Games, Interactivity, Gamification for Learning: Creating Engaged Learners

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Games, Interactivity, Gamification for Learning: Creating Engaged Learners

  1. 1. Session#: 210 Title: Games, Interactivity and Gamificaiton for Learning: Creating Engaged Learners Date: Monday, February 18 Time: 9:15-10:15 AM Contact Information: Karl Kapp Email: kkapp@bloomu.edu Twitter: @kkapp Slides available on Slideshare.net Revision 1.0 1 http://www.kaplaneduneering.com/kappnotes/Content for this handout exerted from “The Gamification of Learning and Instruction” by Karl M. Kapp
  2. 2. AgendaIn this session, we are going to cover the following topics:Definition of Gamification • What is “Game-based thinking?”Avatars for Learning • We’ve always wanted to be an Avatar • Learners interact with avatars • Avatar experiences translate to real-lifeLearning Transfer • Simulation/Games translate learning better than classroom • Simulation/Game doesn’t need to be enjoyed to be educationalFlow • Sense of flow influenced by sense of “presence” • Interactivity is important • Matching skills to task helps flowGame Perspective • First-person vs. Third-Person • Perspective MattersPutting It All Together • Inventory Observation • Pro-Social Gaming? QuestionThink about games/simulations you’ve played and how they impact you. 2 http://www.kaplaneduneering.com/kappnotes/Content for this handout exerted from “The Gamification of Learning and Instruction” by Karl M. Kapp
  3. 3. ObjectivesHere are the objectives for the presentation: • What does research say about 3D avatars, storytelling and games/simulations for learning? • Learn to add game-based elements to your toolkit • Understand how learning can be transformed with gamification—by using experience points, game-based storytelling and leader boards 3 http://www.kaplaneduneering.com/kappnotes/Content for this handout exerted from “The Gamification of Learning and Instruction” by Karl M. Kapp
  4. 4. DefinitionGamification: “Gamification is using game-based mechanics, aesthetics and game thinking to engage people, motivate action, promote learning, and solve problems.” 4 http://www.kaplaneduneering.com/kappnotes/Content for this handout exerted from “The Gamification of Learning and Instruction” by Karl M. Kapp
  5. 5. Avatars for LearningAvatar ResearchSeveral studies have been conducted showing the effectiveness of avatars for instruction. • An experience as an avatar can change a person’s real life perceptions. In a study conducted by Yee and Bailenson (2006), it was found that negative stereotyping of the elderly was significantly reduced when participants were placed in avatars of old people compared with those participants placed in avatars of young people.[4] • Watching an avatar that looks like you performing an activity influences you to perform a similar or same activity in the future. Creating avatars and having a learner perform a task as an avatar influences a person’s actual behavior outside of the virtual environment. In one study, users watched an avatar that looked like them exercising and losing weight in a virtual environment, the result was that those that watched the avatar of their self subsequently exercised more and ate healthier in the real world as compared to a control group. This as reported by Fox and Bailenson (2009).[5] In similar study conducted by Yee, Bailenson & Ducheneaut, (2009), had three control group.[6] One where participants were exposed to an avatar representing themselves running on a treadmill, the second with avatar running that did not represent the participant and the third group with avatar representing themselves loitering. Within 24 hours, after the experiment, participants who were exposed to the avatar running that represented themselves exercised significantly more than those in the other conditions. • Watching an avatar that resembles yourself changing in some way impacts future decisions. A study by Ersner-Hershfield et al. (2008) found that when college-aged students observed their avatar ageing in a virtual mirror, they formed a psychological connection to their “future self” and decided to invest more money in a retirement account as opposed to a control group.[7] • Behavioral changes occurring in a virtual environment can transfer to the physical environment. In a study by Yee and Bailenson (2007) comparing the heights of avatars, it was found that participants with taller avatars behaved more confidently in a negotiation task than participants with shorter avatars; specifically, they were more willing to make unfair splits in negotiation tasks. In contrast, participants with shorter avatars were more willing to accept unfair offers than those who had taller avatars.[8] Then Yee et. al. (2009) found behavior changes originating within the virtual environment transferred to subsequent face-to-face interactions.[9] In the study, participants were placed in an immersive virtual environment and were given either shorter or taller avatars. They then 5 http://www.kaplaneduneering.com/kappnotes/Content for this handout exerted from “The Gamification of Learning and Instruction” by Karl M. Kapp
  6. 6. interacted with a human confederate for about 15 min. In addition to causing a behavioral difference within the virtual environment, the authors found that participants given taller avatars negotiated more aggressively in the subsequent face-to-face interaction with the confederate than participants given shorter avatars.[10] 6 http://www.kaplaneduneering.com/kappnotes/Content for this handout exerted from “The Gamification of Learning and Instruction” by Karl M. Kapp
  7. 7. Learning Transfer • Trainees’ gain higher confidence in applying learning from a training session to their job when the training is simulation game based. The research evidence suggests the use of simulations to enhance the confidence trainees have in their ability to apply the skills learned in the training to their job. In a meta-analysis of more than 60 studies with 6,476 participants, it was found that trainees receiving instruction via a simulation game had 20% higher confidence they had learned the information taught in training and could perform the training-related tasks (self-efficacy) than trainees in a comparison group of more traditional methods. (5 stars) Reference: Sitzmann, T. (in press) A meta-analytic examination of the instructional effectiveness of computer-based simulation games. Personnel Psychology and Sitzman, T. & Ely, K. (2010) A meta-analytic examination of the effectiveness of computer-based simulation games. ADL Research Lab. Retrieved on November 9, 2010 from http://www.adlnet.gov/Technologies/Evaluation/Library/Document%20Homepages/Liter ature%20Reviews%20and%20Meta-Analyses.aspx • Simulations embedded in a program of instruction are better tools for learning than stand alone simulations. Trainees learn more from simulations games that are embedded in a program of instruction than when simulation games are the sole instructional method. When simulation games were used as a supplement to other instructional methods, the simulation game group had higher knowledge levels than the comparison group. However, when simulation games were used as standalone instruction, trainees in a comparison group learned more than trainees in the simulation game group. (5 stars) Reference: Sitzmann, T. (in press) A meta-analytic examination of the instructional effectiveness of computer-based simulation games. Personnel Psychology and Sitzman, T. & Ely, K. (2010) A meta-analytic examination of the effectiveness of computer-based simulation games. ADL Research Lab. Retrieved on November 9, 2010 from http://www.adlnet.gov/Technologies/Evaluation/Library/Document%20Homepages/Liter ature%20Reviews%20and%20Meta-Analyses.aspx • Simulation games don’t have to be entertaining to be educational. In a meta-analysis of studies, the research indicated that trainees learned the same amount of information in simulation games whether the games were ranked high in entertainment value or low in entertainment value. There does not appear to be a correlation between the entertainment value of a simulation game and its educational merit. (5 stars) Reference: Sitzmann, T. (in press) A meta-analytic examination of the instructional effectiveness of computer-based simulation games. Personnel Psychology and Sitzman, T. & Ely, K. (2010) A meta-analytic examination of the effectiveness of computer-based 7 http://www.kaplaneduneering.com/kappnotes/Content for this handout exerted from “The Gamification of Learning and Instruction” by Karl M. Kapp
  8. 8. simulation games. ADL Research Lab. Retrieved on November 9, 2010 from http://www.adlnet.gov/Technologies/Evaluation/Library/Document%20Homepages/Liter ature%20Reviews%20and%20Meta-Analyses.aspx • Trainees learn more from simulations games that actively engage trainees in learning rather than passively conveying the instructional material. When the majority of the instruction in a simulation game was passive, the comparison group learned more than the simulation game group. However, when the majority of the instruction in the simulation game was active, the simulation game group learned more than the comparison group. These findings suggest that simulation games are more effective when they actively engage trainees in learning the course material. (5 stars) Reference: Sitzmann, T. (in press) A meta-analytic examination of the instructional effectiveness of computer-based simulation games. Personnel Psychology and Sitzman, T. & Ely, K. (2010) A meta-analytic examination of the effectiveness of computer-based simulation games. ADL Research Lab. Retrieved on November 9, 2010 from http://www.adlnet.gov/Technologies/Evaluation/Library/Document%20Homepages/Liter ature%20Reviews%20and%20Meta-Analyses.aspx • Trainees participating in simulation game learning experiences have higher declarative knowledge, procedural knowledge and retention of training material than those trainees participating in more traditional learning experiences. Post-training declarative knowledge, post-training procedural knowledge and retention of the training material is higher for trainees participating in a simulation game experience than the comparison groups. In examining the effectiveness of computer-based simulation games related to comparison groups, it was found that declarative knowledge was 11% higher for trainees taught with simulation games than a comparison group; procedural knowledge was 14% higher and retention was 9% higher. (5 stars) Reference: Sitzmann, T. (in press) A meta-analytic examination of the instructional effectiveness of computer-based simulation games. Personnel Psychology and Sitzman, T. & Ely, K. (2010) A meta-analytic examination of the effectiveness of computer-based simulation games. ADL Research Lab. Retrieved on November 9, 2010 from http://www.adlnet.gov/Technologies/Evaluation/Library/Document%20Homepages/Liter ature%20Reviews%20and%20Meta-Analyses.aspx 8 http://www.kaplaneduneering.com/kappnotes/Content for this handout exerted from “The Gamification of Learning and Instruction” by Karl M. Kapp
  9. 9. FlowUndergraduate college students at a university in the Southeast region of the United States werechosen as participants, and data were collected in April 2009, entailing 42 usable surveys. Thisstudy demonstrated that flow experiences in 3D virtual worlds had a significant and positiveimpact on students attitudes toward e-learning. This study found that the quality of engaging andpleasant experiences is influenced by three factors: the skills available to tackle challengingtasks, the perception of interactivity in the virtual learning experience, and the degree of presencesensation perceived by students.Student Attitude Toward Virtual Learning in Second Life: A FlowTheory Approach. Yu-ChihHuang1 yhuang@clemson.edu Backman, Sheila J. Backman, Kenneth F. Source:Journal ofTeaching in Travel & Tourism; Oct-Dec2010, Vol. 10 Issue 4, p312-334, 23p, 5 Charts 9 http://www.kaplaneduneering.com/kappnotes/Content for this handout exerted from “The Gamification of Learning and Instruction” by Karl M. Kapp
  10. 10. Game PerspectiveResearch has found that a person is more likely to adjust their self-concept to match a desiredbehavior if that behavior is imagined from a third-person, observer’s perspective rather than afirst-person, experiencer’s perspective. The research strongly suggests that the idea of ‘‘picturingyourself’’ performing a desired behavior may, “in fact, be an effective strategy for translatinggood intentions into practical actions.”In one study before the 2004 U.S. presidential election, researchers asked registered voters inOhio to picture themselves voting in the election from either a first-person perspective (lookingthrough their own eyes) or a third person perspective (observing themselves as if in a movielooking over their shoulder). [11]The individuals who pictured them self voting from a third-person perspective adopted a strongerpro-voting mind-set; they indicated they were more likely to vote. Not only did they think theywere more likely to vote. They were more likely to vote. Those people who pictured self votingin third person were significantly more likely to vote in the election than those who picturedthemselves voting in first-person.Other studies in autobiographical memory shows that the visual perspective people use to picturea past event affects their present emotions, self-judgments, and even behavior. Perspectivematters when visualizing activities and translating those visualizations into changes. [12]Additionally, the changes in behavior are even stronger when photographs are used to depictingthe desired behavior. It is believed by researchers in the field of autobiographical memory thatmanipulations of perspective in 3D virtual environments should work like manipulations inmental imagery, maybe even better since with the VIE you could more carefully control theimage whereas with mental imagery you are relying on people maintaining the perspective youinstruct on their own.[13]Translating this concept to games/simulations, the actions in a game/simulation are bestpresented from the third-person perspective. Often in these environments, the learner is lookingover his or her own shoulder. That perspective may lead to more behavior change than asking thelearners to witness their activities in first-person as is often in the case in a simulation or in arole-play that occurs within a traditional classroom environment. 10 http://www.kaplaneduneering.com/kappnotes/Content for this handout exerted from “The Gamification of Learning and Instruction” by Karl M. Kapp
  11. 11. Putting It All TogetherThe question, “does playing prosocial video games cause prosocial behavior and prosocialthoughts?” To find out the answer the researchers conducted an interesting experiment placingthe subjects of the experiment in a position to assist others or not assist them after the subjectshad played a prosocial video game. The subjects who played a prosocial video game were morewilling to help than the other experimental groups.An experiment was designed to examine the impact of prosocial, aggressive and neutral gameson spontaneous, unrequested assistance. The researchers used a method that is commonly used asa measure of spontaneous, unrequested assistance; they would “accidently” spill pencils on thefloor and observe whether or not the subjects assisted in picking them up.First the researches randomly assigned subjects ranging in age from 19 to 43 to one of threevideo game conditions. The prosocial game was Lemmings, in that game the object is to help agroup of animals, called Lemmings, get to safety. The basic objective of the game is to guide thelemmings through a number of obstacles to a designated exit and save the required number oflemmings to win. Figure 1: In the prosocial game Lemmings, you win by helping others. The aggressive game was Lamers which is the exact opposite of Lemmings, in Lamers, theplayer has an arsenal of weapons and attempts to destroy as many lemmings as possible so theydo not reach their intended destination, if enough lemmings are destroyed, the player wins. 11 http://www.kaplaneduneering.com/kappnotes/Content for this handout exerted from “The Gamification of Learning and Instruction” by Karl M. Kapp
  12. 12. Figure 2: In Lamers, the object is to shoot and kill the Lamers. Notice the arsenal of weapons.The neutral game was Tetris. Tetris, for those who may not know, is a puzzle game with anumber of random shapes the player manipulates to complete a solid row of blocks. Figure 3: Tetris is the neutral game.After a subject played a video game for 8 minutes, at that point, the researcher came into theroom, acted as if they were reaching for a questionnaire and spilled a cup of pencils. Theresearcher then waited five seconds to see if the subject would help. It turns out that the subjectswho played the prosocial video game were more likely to help pick up the pencils than thosewho had played the neutral or aggressive game. In total 18 subjects played the prosocial gameand 12 (67%) helped to pick up pencils, 18 subjects played the neutral game and 6 (33%) helpedwith the pencils. Of the 18 subject who played the aggressive game, 5 (28%) helped pick up.Most subjects who played the prosocial game exhibited prosocial behavior, they helped to pickup the pencils. 12 http://www.kaplaneduneering.com/kappnotes/Content for this handout exerted from “The Gamification of Learning and Instruction” by Karl M. Kapp
  13. 13. References[1] Kapp, K. M., and O’Driscoll, T. Learning in 3D: Adding a New Dimension to Enterprise Learning andCollaboration. New York: Pfeiffer, 2010. This section is based on information originally published in thisbook.[2] Gee, J. P. Why Video Games are Good for Your Soul: Pleasure and Learning. Melbourne: CommonGround, 2005 and Gee, J.P. Situated Language and Learning: A Critique of Traditional Schooling. London:Routledge, 2004.[3] Tremmel, P., In Virtual World Real-World Behavior and Biases Show Up. (2008, September, 11)Retrieved May 30, 2009, from Medical News Today atwww.medicalnewstoday.com/articles/121006.php. And Bower, B., Playing for real in a virtual world.(2009, March, 28) Science News, Vol. 175 Issue 7, p15-15, 1/2p.[4] Yee, N., & Bailenson, J.N. (2006). Walk a mile in digital shoes: The impact of embodied perspective-taking on the reduction of negative stereotyping in immersive virtual environments. Proceedings ofPRESENCE 2006: The 9th Annual International Workshop on Presence. August 24- 26, Cleveland, Ohio,USA.[5] Fox, J. & Bailenson, J. N. (2009). Virtual self-modeling: the effects of vicarious reinforcement andidentification on exercise behaviors. Media Psychology. 12, 1–25.[6] Yee, N., Bailenson, J.N., & Ducheneaut, N. (2009). The Proteus Effect: Implications of transformeddigital self-representation on online and offline behavior. Communication Research, 36 (2), 285-312.[7] Ersner-Hershfield, H., Bailenson, J. & Carstensen, L. L. (2008). A vivid future self: immersive virtualreality enhances retirement saving. Chicago, IL: Association for Psychological Science.[8] Yee, N. & Bailenson, J. N. (2007) The proteus effect: the effect of transformed self-representation onbehavior. Human Communication Research. 33, 271-290.[9] Yee, N. & Bailenson, J. N. & Ducheneaut, N. (2009) The Proteus effect implications of transformeddigital self-representation on online and offline behavior. Communication Research. 36, 285-312.[10] Baylor, A. L. & Kim, Y. (2005). Simulating instructional roles through pedagogical agents.International Journal of Artificial Intelligence in Education, 15(1), 95-115.[11] Libby, L.K., Shaeffer, E.M., Eibach, R.P., & Slemmer, J.A. ( 2007) Picture yourself at the polls: Visualperspective in mental imagery affects self-perception and behavior. Psychological Science. Vol. 18: 199-203.[12] Libby, L.K., Eibach, R.P., & Gilovich, T. (2005) Heres looking at me: The effect of memoryperspective on assessments of personal change. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology. Vol. 88:50-62. And McIsaac, H.K., & Eich, E. (2002). Vantage point in episodic memory. Psychonomic Bulletin & 13 http://www.kaplaneduneering.com/kappnotes/Content for this handout exerted from “The Gamification of Learning and Instruction” by Karl M. Kapp
  14. 14. Review, 9, 146–150. And Robinson, J.A., & Swanson, K.L. (1993). Field and observer modes ofremembering. Memory, 1, 169–184.[13] Lisa, L. Personnel correspondence, May 23, 2011. 14 http://www.kaplaneduneering.com/kappnotes/Content for this handout exerted from “The Gamification of Learning and Instruction” by Karl M. Kapp
  15. 15. Presenter Bio:Karl Kapp (Pronounced “Cop”) is a professor of instructional technology at BloomsburgUniversity in Bloomsburg, PA and is author of four books. Two of which are related to thistopic. He is author of Gadgets, Games and Gizmos for Learning which discusses how to usetechnology tools (Games, simulations, mobile devices and Web 2.0) to transfer learning fromexperienced, veteran employees to the new generation of employees through the effective use oftechnology.He is co-author with Tony O’Driscoll of the book Learning in 3D: Adding a New Dimension toEnterprise Learning and Collaboration which discusses the use of 3D virtual worlds for seriouslearning.His fifth book is The Gamification of Learning and Instruction where much of today’s subject isdiscussed in more detail. In his latest book, Karl is exploring the research and theoreticalfoundations behind effective game-based learning. In his latest book, he is examining everythingfrom variable reward schedules to the use of avatars to games that teach pro-social behaviors.Karl also keeps busy by teaching an Instructional Game Design Class at Bloomsburg University,consulting with educational companies implementing gamification into their curriculums and asa Co-Principle Investigator on a National Science Foundation grant to teach middle schoolstudents engineering concepts through online gaming.Follow his blog by Googling “Kapp Notes” or following him on Twitter @kkapp 15 http://www.kaplaneduneering.com/kappnotes/Content for this handout exerted from “The Gamification of Learning and Instruction” by Karl M. Kapp
  16. 16. The “Immernet”: Immersive Learning through Games, Gamification and Virtual  Worlds By Karl M. Kapp Bloomsburg University Gamification of Learning and Instruction  Twitter:@kkapp Session W403
  17. 17. Interactivity (I) + Immersion (I) = Sustained Engagement (E) Results in meaningful learning.
  18. 18. Latest Slides for This Presentation Google “Kapp Notes” Ripped from the pages of “The  Gamification of Learning and  Instruction”
  19. 19. Agenda 1 2 What are four instructional design methods What are three simple, low‐tech  that encourage immersive learningtechniques for creating engaging learning experiences? 3 How do I, create learning experiences tied to interactivity,  immersion and game‐based elements? 
  20. 20. Malone’s Theory of Intrinsically  Motivating Instruction Challenge Fantasy Curiosity
  21. 21. ChallengeJones, B., Valdez, G., Norakowski, J., & Rasmussen, C. (1994). Designing learning and technology for educational reform. North Central Regional  Educational Laboratory. [Online]. Available: http://www.ncrtec.org/capacity/profile/profwww.htm and Schlechty, P. C. (1997). Inventing better schools: An action plan for educational reform. San Francisco, CA: Jossey‐Bass. Chapter 2 “The Gamification of Learning and Instruction.”
  22. 22. Fantasy– There are both cognitive andemotional reasons for evoking fantasy.Cognitively a fantasy can help a learnerapply old knowledge to understand newthings and help them remember thecontent. Emotionally, a person canconnect with the experiences and notbring with it “real-world” concerns or fears.
  23. 23. Challenge and Consolidation– Good games offer players a setof challenging problems and then let them solve these problemsuntil they have virtually routinized or automated their solutions.Games then throw a new class of problem at the players requiringthem to rethink their now, taken-for-granted mastery, learnsomething new, and integrate this new learning into their oldmastery.James Paul Gee,University of Wisconsin-Madison
  24. 24. Self‐Determination Theory• Self‐Determination Theory – Autonomy – Competence – Relatedness
  25. 25. Autonomy or Producers– Players are producers, not justconsumers, they are “writers” not just “readers.” Even at itssimplest level, players co-design games by the action they takeand decision they make.James Paul Gee, University of Wisconsin-Madison
  26. 26. Competence or Pleasantly Frustrating– Good games staywithin, but at the outer edge, of the players “regime ofcompetence” (diSessa, 2000) Challenges in a game arechallenging but feel “doable.”This is motivational. (Confidence from the ARCS model ofmotivation.)James Paul Gee, University of Wisconsin-Madison diSessa, A. A. Changing Minds: Computers, Learning and Literatcy. Cambridge, Mass.: MIT Press, 2000.
  27. 27. Performance before Competence– Good video games operateby a principle just the reverse of Most training modules:performance before competence (Cazden, 1981).Players can perform before they are competent, supported by thedesign of the game. It is learning by doing.James Paul Gee, University of Wisconsin-Madison
  28. 28. Relatedness– This is experienced when a person feelsconnected to others. It can either be in real-time or related toplayers who have played before through such items as aleaderboard or artifacts left by other players.
  29. 29. Are game effective for  learning?
  30. 30. Yes! Retention % Higher Type of Knowledge Retention 9% Procedural 14% Declarative 11%Sitzmann, T. (2011) A meta-analytic examination of the instructional effectiveness of computer-basedsimulation games. Personnel Psychology .Review of 65 studies. Chapter 4 “The Gamification of Learning andInstruction.”
  31. 31. Percentages of Impact It wasn’t the game, it was Retention level of activity in the game. % Higher Type of Knowledge Retention 9% In other words, the Procedural engagement of the learner in 14% the game leads to learning. Declarative 11%Sitzmann, T. (2011) A meta-analytic examination of the instructional effectiveness of computer-basedsimulation games. Personnel Psychology .Review of 65 studies. Chapter 4 “The Gamification of Learning andInstruction.”
  32. 32. Do simulation/games have to be entertaining to be  educational?   NOSitzmann, T. (2011) A meta-analytic examination of the instructional effectiveness of computer-basedsimulation games. Personnel Psychology .Review of 65 studies. Chapter 4 “The Gamification of Learning andInstruction.”
  33. 33. Do Simulation/games build more confidence for  on the job application of learned knowledge than  classroom instruction. Yes, 20% higher  confidence levels.Sitzmann, T. (2011) A meta-analytic examination of the instructional effectiveness of computer-basedsimulation games. Personnel Psychology .Review of 65 studies. Chapter 4 “The Gamification of Learning andInstruction.”
  34. 34. Fact: Instructional games should be embedded in  instructional programs that include  debriefing and feedback.  Engagement Instructional support to help learners  Educational understand how to use the game increases  Simulation instructional effectiveness of the gaming  Game experience. PedagogyHays, R. T. (2005). The effectiveness of instructional games: A literature review anddiscussion. Naval Air Warfare Center Training Systems Division (No 2005‐004). Chapter 4 “The Gamification of Learning and Instruction.” g
  35. 35. Example
  36. 36. Enspire Learning: http://www.enspire.com/
  37. 37. Enspire Learning: http://www.enspire.com/
  38. 38. Enspire Learning: http://www.enspire.com/
  39. 39. TransferThe ability of simulations to teach skills that transfer to real‐life, on‐the‐job situations seems abundantly positive… Computer‐based simulations—assessed as an alternative to other means of training, as a supplement to other means of training, as a device to combat skill decay in experienced trainees, and as a means of improving performance levels as they stand prior to training—show positive results for transfer a majority of the time. In 22 out of 26 studies, trainees demonstrated equal or  superior transfer to the control group from simulations. Shenan Hahn ADL Research and Evaluation Team
  40. 40. Recommendations 1) Use a game/simulation to provide a context for the learning. 2) Don’t focus on “entertainment.” 3) Carefully craft the simulation/game to provide opportunities  to increase engagement and interactivity to increase  learning.
  41. 41. Use game-based mechanics,aesthetics and game thinking toengage people, motivate action, promote learning, and solve problems. Gamification
  42. 42. http://success.adobe.com/microsites/levelup/index.html
  43. 43. Use  measurement achievements instead  of completion achievements to increase  intrinsic motivation through feedback. Locke, E.A., & Latham, G.P. (2002) Building a practially useful theory of goal setting and task  motivation: A 35‐year Odyssey. American Psychologist, 57(9), 705‐717 Chapter 11: “The  Gamification of Learning and Instruction”
  44. 44. Primarily use expected achievements so  players can establish goals for themselves and  create a schema of the learning environment.   http://www.coursehero.com/courses/Schooler, L.J., & Anderson (1990) The disruptive potential of immediate feedback. The proceedings of the Twelfth Annual Conference of the Cognitive Science Society, Cambridge, MA. Chapter 11: “The Gamification of Learning and Instruction”
  45. 45. Some people think Gamification is only about points,  badges and rewards…
  46. 46. … if it was, this would be the most engaging game in the  world.
  47. 47. … but the possibilities of “gamification” are far larger  than points, badges and rewards.
  48. 48. Elements of ImmersiveEnvironments that Aid Learning
  49. 49. Elements of ImmersiveEnvironments that Aid LearningNOT Enough Time 
  50. 50. Elements of ImmersiveEnvironments that Aid Learning
  51. 51. Elements of ImmersiveEnvironments that Aid Learning
  52. 52. Story
  53. 53. Researchers have found that the  Yep, People tend to remember facts  human brain has a natural affinity for  more accurately if they encounter  narrative construction. them in a story rather than in a list. And they rate legal arguments as more  convincing when built into narrative  tales rather than on legal precedent.Carey, B. (2007) this is Your Life (and How You Tell it). The New York Times. Melanie Green http://www.unc.edu/~mcgreen/research.html. Chapter 2 “The Gamification of Learning and Instruction. 
  54. 54. Story Elements1. Characters2. Plot (something has to happen).3. Tension 4. Resolution5. Conclusion
  55. 55. NikePlus Stats for Karl
  56. 56. Re‐design the Instruction to  Start with a Challenge
  57. 57. Recommendations • Embed facts to be learned in the context of stories.• Start the learning process by providing a challenge to  the learner.• Provide a progression from simple to more difficult  tasks.• Use stories that are related to the context of the  desired learning outcome. 
  58. 58. We’ve Always Wanted Characters Characters
  59. 59. On tests involving different word problems, the group who had  a character explain the problems generated 30% more correct  answers than the group with  just on‐screen text. Animated pedagogical agents (characters) can be aids  to learning.  A “realistic” character did not facilitate  learning any better than a “cartoon‐like” character.Clark, R., Mayer, R. (2011) E-Learning and the Science of Instruction: Proven Guidelines for Consumers and Designers ofMultimedia Learning. New York: Pfeiffer. Pg. 194. Chapter 4 “The Gamificaiton of Learning and Instruciton”
  60. 60. Avatar as Teacher Research indicates that learners perceive, interact  socially with and are influenced by anthropomorphic  agents (characters) even when their functionality and  adaptability are limited.Baylor, A. 2009 Promoting motivation with virtual agents and avatars: R ole of visual presence and appearance. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal B  Society. 364, 3559–3565. Chapter 4 “The Gamification of Learning and Instruction”
  61. 61. Are two avatars better than  one?Motivator Mentor Expert
  62. 62. Yes, two avatars are better  than one. Motivator MentorBaylor, A. L. & Kim, Y. (2005). Simulating instructional roles throughpedagogical agents. International Journal of Artificial Intelligence inEducation, 15(1), 95-115. Chapter 4 “The Gamification of Learning and ExpertInstruction”
  63. 63. http://codebaby.com/elearning‐solutions/examples/
  64. 64. http://codebaby.com/elearning‐solutions/examples/
  65. 65. Recommendations • Use characters/agents to model desired behavior.• Use characters/agents to provide feedback and  instruction to learners.• Characters should  speak in a natural, conversational tone.• Use two characters, one for coaching and one for  expertise is better than just having one character trying to  do both.
  66. 66. Levels
  67. 67. Games provide different levels for different points of  entry. 
  68. 68. Scaffolding: Process of controlling the task elements that initially are  beyond the learner’s capacity.  Guided Practice. Step‐by‐step  instructions and then fading of  instruction Having different entry points into a learning module  provides players with a comfort level that they can  enter the learning and be successful.
  69. 69. Many of the instructional methods that are effective for  novices either have no effect or, in some cases, depress  the learning of learners with more expertise.   Training designed for learners with greater prior knowledge requires different instruction methods than  training designed for novice learners.  Clark, R., Nguyen, F. & Sweller, J. (2006) Efficiency in Learning: Evidence‐based guidelines to manage cognitive load. Pfeiffer. Page 247. Chapter 7 and 7  of “The Gamification of Learning and Instruction.
  70. 70. Recommendations • Allow different entry points into the instruction.• Provide a level demonstrating the needed skill, task or  concept, create a level with guided practice and create a  level  that allows the player complete freedom to perform  the task or apply the concept on his or her own.
  71. 71. Do not view virtual worlds  as a next step in “how” classroom‐based learning  will be delivered.
  72. 72. Instead, ask what kind of  learning can this new  technology can enable.
  73. 73. Human interaction around a task where peer‐to‐peer or  group learning is enabled.
  74. 74. By adding immersion to the equation, organizations can allow  for higher quality learning interactions between employees  who work at a distance.
  75. 75. Learning content not organized around the work context  causes unnecessary overhead for the learner. Learners tend to prefer  instructions over  instruction.
  76. 76. Simulated environments always made sense in Medicine, Military and Aviation. Now they make sense  for Factories, Call Centers, Retail Stores and other  “work” environments.
  77. 77. First Experiment indicated that playing the game Darfur is Dying resulted in a greater willingness to help the Darfurian people than reading a text conveying same information.Peng, W., Lee, M., & Heeter. (2010) The effects of a serious game on role taking and willingness to help. Journal ofCommunications. 60, 723-724. Chapter 5 of “The Gamificaiton of Learning and Instruction.
  78. 78. Second Experiment indicated that playing the game Darfur is Dying resulted in a greater role taking and willingness to help than either game watching or text reading.Peng, W., Lee, M., & Heeter. (2010) The effects of a serious game on role taking and willingness to help. Journal ofCommunications. 60, 723-724. Chapter 5 of “The Gamificaiton of Learning and Instruction.
  79. 79. Take‐Away1) Interactivity of games leads to higher knowledge retention  for declarative and procedural knowledge.2) Embed facts to be learned in the context of stories. 3) Games/Simulations do not need to be fun to be educational.4) On screen characters can enhance e‐learning.5) Two on screen characters (mentor and expert) are better  then one.6) Use stories rather than bulleted lists to present facts.7) Present learners with a difficult challenge to engage and  motivate them. 8) Use stories that are related to the context of the desired  learning outcome. 9) Allow different entry points/levels into the instruction.10) Games can be more influential than reading about a subject.
  80. 80. Contact Karl via Twitter or email Twitter:@kkapp kkapp@bloomu.edu

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