    12. 12. Game/Simulations must to be entertaining to be educational. Fact Fishy
    13. 13. Do simulation/games have to be entertaining to be educational? FISHY, NOSitzmann, T. (2011) A meta-analytic examination of the instructional effectiveness of computer-basedsimulation games. Personnel Psychology .Review of 65 studies. Chapter 4 “The Gamification of Learning andInstruction.”
    14. 14. Simulation/games build more confidence for on the jobapplication of learned knowledge than classroom instruction. Fact Fishy
    15. 15. Fact: Simulation/games build more confidence for on the job application of learned knowledge than classroom instruction. 20% higher confidence levels.Sitzmann, T. (2011) A meta-analytic examination of the instructional effectiveness of computer-basedsimulation games. Personnel Psychology .Review of 65 studies. Chapter 4 “The Gamification of Learning andInstruction.”
    16. 16. Instructional games are most effective when embedded ininstructional programs that include debriefing and feedback. Fact Fishy
    17. 17. Fact: Instructional games should be embedded in instructional programs that include debriefing and feedback. Engagement Instructional support to help learners understand Educational the game increases how to use instructionalSimulation effectiveness of the gaming Game experience. PedagogyHays, R. T. (2005). The effectiveness of instructional games: A literature review anddiscussion. Naval Air Warfare Center Training Systems Division (No 2005-004). Chapter 4“The Gamification of Learning and Instruction.”
    18. 18. Enspire Learning: http://www.enspire.com/
    19. 19. Enspire Learning: http://www.enspire.com/
    20. 20. Enspire Learning: http://www.enspire.com/
    21. 21. Recommendations1) Use a game/simulation to provide a context for the learning.2) Don’t focus on “entertainment.”3) Carefully craft the simulation/game to provide opportunities to increase engagement and interactivity to increase learning.
    22. 22. Level of Interactivity Type of Type of Game Play Low Medium High Knowledge (Customer Taught Development)Exploration/Simulation $25,000- $35,000- $50,000- Problem-Engine/Free Play Area $35,000 $50,000 $150,000 SolvingBranching story, On- $10,000- $15,000- $30,000- ConceptualLine Board Games $15,000 $30,000 $50,000 Knowledge/ RulesMatching, Trivia $1,500- $3,000- $5,000- DeclarativeGames, Drag and $3,000 $5,000 $20,000 Knowledge/Drop Games Fact/Jargon
    23. 23. Use game-based mechanics,aesthetics and game thinking toengage people, motivate action, promote learning, and solve problems. Gamification
    24. 24. Use measurement achievements instead of completion achievements to increase intrinsic motivation through feedback.Locke, E.A., & Latham, G.P. (2002) Building a practially useful theory of gal setting and task motivation: A 35-year Odyssey. American Psychologist, 57(9), 705-717 Chapter 11: “The Gamification of Learning and Instruction”
    25. 25. Primarily use expected achievements so players can establish goals for themselves and create a schema of the learning environment.Schooler, L.J., & Anderson (1990) The disruptive potential of immediate feedback. The proceedings of the Twelfth AnnualConference of the Cognitive Science Society, Cambridge, MA. Chapter 11: “The Gamification of Learning and Instruction”
    26. 26. Some people think Gamification is only about points, badges and rewards.… but the possibilities of “gamification” are far larger than points, badges and rewards.
    27. 27. Elements ofGames that Aid Learning• Story• Character• Recognition• Levels• Challenges• Chance• Replayability• Aesthetics• Time• Continual Feedback
    28. 28. Elements ofGames that Aid Learning• Story• Character Recognition•• NOT Enough Time  Levels• Challenges• Chance• Replayability• Aesthetics• Time• Continual Feedback
    29. 29. Three Elements ofGames that Aid Learning1. Characters2. Story3. Challenges
    30. 30. We’ve Always Wanted Characters
    31. 31. The use of on-screen characters to present information to alearner interferes with the learner’s performance more thanjust having text on the screen. Fact Fishy
    32. 32. FISHY: On tests involving different word problems, the group who had a character explain the problems generated 30% more correct answers than the group with just on-screen text. Animated pedagogical agents (characters) can be aids to learning. A “realistic” character did not facilitate learning any better than a “cartoon-like” character.Clark, R., Mayer, R. (2011) E-Learning and the Science of Instruction: Proven Guidelines for Consumers and Designers ofMultimedia Learning. New York: Pfeiffer. Pg. 194. Chapter 4 “The Gamificaiton of Learning and Instruciton”
    33. 33. Avatar as Teacher Research indicates that learners perceive, interact socially with and are influenced by anthropomorphic agents (characters) even when their functionality and adaptability are limited.Baylor, A. 2009 Promoting motivation with virtual agents and avatars: R ole of visual presence and appearance. PhilosophicalTransactions of the Royal B Society. 364, 3559–3565. Chapter 4 “The Gamification of Learning and Instruction”
    34. 34. When audio is used and a character talks to the learner, thetone and conversational style needs to be formal. Fact Fishy
    35. 35. FISHY: When audio is used and a character talks to the learner, the tone and conversational style needs to be INFORMAL and conversational.Clark, R., Mayer, R. (2011) E-Learning and the Science of Instruction: Proven Guidelines for Consumers and Designers ofMultimedia Learning. New York: Pfeiffer. Pg. 195. www.karlkapp.com
    36. 36. The use of two characters, one as a coach and one as an expertis better than just having one a character (mentor). Fact Fishy
    37. 37. Yes, two avatars are better than one. Fact Motivator MentorBaylor, A. L. & Kim, Y. (2005). Simulating instructional roles throughpedagogical agents. International Journal of Artificial Intelligence inEducation, 15(1), 95-115. Chapter 4 “The Gamification of Learning and ExpertInstruction”
    38. 38. http://codebaby.com/elearning-solutions/examples/
    39. 39. http://codebaby.com/elearning-solutions/examples/
    40. 40. Recommendations• Use characters/agents to model desired behavior.• Use characters/agents to provide feedback and instruction to learners.• Characters should speak in a natural, conversational tone.• Use two characters, one for coaching and one for expertise is better than just having one character trying to do both.
    41. 41. Story
    42. 42. Learners tend to remember facts more accurately if theyencounter them in a bulleted list rather than in a story. Fact Fishy
    43. 43. FISHY: Researchers have found that the Yep, People tend to remember facts human brain has a natural affinity for more accurately if they encounter narrative construction. them in a story rather than in a list. And they rate legal arguments as more convincing when built into narrative tales rather than on legal precedent.Carey, B. (2007) this is Your Life (and How You Tell it). The New York Times. Melanie Greenhttp://www.unc.edu/~mcgreen/research.html. Chapter 2 “The Gamification of Learning andInstruction.
    44. 44. Story Elements1.Characters2. Plot (something has to happen).3. Tension 4. Resolution5. Conclusion
    45. 45. NikePlus Stats for Karl
    46. 46. Presenting learners with a challenging task is not a goodtechnique for generating learner engagement. Fact Fishy
    47. 47. FISHY: Provide a challengeJones, B., Valdez, G., Norakowski, J., & Rasmussen, C. (1994). Designing learning and technologyfor educational reform. North Central Regional Educational Laboratory. [Online]. Available:http://www.ncrtec.org/capacity/profile/profwww.htm and Schlechty, P. C. (1997). Inventingbetter schools: An action plan for educational reform. San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass. Chapter 2“The Gamification of Learning and Instruction.”
    48. 48. Re-design the Instruction to Start with a Challenge
    49. 49. Investigatory Training• Course Objectives – Identify the Forms Required for an Investigation – Practice Interview Techniques – Describe and Follow the Investigation Model
    50. 50. It is your first day on the job as an investigator andJane, an employee in Accounting, just accused herboss of embezzling $10,000.What is the first thing you should do?
    51. 51. Challenge and Consolidation– Good games offer players a setof challenging problems and then let them solve these problemsuntil they have virtually routinized or automated their solutions.Games then throw a new class of problem at the players requiringthem to rethink their now, taken-for-granted mastery, learnsomething new, and integrate this new learning into their oldmastery.James Paul Gee,University of Wisconsin-Madison
    52. 52. Recommendations• Embed facts to be learned in the context of stories.• Start the learning process by providing a challenge to the learner.• Provide a progression from simple to more difficult tasks.• Use stories that are related to the context of the desired learning outcome.
    53. 53. First Experiment indicated that playing the game Darfur is Dying resulted in a greater willingness to help the Darfurian people than reading a text conveying same information.Peng, W., Lee, M., & Heeter. (2010) The effects of a serious game on role taking and willingness to help. Journal ofCommunications. 60, 723-724. Chapter 5 of “The Gamificaiton of Learning and Instruction.
    54. 54. Second Experiment indicated that playing the game Darfur is Dying resulted in a greater role taking and willingness to help than either game watching or text reading.Peng, W., Lee, M., & Heeter. (2010) The effects of a serious game on role taking and willingness to help. Journal ofCommunications. 60, 723-724. Chapter 5 of “The Gamificaiton of Learning and Instruction.
    55. 55. Take-Away1) Interactivity of games leads to higher knowledge retention for declarative and procedural knowledge.2) Embed facts to be learned in the context of stories.3) Games/Simulations do not need to be fun to be educational.4) On screen characters can enhance e-learning.5) Two on screen characters (mentor and expert) are better then one.6) Use stories rather than bulleted lists to present facts.7) Present learners with a difficult challenge to engage and motivate them.8) Use stories that are related to the context of the desired learning outcome.9) Games can be more influential than reading about a subject.10) (What did you take away?...write in chat.)
    56. 56. Questions ? Twitter:@kkapp kkapp@bloomu.edu

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