Content ripped from the pages of“The Gamification of Learning and Instruction”Content ripped from the pages of“The Gamification of Learning and Instruction”Slides for This PresentationGoogle “Kapp Notes”Look for ASTD Mid NJ 2013 Presentation ResourcesSlides for This PresentationGoogle “Kapp Notes”Look for ASTD Mid NJ 2013 Presentation Resources
1AgendaWhat are three simple, low‐tech techniques for creating engaging learning experiences?What are four instructional design methods that encourage immersive learning23How do I, create learning experiences tied to interactivity, immersion and game‐based elements?
Use game-based mechanics,aesthetics and game thinking toengage people, motivate action,promote learning, and solveproblems.Gamification
• Gamification is to Learning Game as:– Part is to Whole– Piece is to Puzzle– Slice is to Pie– Steering Wheel is to Car• Gamification uses parts of games but is not agame in-and-of itself.What is this “game” stuff?
Gamification of LearningAdding game elements totraditional learning.Structural: Points Badges LeaderboardContent: Characters Challenge FeedbackGamification is usinggame-based mechanics,aesthetics and game-thinking to engage people,motivate action promotelearning, and solveproblems.What is this “game” stuff?
… the possibilities of “gamification” are far larger than points, badges and rewards.
Two Examples of the Concepts of Games and Gamification
Malone’s Theory of Intrinsically Motivating Instruction Challenge Fantasy Curiosity
ChallengeJones, B., Valdez, G., Norakowski, J., & Rasmussen, C. (1994). Designing learning and technology for educational reform. North Central Regional Educational Laboratory. [Online]. Available: http://www.ncrtec.org/capacity/profile/profwww.htm and Schlechty, P. C. (1997). Inventing better schools: An action plan for educational reform. San Francisco, CA: Jossey‐Bass. Chapter 2 “The Gamification of Learning and Instruction.”
Re‐design the Instruction to Start with a Challenge
Fantasy– There are both cognitive andemotional reasons for evoking fantasy.Cognitively a fantasy can help a learnerapply old knowledge to understand newthings and help them remember thecontent. Emotionally, a person canconnect with the experiences and notbring with it “real-world” concerns or fears.
Challenge and Consolidation– Good games offer players a setof challenging problems and then let them solve these problemsuntil they have virtually routinized or automated their solutions.Games then throw a new class of problem at the players requiringthem to rethink their now, taken-for-granted mastery, learnsomething new, and integrate this new learning into their oldmastery.James Paul Gee,University of Wisconsin-Madison
TransferThe ability of simulations to teach skills that transfer to real‐life, on‐the‐job situations seems abundantly positive… Computer‐based simulations—assessed as an alternative to other means of training, as a supplement to other means of training, as a device to combat skill decay in experienced trainees, and as a means of improving performance levels as they stand prior to training—show positive results for transfer a majority of the time.In 22 out of 26 studies, trainees demonstrated equal or superior transfer to the control group from simulations.Shenan HahnADL Research and Evaluation Team
Learners assume the role of an aspiring Venetian merchant in the late 15th century, an era when Venice was the center of commerce in the Mediterranean, and therefore the world. 6‐levels.
Recommendations 1) Use a game/simulation to provide a context for the learning. 2) Include Fantasy to overcome resistance, encourage generalization and invoke curiosity. 3) Carefully craft the simulation/game to provide opportunities to increase engagement and interactivity to increase learning.4) Transfer of learning occurs when tasks are cognitively the same.
Researchers have found that the human brain has a natural affinity for narrative construction.Yep, People tend to remember facts more accurately if they encounter them in a story rather than in a list.And they rate legal arguments as more convincing when built into narrative tales rather than on legal precedent.Carey, B. (2007) this is Your Life (and How You Tell it). The New York Times. Melanie Green http://www.unc.edu/~mcgreen/research.html. Chapter 2 “The Gamification of Learning and Instruction.
1. CharactersStory Elements5. Conclusion2. Plot (something has to happen).3. Tension4. Resolution
Recommendations • Embed facts to be learned in the context of stories.• Start the learning process by providing a challenge to the learner.• Use stories that are related to the context of the desired learning outcome.
Rosenberg, R.S. Baughman, S.L., Bailenson, J.N. (2013) Virtual Superheroes: Using Superpowers in Virtual Reality to Encourage Prosocial Behavior. PLOS One., 8(1), 1‐9.Flying around a virtual worldas a superhero made subjectsnicer in the real world. physical world
An experience as an avatar can change a persons real life perceptions. In a study conducted by Yee and Bailenson (2006), it was found that negative stereotyping of the elderly was significantly reduced when participants were placed in avatars of old people compared with those participants placed in avatars of young people.Yee, N. & Bailenson, J.N. (2006). Walk A Mile in Digital Shoes: The Impact of Embodied Perspective‐Taking on TheReduction of Negative Stereotyping in Immersive Virtual Environments.. Proceedings of PRESENCE 2006: The 9th Annual International Workshop on Presence. August 24 – 26, Cleveland, Ohio, USA
On tests involving different word problems, the group who had a character explain the problems generated 30% more correct answers than the group with just on‐screen text.Animated pedagogical agents (characters) can be aids to learning. A “realistic” character did not facilitate learning any better than a “cartoon‐like” character.Clark, R., Mayer, R. (2011) E-Learning and the Science of Instruction: Proven Guidelines for Consumers and Designers ofMultimedia Learning. New York: Pfeiffer. Pg. 194. Chapter 4 “The Gamificaiton of Learning and Instruciton”
Recommendations • Use characters/agents to model desired behavior.• Use characters/agents to provide feedback and instruction to learners.• Characters should speak in a natural, conversational tone.• Use two characters, one for coaching and one for expertise is better than just having one character trying to do both.
Games like The Sims provide feedback on many dimensions which provide opportunities to consider tradeoffs and higher level cognitive thinking.
The most helpful feedback provides specific comments about errors and suggestions for improvement. It also encourages learners to focus their attention thoughtfully on the task rather than on simply getting the right answer.Shute, V. J., Ventura, M., Bauer, M. I., & Zapata‐Rivera, D. (2009). Melding the power of serious games and embedded assessment to monitor and foster learning: Flow and grow. In U. Ritterfeld, M. J. Cody, & P. Vorderer (Eds.), Serious Games: Mechanisms and Effects. Philadelphia, PA: Routledge/LEA. 295‐321.
Embed into a larger CurriculumE-learningTraining ManualsClassroominstruction
EngagementPedagogyGameEducationalSimulationInstructional games should be embedded in instructional programs that include debriefing and feedback. Instructional support to help learners understand how to use the game increases instructional effectiveness of the gaming experience.gHays, R. T. (2005). The effectiveness of instructional games: A literature review anddiscussion. Naval Air Warfare Center Training Systems Division (No 2005‐004). Chapter 4 “The Gamification of Learning and Instruction.”
“I can’t tell you how many people are coming to me wanting another game solution.” “The repetition of the different paths helped me retain the information.”“I’m a pretty competitive person so challenging myself to get one of the top scores added a layer of fun to learning about the MobileConnect product.”“The game was a fun way to learn about MobileConnect. I enjoyed the scenario‐type questions, which put it all into context.”Player Results
Business ResultsAverage contract value 2x higher than for previous mobile product.First call resolution ($35 a call/average) is up 45%Of all the launches done in the previous two years to MobileConnect, the sales team has built the quickest pipeline for this product.
Player Results“I really had a good time with Merchants. It’s original, fun, challenging, outside of the ordinary. It hooks you!”“This is the best online training I know of. It has had a positive impact on our business.”“It’s a very new and interesting program. The lessons from the mentor and the readings are very beneficial. You learn concepts to help you plan, and afterwards negotiate in situations that reflect real negotiations that you have with clients.”“Very interesting cases. You learn very efficiently and effectively. Applicable to real life.”“I found it very interesting, especially the lessons of the mentor. The main concepts are completely applicable to our day‐to‐day. I am already looking forward to the next course!”
Learning ResultsAverage course evaluation, to date: 9.4 out of 10Average assessment of educational value: 9.3 out of 10Percentage answering “Yes” to “I find it applicable to real life”: 98%Percentage answering “Yes” to “I will recommend this course”: 99%Percentage of learners who completed the course after starting it: 92%The above results are aggregate averages from over 30,000 learners who have taken this course.
Special Thank You! • Game On! Learning– Bryan Austin– http://www.gameonlearning.com/• The Knowledge Guru– Sharon Boller– https://www.theknowledgeguru.com/
1) Interactivity of games leads to higher knowledge.2) Fantasy, curiosity and challenge are key elements for instructional games.3) Embed facts to be learned in the context of stories. 4) On screen characters can enhance e‐learning.5) Use stories rather than bulleted lists to present facts.6) Present learners with a difficult challenge to engage and motivate them. 7) Use stories that are related to the context of the desired learning outcome. 8) Feedback needs to be targeted.9) Embedded the game into a larger curriculum. Takeaways
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