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Gamification and Immersive Learning

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Slides describing gamification and immersive learning for a workshop I did in CT.

Slides describing gamification and immersive learning for a workshop I did in CT.


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  • Thanks, it is a little long. It was from a four hour workshop (and we didn't get through all the slides...so lesson learned:)
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  • This deck is informative and full of (fun) data as always, but 228 slides - really? Not much fun in sharing that ;-) I'll take it as a repository and thank you from the bottom of my heart for all the fascinating and highly relevant research results. I'm a big fan.
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  • 1. Twitter:@kkapp Gamification and Immersive Learning By Karl M. Kapp Bloomsburg University Gamification of Learning & Instruction June 4, 2014
  • 2. Please Play: Tic Tac Toe HO Page: 1-4
  • 3. Please Play: Hangman HO Page: 1-4
  • 4. Game Results • Did you like the game? • Was it fun? • Did you score points? • Who won? I Won!
  • 5. Do you Know the…
  • 6. Personnel Learning Objective? HO Page: 1-5
  • 7. Brief history of… The World
  • 8. We’ve learned and struggled for a few years here figuring out how to make a decent phone. PC guys are not going to just figure this out. They’re not going to just walk in. --Palm CEO Ed Colligan, 16 Nov 2006
  • 9. This is our best iPhone launch yet — more than 9 million new iPhones sold — a new record for first weekend sales—Tim Cook, 2013. Palm sold to HP in 2010, by 2011 Palm was done.
  • 10. 4 2 Games 1.0 3
  • 11. 4 Games 1.0 3 Where is my opponent going to go next? In what direction should I try to move the ball? How will the ball bounce off the wall?
  • 12. Games 2.0
  • 13. Games 2.0 Should I shoot the aliens on the end or in the middle or all the bottom aliens first? How long do I have to shoot before an alien shoots at me? What is the pattern these aliens are following?
  • 14. Games 3.0
  • 15. Where do I explore first? What activities are of the most value? What must I do to achieve my goal?
  • 16. Games 4.0
  • 17. Games 4.0 What activities give me the most return for my efforts? Can I trust this person who wants to team with me to accomplish a goal?
  • 18. Flippy wants to become friends with you. Do you want to add Flippy to your friend’s list. Games 4.0
  • 19. I am going to need more coffee.
  • 20. Not another online lecture.
  • 21. Sorry, had you on mute, could you repeat the question.
  • 22. New Instructional Approaches are Needed
  • 23. Let’s Play Fact or Fishy…
  • 24. Rules • A statement is presented – Choose the best response • Text Keyword Response: – To 37607 Take out your text- machines Standard Texting Fees Apply!
  • 25. Two Teams teama teamb
  • 26. How To Respond via Texting 1. Polleverywhere has no access to your phone number 2. Capitalization doesn’t matter, but spaces and spelling do TIPS Amaze Inamaze alright Amaze
  • 27. Lectures involve… Attempting to solve problems or synthesis or inter-relate content for only 1% of the time. Is that Fact or Fishy?
  • 28. Fact: Lectures are NOT effective for fostering higher level thinking? Gibbs, G., (1981). Twenty Terrible Reasons for Lecturing, SCED Occasional Paper No. 8, Birmingham. http://www.brookes.ac.uk/services/ocsld/resources/20reasons.html and Bligh, D., (1972). What’s the Use of Lectures? Penguin. Bloom, B. S., (1953). “Thought Processes in Lectures and Discussions.” Journal of General Education Vol. 7. Isaacs, G., (1994). “Lecturing Practices and Note-taking Purposes.” Studies in Higher Education, 19:2.
  • 29. During lectures students' thoughts involved attempting to solve problems, or synthesize or inter-relate information for 1% of the time. 78% of the lecture is spent in ‘passive thoughts about the subject’ and ‘irrelevant thoughts’.
  • 30. 21 studies found lecturing to be less effective than: discussion, reading and individual work in class.
  • 31. Active learning increases student performance in science, engineering, and mathematics Scott Freemana,1, Sarah L. Eddya, Miles McDonougha, Michelle K. Smithb, Nnadozie Okoroafora, Hannah Jordta, and Mary Pat Wenderotha. PNAS Early Edition (Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences) Approved April 15, 2014
  • 32. The average child plays over 10,000 hours worth of games before graduating high school. Is that Fact or Fishy?
  • 33. 10,000 hrs of Game play 13 hours of console games a week Digital divisions. Report by the Pew /Internet: Pew Internet & American Life. US Department of Commerce 87% of 8- to 17- year olds play video games at home. Average game player in US is 38.
  • 34. Females play 5 hours a week of console games. They make up the majority of PC gamers at 63%. Almost 43% of the gamers are female and 26% of those females are over 18. Digital divisions. Report by the Pew /Internet: Pew Internet & American Life. US Department of Commerce
  • 35. “Games” and “Gamification” are the same thing. Is that Fact or Fishy?
  • 36. Gamification is the use of gaming elements integrated into a training program aligned with educational goals to promote change in behavior Game-based Learning is the use of a game to teach knowledge, skills and abilities to learners using a self-contained space. What is this “game” stuff? Simulation Learning is a realistic, controlled- risk environment where learners can practice specific behaviors and experience the impacts of their decisions. HO Page: 1-6
  • 37. • Gamification is to Learning Game as: – Part is to Whole – Piece is to Puzzle – Slice is to Pie – Steering Wheel is to Car • Gamification uses elements of games but is not a game in-and-of itself. What is this “game” stuff?
  • 38. Gamification + Simulation = Learning Game What is this “game” stuff?
  • 39. Whole Part Gaming Playing (Serious ) Games Gamification Toys Playful Design From Game Design Elements to Gamefulness: Defining “Gamification”, Deterding, S. et. al
  • 40. Gartner Group predicts by 2015, 40 percent of Global 1000 organizations will use gamification as the primary mechanism to transform business operations. Gamification as a term was coined in “2002”
  • 41. Adding points, badges and leaderboard to any training makes it awesome! Is that Fact or Fishy?
  • 42. Fishy… if it was that easy…this would be the most engaging game in the world.
  • 43. 20% increase in profile completion.
  • 44. In a Meta-Analysis… Knowledge retention for game/simulation was 17% higher than a lecture.
  • 45. Fact! Delivery Method vs. Game/Simulation % Higher Lecture 17% Discussion 5% Sitzmann, T. (2011) A meta-analytic examination of the instructional effectiveness of computer-based simulation games. Personnel Psychology .Review of 65 studies. Chapter 4 “The Gamification of Learning and Instruction.” HO Page: 1-7
  • 46. Retention Type of Knowledge % Higher Retention 9% Procedural 14% Declarative 11% Fact! It wasn’t the game, it was level of activity in the game. In other words, the engagement of the learner in the game leads to learning. Sitzmann, T. (2011) A meta-analytic examination of the instructional effectiveness of computer-based simulation games. Personnel Psychology .Review of 65 studies. Chapter 4 “The Gamification of Learning and Instruction.”
  • 47. Two Types of Gamification Structural Content HO Page: 1-8
  • 48. Structural Gamification is the application of game- elements to propel a learner through content with no alteration or changes to the content. Structural:  Points  Badges  Leaderboard What is this “gamification” stuff?
  • 49. Content Gamification This is the application of game elements and game thinking to alter content to make it more game-like but doesn’t turn the content into a game. Content:  Challenge  Story  Characters  Mystery What is this “gamification” stuff?
  • 50. Games Typically Make an Emotional Connection • Storyline • Characters • Theme • Aesthetics • Music
  • 51. Case Studies Illustrating the Effectiveness Gamification for Learning
  • 52. • Lawley Insurance – Looking for a strategy to convince the sales team of the value of salesforce.com and encourage them to use it on a more consistent basis. Case: Sales Activity
  • 53. Lawley Insurance, headquartered in Buffalo, NY is a independent regional firm of insurance professionals specializing in property and casualty, employee benefits, and risk management consulting. Recently, Lawley was ranked #1 in Business First’s article “The List” of Western New York Insurance agencies.
  • 54. Struggling with getting good forecasting data, expired close dates, lack of proper staging. Also looking to increase sales activities such as making calls and logging client meetings. Goal was to make data entry fun!
  • 55. VENDOR http://leveleleven.com/
  • 56. Desired Behaviors (2 Week Pilot) 1) Move the stage of Opportunities to anything but “Nurture” (even Closed or Lost—50 points) 2) Update the close date to 9/1/2012 or greater—50 points 3) Log Prospect phone calls –25 points 4) Log Prospect meetings—75 points
  • 57. Results During the 2 week pilot... Activity logging increased 257% over the average weekly activities created during the prior 7.5 months. The Close Date for an activity was updated 307 times which was 152% higher than the Close Date updates that occurred in the prior 7.5 months. Approximately 188 Stage Updates occurred which represented a 110% increase over the Stage Updates of the prior 7.5 months.
  • 58. References • Gamifying Activity Logging and Opportunity Management – http://www.slideshare.net/leveleleven/lawley-pipeline-and-actvty- log-contest-presentation • Top 3 Mistakes in Sales Gamification – http://www.slideshare.net/leveleleven/lawley-pipeline-and-actvty- log-contest-presentation
  • 59. • Make an already successful sales training and certification program even better with increased usage, better utilization of existing resources, and by encouraging informal and formal learning. Case: Professional Performance Program (p2p)
  • 60. Ford of Canada employs over 23,000 individuals in the fields of finance, sales and marketing, information technology, manufacturing and engineering, and human resources. This diverse workforce is responsible for the manufacturing and assembly operations that bring 320,000 vehicles and 425,000 engines to market.
  • 61. Ford introduced a program themed around professional motor racing that motivates sales and service representatives to learn more by browsing the p2p portal, watching informational videos, downloading and consuming the latest product information, and taking web courses.
  • 62. VENDOR http://www.bunchball.com/
  • 63. Participants earn RPMs (points) and Gear Up (level up), work toward individual goals, earn badges that are visible in a trophy case, compete with their peers on leaderboards, work together to accomplish team goals, compete against other dealerships, and receive real-time feedback as they engage in desired behavior.
  • 64. Site Results Received a 417% increase in site usage vs. the same period the previous year Within the first three months of the program the site exceeded the traffic volume of the entire previous year 15% more unique visitors and a 30% increase in unique visits vs. the same period the previous year An increase in volunteer learning –participants completing courses above and beyond what they were required to do for their annual certification requirements A positive correlation between engagement in the Ford p2p Cup and key performance measures including sales and customer satisfaction
  • 65. • Engage busy executives in a training program spanning more than 150 countries. Case: Deloitte Leadership Academy
  • 66. Deloitte has over 50,000 executives in over 150 countries who can partake in the Deloitte Leadership Academy (DLA) which delivers lessons and insights from some of the world’s best known business schools and global leaders, such as Harvard Business Publishing, Stanford and IMD. They enable executives to develop skills and stay connected to other executives.
  • 67. Challenge was how to get executives to take valuable time out of their busy schedules to actually sit down and fully engage with the content.
  • 68. VENDOR http://badgeville.com/
  • 69. Using: Ranks and Rewards, Missions and Leaderboards
  • 70. Site Results +46.6% users return daily +36.3% of users return weekly Active users had an average of 3 achievements unlocked in first 3 months Top users earned as many as 30 achievements in first 3 months
  • 71. The Quest for Learner Engagement
  • 72. Design Takeaway Challenge
  • 73. Rules • A statement is presented – Type in “Code word” • Text Response: Take out your text- machines Standard Texting Fees Apply!
  • 74. How To Participate via Texting 1. Polleverywhere has no access to your phone number 2. Capitalization doesn’t matter, but spaces and spelling do AMZ01 IAMZ02 ALRIGHT01 AMZ01
  • 75. How To Vote via PollEv.com/karlkapp Capitalization doesn’t matter, but spaces and spelling doTIP AMZ01 IAMZ02 ALRIGHT01 PollEv.com/karlkapp
  • 76. Observe the process, take notes for debrief. -What design techniques are used? -What elements add to experience? -What instructional design principles are being followed or broken? How To Participate via Observation
  • 77. Summer Theatre and Karl M. Kapp Present:
  • 78. The Quest for:
  • 79. t was a quiet Monday morning, very quiet, really quiet… almost too…
  • 80. Then, out of nowhere, she flew into my office, like a Boss who had a problem that needed solved … Hi Boss.
  • 81. I have a problem that needs to be solved.
  • 82. We need more engagement. She wanted to increase learner engagement and have more interactive learning events in our company.
  • 83. You came to the L&D Guy that’s what I do…
  • 84. Yeah, I know…that’s why I hired you. Ugh.. Now take the new person here and go ask Clyde, he went to a conference on the subject.
  • 85. For some reason, she didn’t seem bothered by the fact that she was breaking the company’s no smoking policy…
  • 86. Here’s where you come in. Help me figure out the clues …and fast.
  • 87. Choose your disguise…
  • 88. Stakes are high……
  • 89. First stop…Clyde’s office…look for clues
  • 90. Better way To Learn B) Learning a little bit of content at a time. A) Learning the content in big chunks all at once.
  • 91. Content Content Content Time Time
  • 92. Space learning out in small chunks over time, 24 hours is the optimal spacing. Break up content in classroom every 8-10 minutes. Some call it “drip learning.”
  • 93. A study using a randomized control group conducted a trial between Aug 10, 2009, and Nov 30, 2012, at ten sites in southeast India with over 500 subjects. Working Indian men (aged 35—55 years) with impaired glucose tolerance were randomly assigned to either a mobile phone messaging intervention or standard care.. Ramachandran, A. et. al. Effectiveness of mobile phone messaging in prevention of type 2 diabetes by lifestyle modification in men in India: a prospective, parallel-group, randomised controlled trial The Lancet Diabetes & Endocrinology, Early Online Publication, 11 September 2013 doi:10.1016/S2213-8587(13)70067-6
  • 94. Ramachandran, A., et. al.., Effectiveness of mobile phone messaging in prevention of type 2 diabetes by lifestyle modification in men in India: a prospective, parallel-group, randomised controlled trial The Lancet Diabetes & Endocrinology, Early Online Publication, 11 September 2013 doi:10.1016/S2213-8587(13)70067-6 “Avoid snacks while watching TV; you may overeat.” “Use stairs instead of an Elevator”
  • 95. Lowered risk of developing Type 2 diabetes by 36%. Ramachandran, A., et. al.., Effectiveness of mobile phone messaging in prevention of type 2 diabetes by lifestyle modification in men in India: a prospective, parallel-group, randomised controlled trial The Lancet Diabetes & Endocrinology, Early Online Publication, 11 September 2013 doi:10.1016/S2213-8587(13)70067-6
  • 96. Look…I found three things written on one of Clyde’s notebooks. Could be a lead…or …it could be this session’s learning objectives
  • 97. Let’s get going.
  • 98. Now we need to find Ivan…the Informant... I knew one of his old haunts.
  • 99. He was about as friendly as a fly at a fly strip convention. Hello, Clueless…
  • 100. Look I am going to ask you some questions, the right answer gives you a clue to interactive learning. He was about as friendly as a fly at a fly strip convention.
  • 101. What do you and your lackies here have to say about this?
  • 102. Fact or Fishy…testing yourself is a better way to learn than re-reading or re-listening to material?
  • 103. Enter Question Text It’s a fact: “Retrieval Practice” alone can provide improved recall performance by as much as 10-20%.
  • 104. Require students to recall content to enhance learning. In other words, use testing to reinforce learning—not just for evaluation.
  • 105. Combining Spaced Retrieval and Retrieval Practice is really powerful. One study in the subject of Anatomy and Physiology revealed retention benefits of between 35% and 61% with average of 41%. Dobson, J. L. (2013) Retrieval practice is an efficient method of enhancing the retention of anatomy and physiology information Advances in Physiology Education 37: 184–191, 2013; doi:10.1152/advan.00174.2012
  • 106. Ivan then grabbed his computer to show me an example.
  • 107. ExactTarget is a global marketing organization focused on digital marketing tools – email, mobile, and web and was recently purchased by Salesforce.com. ExactTarget is a leading cloud marketing platform used by more than 6,000 companies including Coca- Cola, Gap and Nike.
  • 108. Introducing a new product, MobileConnect and wanted to bring the sales force up-to-speed on the features and functionality of the product.
  • 109. VENDOR http://www.theknowledgeguru.com/ Screen captures courtesy of The Knowledge Guru…Bottom Line Performance
  • 110. “I can’t tell you how many people are coming to me wanting another game solution.” “The repetition of the different paths helped me retain the information.” “I’m a pretty competitive person so challenging myself to get one of the top scores added a layer of fun to learning about the MobileConnect product.” “The game was a fun way to learn about MobileConnect. I enjoyed the scenario-type questions, which put it all into context.” Player Results
  • 111. Business Results Average contract value 2x higher than for previous mobile product. First call resolution ($35 a call/average) is up 45%. Of all the launches done in the previous two years prior to MobileConnect, the sales team built the quickest pipeline for this product.
  • 112. Business Results Average contract value 2x higher than for previous mobile product. First call resolution ($35 a call/average) is up 45%. Of all the launches done in the previous two years prior to MobileConnect, the sales team built the quickest pipeline for this product. Larsen DP, Butler AC, Roediger HL 3rd. Repeated testing improves long-term retention relative to repeated study: a randomized controlled trial. Med Educ 43: 1174–1181, 2009. Dobson, J. L. (2013) Retrieval practice is an efficient method of enhancing the retention of anatomy and physiology information Advances in Physiology Education 37: 184–191, 2013; doi:10.1152/advan.00174.2012.
  • 113. Ivan had another question for me…I was the one who was supposed to be ask’n questions…. Do learners remember facts better when presented in a bulleted list or when presented in a story?
  • 114. Researchers have found that the human brain has a natural affinity for narrative construction. People tend to remember facts more accurately if they encounter them in a story rather than in a list. And they rate legal arguments as more convincing when built into narrative tales rather than on legal precedent.
  • 115. Again with the computer….
  • 116. Thanks, Ivan.One more thing…
  • 117. Add character’s to your learning designs…
  • 118. In tests involving word problems, the group who had a character explain the problems generated 30% more correct answers than the group with just on-screen text. Clark, R., Mayer, R. (2011) E-Learning and the Science of Instruction: Proven Guidelines for Consumers and Designers of Multimedia Learning. New York: Pfeiffer. Pg. 194. Chapter 4 “The Gamificaiton of Learning and Instruciton”
  • 119. Clark, R., Mayer, R. (2011) E-Learning and the Science of Instruction: Proven Guidelines for Consumers and Designers of Multimedia Learning. New York: Pfeiffer. Pg. 194. Chapter 4 “The Gamificaiton of Learning and Instruciton” Animated pedagogical agents (characters) can be aids to learning. A “realistic” character did not facilitate learning any better than a “cartoon- like” character.
  • 120. This mystery of interactive learning was starting to take shape…
  • 121. Let’s brief the boss on what we know so far…
  • 122. So what have we learned?
  • 123. So far, so good. Follow the next clue on the matchbook I found in my desk drawer….
  • 124. I arrived at the place on the matchbook, as shady as a clump of oaks caught in an eclipse…
  • 125. Enter Question TextHmm… What could this location and clue mean??? Tell me. Does engaging instruction start with:
  • 126. Action draws in the learner and encourages further engagement.
  • 127. Make the learner do something Answer a question Identify a procedure. Make a decision. Solve a mystery. Confront a challenge. Solve a Problem. Write a proposal Hands On
  • 128. Law & Order
  • 129. Just as I was leaving, I found another matchbook.
  • 130. Seems like a clue…should Learning be easy so we don’t discourage the learners? or Challenging where some learners will struggle?
  • 131. Look! Things that are too easy or too difficult will not pique a learner’s interest because they lead to boredom or frustration.
  • 132. Let me show you Clyde’s folder on this subject.
  • 133. Do you know what elements contribute to flow?
  • 134. Achievable Task Clear Goals Control Over Actions (Autonomy) Concentration
  • 135. You can also add elements such as …
  • 136. You can also add elements such as …Novelty Inconsistency Complexity SurpriseIncomplete information Unpredictable Future
  • 137. In fact, Clyde says…give them the Kobayashi Maru of challenges.
  • 138. Suddenly, a voice appeared out of nowhere…the mysterious Learning Lady
  • 139. I saw her eyes in the shadows of the alley and she simply said… Consider the use of fantasy in constructing learning events….
  • 140. Ya’h sure about this “fantasy” thing? This make believe stuff?
  • 141. Fantasy provides two learning benefits... Cognitively a fantasy can help a learner apply old knowledge to understand new things and help them remember the content. Emotionally, a person can connect with the experiences and not bring with it “real-world” concerns or fears.
  • 142. Then, suddenly, she emerged from the shadows. I pictured you differently…
  • 143. Here are some more matches for your boss. She smokes a lot. She shouldn’t smoke.
  • 144. Well, here is the next clue, do we : Put the learner at risk. or Let the learner safely explore the environment.
  • 145. No risk, or danger equal no skin in the game. Get the learner emotionally involved by putting him or her at “mock” risk.
  • 146. Losing (points, game) Not Solving the Problem Social Credibility Recognition Then they mysterious stranger started talking about what learners can “risk”… Starting Over Multiple Lives
  • 147. In games, failing is allowed, it’s acceptable, and it’s part of the process.
  • 148. Time for a recap with the boss… she looked a little frantic…she wanted to know one more thing.
  • 149. I want to know one more thing. What are the elements of active learning?
  • 150. What are some active learning practices that can engage learners?
  • 151. Any Others?
  • 152. Great stuff, you folks really seemed to have cracked the case as to what makes engaging learning.
  • 153. Mystery solved, just in time for the weekend. I was anxious to get some rest…
  • 154. But…to my surprise as the Boss was driving away, she threw another matchbook….
  • 155. Unfortunately, we’ll have to leave that mystery for later….
  • 156. The End
  • 157. Design Takeaway Challenge.
  • 158. 1) Story/Genre 2) Polling/Audience Input 3) Points/Winners/Teams 4) Mystery/Curiosity 5) Pre/Post Test
  • 159. QUESTIONS?
  • 160. Credits: Detective Artwork Courtesy of Vanessa Bailey Flow Diagram by Kristin Bittner Typewriter and Mysterious Eyes are Clip Art Audience Response by Poll Everywhere Demo of Gamification Software by MindTickle
  • 161. Covert Takeaways • Learning should be engaging. • Stories provide a context for learning. • It is ok for a learner to struggle. • Simply adding points, badges and leaderboards does not make learning effective.
  • 162. Game Dynamics Exercise
  • 163. Sample Dynamic • Strategy Games (Type of Game Category) – Examples: Stratego (analog) – Civilization V (digital) • Game Dynamic? – Outwit Opponent
  • 164. Sample Dynamic • Strategy Games (Type of Game Category) – Examples: • Game Dynamic?
  • 165. Sample Dynamic (Your Turn) • Type of Game Category – Examples: (analog) – Examples: (digital) • Game Dynamic?
  • 166. Race to the Finish— Territory Acquisition— Exploration-- Collecting— Rescue or Escape— Alignment— Forbidden Act— Construct/Build— Outwit— Solution— Use a Dynamic from this List Page 1-10 HO Page: 1-10
  • 167. Twitter:@kkapp Gamification of Learning and Instruction Session Five
  • 168. 1 Topics for Incentives What rewards are the most effective? What are the types of reward structures for learning? 2 3 How do various types of rewards motivate?
  • 169. Motivation Intrinsic Motivation Extrinsic Motivation
  • 170. Types of Achievements Measurement Achievement -Completing a task to a certain degree. Measured against: other player’s performance. their own past performance. standard set by game designer. It is evaluative in nature.
  • 171. Types of Achievements Measurement Achievement -Completing a task to a certain degree. Measured against: other player’s performance. their own past performance. standard set by game designer. It is evaluative in nature. Measurement Achievements are evaluative because they allow learners to reflect on their performance in relation to goal they have set for themselves or that have been set in the game. Think of a scale.
  • 172. Types of Achievements Completion Achievement -Completing a task. Does not tell a learner how well they have done. Primarily binary—you’ve completed a task or you haven’t
  • 173. Best Practice Use measurement achievements instead of completion achievements to increase Intrinsic motivation through feedback.
  • 174. Types of Task Boring Task –Something a learner doesn’t want to do. A task the learner would not engage in unless they received something in return.
  • 175. Type of Task Interesting Task –Task the player would engage in without any additional motivation. No need to provide rewards but, do provide feedback. Make achievements attentional.
  • 176. Type of Task Interesting Task –Task the player would engage in without any additional motivation. No need to provide rewards but, do provide feedback. Make achievements attentional. Attentional-Focus the learner’s attention on important lessons or strategies used for the task.
  • 177. Best Practice Reward players for boring tasks and give them feedback for interesting tasks. Make achievements for interesting tasks attentional.
  • 178. www.gadgetsgamesandgizmos. com © Karl M. Kapp 2007 Feel free to use but please site source and book Yes, you picked correctly, you recive the X-Ray Award
  • 179. Achievement Difficulty Achievement Difficulty–An achievement should be the result of overcoming a challenging goal for a learner to fulfill as moderate difficulty leads to superior gains in performance and a greater sense of accomplishment upon completion. Achieving a goal increases a learner’s confidence.
  • 180. Achievement Difficulty Use verbal “boosts” to motivate players through difficult achievements.
  • 181. Best Practice Make achievements challenging for the greatest returns in learner performance and learning. Phrase achievements and design interaction to increase player confidence and reflection on task.
  • 182. Goal Orientation Performance Orientation – Learners who favor performance orientation are concerned with other people’s assessment of their competence. These are direct goals like time and points earned. This tends to result in less risk-taking and less in-game exploration. When individuals are given performance-oriented goals, they typically perform better only with simple, non-complex tasks.
  • 183. Goal Orientation Mastery Orientation – Learners who favor mastery orientation are concerned with improving their proficiency. Learner’s with this mindset will accept errors and seek challenging task that provide them with an opportunity to develop their competences.
  • 184. Goal Orientation Mastery Orientation – When given mastery goals, players will have more self-confidence and utilize more effective strategies. Research shows that people given master-oriented goals perform better on complex tasks. Create achievements that acknowledge that effort players are putting forth and support them during challenges.
  • 185. Best Practice For learning tasks requiring creativity or complicated strategies, instill mastery orientation.
  • 186. Achievement Expectancy Unexpected Achievement– Occur when a learner did not anticipate receiving an achievement. They perform a task with no expectancy of receiving a reward. Unexpected achievements can be used to encourage creative play and exploration in a game environment.
  • 187. Achievement Expectancy Expected Achievement– Expected achievements allow learners to set goals for themselves before they begin. There are for well- established benefits to having learners set goals for themselves. 1- Goals will allow the learner to have objectives and allocate their resources to complete them. 2-Having a goal increases the amount of effort someone is willing to put into a task. 3-Learners who have goals are less likely to give up when they encounter a difficult task. 4-Learners who set goals for themselves will acquire new knowledge and skills to meet those goals.
  • 188. Best Practice Primarily use expected achievements so players can establish goals for themselves and create a schema of the game (information to be learned). Make sure achievement descriptions accurately reflect what needs to be done by the player and what is important.
  • 189. Negative Achievements Negative Achievement– Earning a negative achievement can cause a player to lose their sense of competence and independence which will make their game playing experince less fulfilling. .
  • 190. Best Practice Don’t use negative achievements as a punishment for failure. Provide feedback within the system that can assist struggling players.
  • 191. Achievements as Currency Currency– Earned achievements can be sued as virtual currency in games. The learner then can then “buy” items or rewards they see as valuable within the game. Currency rewards have a high return on task performance.
  • 192. Best Practice Offer players currency for completing tasks instead of rewards to give them a greater sense of control. Use a currency system to enhance a game, but be careful that currency acquisition doesn’t become the main reason the learners play the game.
  • 193. Incremental & Meta Achievements Incremental– Occur for completing more than one task in sequence. Incremental achievements are awarded in a chain for performing the same task through scaling levels of difficulty. Make the spacing between the incremental achievements, both in time and in-game location, separated enough so the players don’t feel too controlled.
  • 194. Incremental & Meta Achievements Incremental and meta achievements can be used as a type of scaffolding, a “training wheels” approach used in teaching. Here, learners are given a seemingly complex task to do, only its broken into smaller pieces and sequenced. Each time they perform a small portion of the task they are rewarded.
  • 195. Best Practice Use incremental and meta achievements to hold the learner’s interest for longer period of time and guide them to related activities.
  • 196. Cooperative Achievements Cooperative Achievements – Earned by learners working toward a goal together. Cooperative environments have been associated with academic achievement increased self-esteem and higher positivity when evaluating peers. A good way to do this is to encourage experienced learners to help novices within the game.
  • 197. Cooperative Achievements The metrics used for earning achievements should assess individual performances within the group setting. The groups should be kept relatively small to decrease social loafing and process loss.
  • 198. Best Practice To foster a cooperative environment, offering achievements for more advanced learners to assist less experienced learners should be considered as an option. Keep groups small.
  • 199. Summary • Type of Achievement, • Achievement Difficulty • Goal Orientation • Expected or Unexpected • Achievement as Currency, • Don’t Use Negative Achievements, • Incremental and Meta-achievement • Cooperative Achievements.