Games, Simulations and Gamification in Learning Design and Delivery


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What role should games, simulations and gamification play in learning design and delivery?
Games, gamification and game-based learning have entered into the vocabulary of trainers, elearning developers and instructional designers in the past few years. While the use of games for learning seems like a good match, questions arise. How should games be integrated into the curriculum? Can attitudes and behavior change result from playing a game? What elements of games can learning designers borrow from game designers? The answer to these questions can be found in the research on game-based learning.
This interactive presentation includes many examples of using game-based learning for performance improvement and highlights how organizations have used games to achieve learning success. Discover how research-based practices fit in with today's fast-paced need for quick, effective instruction.

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Games, Simulations and Gamification in Learning Design and Delivery

  1. 1. Games, Simulations and Gamification in  Learning Design and Delivery By Karl M. Kapp Bloomsburg University  April 26, 2012 Twitter:@kkapp
  2. 2. Agenda 1 2 What are 3 principles for addingHow do you apply game-based gamification and game-ideas tostrategies to the presentation of learning curriculumslearning content? 3 4 Six ways gamification impactsFour motivational aspects of games learning design and developmentthat improve learning recall andapplication?
  3. 3. Google “Kapp Notes” Blog Book Tour Learning Circuits Blog 2012 New Book: “The Gamification of Learning and Instruction” September 2011 Training Quarterly Article Improving Training: Thinking Like a Game Developer July 2011 T&D ArticleMatching the Right Instruction to the Right Content
  4. 4. Based on the Book. 
  5. 5. Let’s Play
  6. 6. Elements of Games
  7. 7. What Research Says aboutGames for Learning
  8. 8. Percentages of Impact Type of  % Higher Knowledge/ Retention Declarative 11% Procedural 14% Retention 9%Sitzmann, T. (2011) A meta‐analytic examination of the instructional effectiveness of computer‐based simulation games. Personnel Psychology .Review of 65 studies
  9. 9. Percentages of Impact It wasn’t the game, it was level  Type of  of activity in the game. % Higher Knowledge/ Retention Declarative 11% In other words, the engagement  Procedural of the learner in the game leads  14% to learning. Retention 9%Sitzmann, T. (2011) A meta‐analytic examination of the instructional effectiveness of computer‐based simulation games. Personnel Psychology .Review of 65 studies
  10. 10. Do simulation/games have to be entertaining to be  educational? 
  11. 11. NOSitzmann, T. (2011) A meta‐analytic examination of the instructional effectiveness of computer‐based simulation games. Personnel Psychology .
  12. 12. Simulation/games build more confidence for on the job application of learned knowledge  than classroom instruction. 20% higher  confidence levels. Sitzmann, T. (2011) A meta‐analytic examination of the instructional effectiveness  of computer‐based simulation games. Personnel Psychology .
  13. 13. A math facts game deployed on a handled computer  encouraged learners to complete greater number of  problems at an increased level of difficulty.  Learners playing the handheld game completed  nearly 3 times the number of problems in 19 days  and voluntarily increased the level of difficulty. Lee, J., Luchini, K., Michael, B., Norris, C., & Soloway, E. (2004). More than just fun and games: Assessing the value of educational video games in the classroom. Paper presented at the CHI 04 Extended Abstracts on Human Factors in Computing Systems, Vienna, Austria.
  14. 14. Engagement Learning  Game Game PedagogyAdapted from Aldrich, C. Learning by Doing. Pfeiffer, page 80
  15. 15. Instructional games should be embedded  in instructional programs that include  debriefing and feedback.  Engagement Instructional support to help learners  Educational understand how to use the game increases  Simulation instructional effectiveness of the gaming  Game experience. PedagogyHays, R. T. (2005). The effectiveness of instructional games: A literature review anddiscussion. Naval Air Warfare Center Training Systems Division (No 2005‐004). Aldrich, C. Learning by Doing. Pfeiffer, page 80
  16. 16. Recommendations 1) Provide a context for the learning.2) Don’t focus on “entertainment.” 3) Carefully craft the simulation/game to provide  opportunities to increase engagement and interactivity  to increase learning.
  17. 17. Use game-based mechanics,aesthetics and game thinking toengage people, motivate action, promote learning, and solve problems. Gamification
  18. 18. Four Elements ofGames that Aid Learning1. Stories & Challenges2. Levels3. Feedback4. Freedom to Fail
  19. 19. Stories & Challenges
  20. 20. Provide a challengeJones, B., Valdez, G., Norakowski, J., & Rasmussen, C. (1994). Designing learning and technology for educational reform. North Central Regional  Educational Laboratory. [Online]. Available: and Schlechty, P. C. (1997). Inventing better schools: An action plan for educational reform. San Francisco, CA: Jossey‐Bass
  21. 21. Re‐design the Instruction to  Start with a Challenge
  22. 22. Investigatory Training• Course Objectives – Identify the Forms Required for an Investigation – Practice Interview Techniques – Understand and Follow the Investigation Model 
  23. 23. It is your first day on the job as an investigator andJane, an employee in Accounting, just accused her boss of embezzling $10,000. What is the first thing you need to do?
  24. 24. Researchers have found that the  Yep, People tend to remember facts  human brain has a natural affinity for  more accurately if they encounter  narrative construction. them in a story rather than in a list. And they rate legal arguments as more  convincing when built into narrative  tales rather than on legal precedent.Carey, B. (2007) this is Your Life (and How You Tell it). The New York Times. Melanie Green
  25. 25. Story Elements1. Characters2. Plot (something has to happen).3. Tension 4. Resolution5. Conclusion
  26. 26. NikePlus Stats for Karl
  27. 27. Challenge and Consolidation– Good games offer players a setof challenging problems and then let them solve these problemsuntil they have virtually routinized or automated their solutions.Games then throw a new class of problem at the players requiringthem to rethink their now, taken-for-granted mastery, learnsomething new, and integrate this new learning into their oldmastery.James Paul Gee,University of Wisconsin-Madison
  28. 28. Recommendations • Embed facts to be learned in the context of stories.• Start the learning process by providing a challenge to  the learner.• Provide a progression from simple to more difficult  tasks.• Use stories that are related to the context of the  desired learning outcome. 
  29. 29. Levels
  30. 30. Scaffolding: Process of controlling the task elements that initially are  beyond the learner’s capacity.  Guided Practice. Step‐by‐step  instructions and then fading of  instruction
  31. 31. Once that task is accomplished, the  learner is then led to accomplish another goal which builds upon the  previous.
  32. 32. Level One: Talking with the  receptionist.
  33. 33. Level Two: Talking with the nurse  gatekeeper.
  34. 34. Level Three: Talking with the  physician.
  35. 35. Level One: Demonstration
  36. 36. Level Two:  Guided  Practice
  37. 37. Level Three: Performance Assessment
  38. 38. Recommendations • Provide different entry points into the  instruction.• Provide different learner experiences within  the same e‐learning module.• Consider “leveling up” learner challenges.
  39. 39. Feedback
  40. 40. Games like The Sims provide feedback on  many dimensions which provide  opportunities to consider tradeoffs and  higher level cognitive thinking. 
  41. 41. Leaderboards provide  opportunities for players to receive feedback about their performance as compared to  others. 
  42. 42. Recommendations • Provide authentic and realistic feedback.• Feedback should be continuous through out  the learning.• Feedback should be instructional and provide   knowledge of learner’s performance.• Allow learners to create their own social  “leaderboard” of friends. 
  43. 43. Freedom to Fail
  44. 44. Recommendations • Allow failure.• Provide for multiple attempts. • Focus on learning from mistakes and failure. 
  45. 45. Putting It All Together
  46. 46. Fostering Pro‐Social  BehaviorGreitemeyer, T. & Osswald, S. (2010) Effective of Prosocial games on prosocial behavior. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology.  Vol. 98 . No. 2., 211‐221.
  47. 47. 28% helped to pick up pencils
  48. 48. 33% helped to pick up pencils
  49. 49. 67% helped to pick up pencils
  50. 50. 22% intervened
  51. 51. 56% intervened
  52. 52. Learned Procedure
  53. 53. Go ahead…jump in!
  54. 54. Summary 1 2 What are 3 principles for addingHow do you apply game-based gamification and game-ideas tostrategies to the presentation of learning curriculumslearning content? 3 4 Six ways gamification impactsFour motivational aspects of games learning design and developmentthat improve learning recall andapplication?
  55. 55. Questions/More Information• – Recommended books – Samples and Examples• Email:• Email:• Twitter: @kkapp• Pinterest: Gamification Happenings• Facebook: “The Gamification of Learning  and Instruction”
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