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Game Elements
 

Game Elements

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Game element slides from Workshop at DevLearn 2012

Game element slides from Workshop at DevLearn 2012

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  • “ A game is a system in which players engage in an abstract challenge, defined by rules, interactivity and feedback that results in a quantifiable outcome often eliciting an emotional reaction.” “ Gamification is using game-based mechanics, aesthetics and game thinking to engage people, motivate action, promote learning, and solve problems.”
  • One element of engaged learning is challenging tasks. Jones, B., Valdez, G., Norakowski, J., & Rasmussen, C. (1994). Designing learning and technology for educational reform. North Central Regional ducational Laboratory. [Online]. Available: http://www.ncrtec.org/capacity/profile/profwww.htm and Schlechty, P. C. (1997). Inventing better schools: An action plan for educational reform. San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass .
  • This study is a demonstration that fiction can influence our self-perceptions, implying that our identification with characters can change the way we see ourselves. Sestir, M. & Green, M. C. (2010). You are who you watch: Identification and transportation effects on temporary self-concept.  Social Influence ,  5 , 272-288. Libby, L.K., Shaeffer, E.M., Eibach, R.P., & Slemmer, J.A. ( 2007) Picture yourself at the polls: Visual perspective in mental imagery affects self-perception and behavior.   Psychological Science . Vol. 18: 199-203.
  • This study is a demonstration that fiction can influence our self-perceptions, implying that our identification with characters can change the way we see ourselves. Sestir, M. & Green, M. C. (2010). You are who you watch: Identification and transportation effects on temporary self-concept.  Social Influence ,  5 , 272-288. Libby, L.K., Shaeffer, E.M., Eibach, R.P., & Slemmer, J.A. ( 2007) Picture yourself at the polls: Visual perspective in mental imagery affects self-perception and behavior.   Psychological Science . Vol. 18: 199-203.
  • Conflict-inflicting damage on other players Competition-competing against other players Cooperation-working with other players to achieve a goal.
  • Conflict-inflicting damage on other players Competition-competing against other players Cooperation-working with other players to achieve a goal.
  • Conflict-inflicting damage on other players Competition-competing against other players Cooperation-working with other players to achieve a goal.
  • Conflict-inflicting damage on other players Competition-competing against other players Cooperation-working with other players to achieve a goal.

Game Elements Game Elements Presentation Transcript

  • Game Gamification“A game is a system in “Gamification is using game-which players engage in an based mechanics, aestheticsabstract challenge, defined and game thinking to engageby rules, interactivity and people, motivate action,feedback that results in a promote learning, and solvequantifiable outcome often problems.”eliciting an emotionalreaction.”
  • Constraints Emotions Narrative Progression Relationships AbstractionDr. Kevin Werbach, Professor Wharton School of Business. MOOC Gamification Course
  • Challenges Chance Feedback Competition Cooperation Turns Feedback Resource Acquisition Rewards Transactions Win-StatesDr. Kevin Werbach, Professor Wharton School of Business. MOOC Gamification Course
  • Achievements Avatars Badges Boss Fight Collecting Combat Content Unlocking Gifting Leaderboard Levels Points Teams Virtual GoodsDr. Kevin Werbach, Professor Wharton School of Business. MOOC Gamification Course
  • Not all games have all these elements.Dr. Kevin Werbach, Professor Wharton School of Business. MOOC Gamification Course
  • Abstraction of Concepts and Reality -Helps players manage the space being experienced.-Cause and effect can be more clearly identified. --Remove extraneous factors.
  • Role Play -Assuming a role means the player must actively think about their actions, decision and choices from the perspective of another. -Forcing a learner to mimic behavior will influence future behavior.
  • Multiplayer-Interacting with others is a large portion of games, even simple games typically involve more than one player. -Multiplayer means the chance for cooperation , conflict and cooperation. -Players add their own, unique changes to a game.
  • Social Aspects -The social elements ofgames lead to Reputational Capital-Dialogue among players. -Common and shared experiences.
  • Rules-Operational Rules-Describe how the game is played. -Foundational Rules-Underlying formal structures,like the mathematics involved with dice.-Behavior Rules-How players are expected to act toward one another.-Instructional Rules-What youwant the learner to gain from playing the instructional game.
  • Objectives -The introduction of an objective or a goal is what differentiates a game from play. -It gives the players something to work toward. -Objects are either obtained or not obtained and that is a quantifiable outcome.
  • Story
  • Researchers have found that the Researchers have found that the Yep, People tend to remember facts Yep, People tend to remember facts human brain has a natural affinity human brain has a natural affinity more accurately if they encounter more accurately if they encounter for narrative construction. for narrative construction. them in a story rather than in a list. them in a story rather than in a list. And they rate legal arguments as more convincing when built into narrative tales rather than on legal precedent.Carey, B. (2007) this is Your Life (and How You Tell it). The New York Times. Melanie Green Carey, B. (2007) this is Your Life (and How You Tell it). The New York Times. Melanie Greenhttp://www.unc.edu/~mcgreen/research.html. Chapter 2 “The Gamification of Learning and http://www.unc.edu/~mcgreen/research.html. Chapter 2 “The Gamification of Learning andInstruction. Instruction.
  • Stories provide, context, meaning and purpose
  • Story Elements 1. Characters2. Plot (something has to happen). 3. Ten s ion 4. Resolution te rs pr ob le m C ha ra ct er en co u n n si on 5. Conclusion Pr ob le m bu il ds te re d A so lu ti on is of fe te d /p os it iv e R es u lt s ar e pr es en
  • NikePlus Stats for Karl
  • Write a story to match your game.
  • Provide a challengeJones, B., Valdez, G., Norakowski, J., & Rasmussen, C. (1994). Designing learning and technologyJones, B., Valdez, G., Norakowski, J., & Rasmussen, C. (1994). Designing learning and technologyfor educational reform. North Central Regional Educational Laboratory. [Online]. Available:for educational reform. North Central Regional Educational Laboratory. [Online]. Available:http://www.ncrtec.org/capacity/profile/profwww.htm and Schlechty, P. C. (1997). Inventinghttp://www.ncrtec.org/capacity/profile/profwww.htm and Schlechty, P. C. (1997). Inventingbetter schools: An action plan for educational reform. San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass. Chapter 2better schools: An action plan for educational reform. San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass. Chapter 2“The Gamification of Learning and Instruction.”“The Gamification of Learning and Instruction.”
  • Re-design the Instruction to Start with a Challenge
  • Investigatory Training• Course Objectives – Identify the Forms Required for an Investigation – Practice Interview Techniques – Describe and Follow the Investigation Model How would you turn this into a challenge?
  • It is your first day on the job as an investigator andJane, an employee in Accounting, just accused herboss of embezzling $10,000.What is the first thing you should do?
  • Challenge and Consolidation– Good games offer players a setof challenging problems and then let them solve these problemsuntil they have virtually routinized or automated their solutions.Games then throw a new class of problem at the players requiringthem to rethink their now, taken-for-granted mastery, learnsomething new, and integrate this new learning into their oldmastery.James Paul Gee,University of Wisconsin-Madison
  • Recommendations• Embed facts to be learned in the context of stories.• Start the learning process by providing a challenge to the learner.• Provide a progression from simple to more difficult tasks.• Use stories that are related to the context of the desired learning outcome.
  • Feedback
  • Games like The Sims provide feedback on many dimensions which provide opportunities to consider tradeoffs and higher level cognitive thinking.
  • The most helpful feedback provides specific comments about errors and suggestions for improvement. It also encourages learners to focus their attention thoughtfully on the task rather than on simply getting the right answer.Shute, V. J., Ventura, M., Bauer, M. I., & Zapata-Rivera, D. (2009). Melding the power of serious games andembedded assessment to monitor and foster learning: Flow and grow. In U. Ritterfeld, M. J. Cody, & P.Vorderer (Eds.), Serious Games: Mechanisms and Effects. Philadelphia, PA: Routledge/LEA. 295-321.
  • Leaderboards provide opportunities for players toreceive feedback about theirperformance as compared to others.
  • Authentic Feedback provides realisticfeedback based on player actions.
  • Games canaccelerate natural feedback loops.
  • Recommendations• Provide authentic and realistic feedback.• Feedback should be continuous through out the learning.• Feedback should be instructional and provide knowledge of learner’s performance.• Allow learners to create their own social “leaderboard” of friends.
  • Time Motivator for player/learner activity and action. A game can compress time to show consequences of actions more quickly than real-time. As a resource allocated during the game-play.
  • We’ve Always W anted CharactersAvatars/Characters
  • Identity– no deep learning takes place unless anextended commitment of self is made for the long haul.Good gamification captures players through identify.Players either inherit a strongly formed andappealing character or they get to build a characterfrom the ground up.Players become committed to the game space in whichthey will learn and act.Based on work from James Paul Gee, University of Wisconsin-Madison
  • Avatar as Teacher Research indicates that learners perceive, interact socially with and are influenced by anthropomorphic agents (characters) even when their functionality and adaptability are limited.Baylor, A. 2009 Promoting motivation with virtual agents and avatars: R ole of visual presence and appearance. PhilosophicalTransactions of the Royal B Society. 364, 3559–3565. Chapter 4 “The Gamification of Learning and Instruction”
  • On tests involving different word problems, the group who had a character explain the problems generated 30% more correct answers than the group with just on-screen text. Animated pedagogical agents (characters) can be aids to learning. A “realistic” character did not facilitate learning any better than a “cartoon-like” character.Clark, R., Mayer, R. (2011) E-Learning and the Science of Instruction: Proven Guidelines for Consumers and Designers ofMultimedia Learning. New York: Pfeiffer. Pg. 194. Chapter 4 “The Gamificaiton of Learning and Instruciton”
  • Are two avatars better than one?Motivator Mentor Expert
  • Yes, two avatars are better than one. Motivator MentorBaylor, A. L. & Kim, Y. (2005). Simulating instructional roles throughpedagogical agents. International Journal of Artificial Intelligence inEducation, 15(1), 95-115. Chapter 4 “The Gamification of Learning and ExpertInstruction”
  • http://codebaby.com/elearning-solutions/examples/
  • http://codebaby.com/elearning-solutions/examples/
  • Player as an avatar orcharacter in game.
  • Who is more likely to run 24 hours later?A.Person who watched an avatar not likethem runningB.Person who watch an avatar like themrunningC.Person watching an avatar like themloitering
  • Within 24 hours of watching an avatar like themselves run, learners were more likely to run than watching an avatar not like them or watching an avatar like them loitering .Fox, J., Arena, D., & Bailenson, J.N. (2009). Virtual Reality: A survival guide for the social scientist. Journal of Media Psychology, 21 (3), 95-113.
  • If learners watch an avatar that looks like them exercising & losing weight, they will subsequently exercise more in the real world as compared to a control group.Fox, J., Arena, D., & Bailenson, J.N. (2009). Virtual Reality: A survival guide for the social scientist. Journal of Media Psychology, 21 (3), 95-113.
  • First Person View
  • Third Person ViewCarey, B. (2007) This is Your Life (and How You Tell it). The New York Times. And Sestir, M. & Green, M. C. (2010). YouCarey, B. (2007) This is Your Life (and How You Tell it). The New York Times. And Sestir, M. & Green, M. C. (2010). Youare who you watch: Identification and transportation effects on temporary self-concept. Social Influence, 5, 272-288are who you watch: Identification and transportation effects on temporary self-concept. Social Influence, 5, 272-288and research by Libby, L.K., Shaeffer, E.M., Eibach, R.P., & Slemmer, J.A. (( 2007) Picture yourself at the polls: Visualand research by Libby, L.K., Shaeffer, E.M., Eibach, R.P., & Slemmer, J.A. 2007) Picture yourself at the polls: Visualperspective in mental imagery affects self-perception and behavior. Psychological Science. Vol. 18: 199-203.perspective in mental imagery affects self-perception and behavior. Psychological Science. Vol. 18: 199-203.
  • Third Person View “Seeing oneself as acting in a movie or a play (or a video game) is not merely fantasy or indulgence; it is fundamental to how people work out who it is they are, and may become.” Ben CaseyCarey, B. (2007) This is Your Life (and How You Tell it). The New York Times. And Sestir, M. & Green, M. C. (2010). You are Carey, B. (2007) This is Your Life (and How You Tell it). The New York Times. And Sestir, M. & Green, M. C. (2010). You arewho you watch: Identification and transportation effects on temporary self-concept. Social Influence, 5, 272-288 and who you watch: Identification and transportation effects on temporary self-concept. Social Influence, 5, 272-288 andresearch by Libby, L.K., Shaeffer, E.M., Eibach, R.P., & Slemmer, J.A. (( 2007) Picture yourself at the polls: Visual perspective research by Libby, L.K., Shaeffer, E.M., Eibach, R.P., & Slemmer, J.A. 2007) Picture yourself at the polls: Visual perspectivein mental imagery affects self-perception and behavior. Psychological Science. Vol. 18: 199-203. in mental imagery affects self-perception and behavior. Psychological Science. Vol. 18: 199-203.
  • Agency– The concept that players feel a real sense of agency and control.They have a real sense of ownership over what they are doing. They seethemselves in the game or situation.James Paul Gee, University of Wisconsin-Madison
  • Recommendations• Use characters/agents to model desired behavior.• Use characters/agents to provide feedback and instruction to learners.• Characters should speak in a natural, conversational tone.• Use two characters, one for coaching and one for expertise is better than just having one character trying to do both.• User third-person rather than first person to show activities.
  • Levels
  • Games providedifferent levels fordifferent points of entry.
  • Scaffolding: Process of controllingthe task elements that initially are beyond the learner’s capacity. Guided Practice. Step-by-step instructions and then fading of instruction Having different entry points into a learning module provides players with a comfort level that they can enter the learning and be successful.
  • Many of the instructional methods that are effective for novices either have no effect or, in some cases, depress the learning of learners with more expertise. Training designed for learners with greater prior knowledge requires different instruction methods than training designed for novice learners.Clark, R., Nguyen, F. & Sweller, J. (2006) Efficiency in Learning: Evidence-based guidelines to manage cognitive load. Pfeiffer. PageClark, R., Nguyen, F. & Sweller, J. (2006) Efficiency in Learning: Evidence-based guidelines to manage cognitive load. Pfeiffer. Page247. Chapter 7 and 7 of “The Gamification of Learning and Instruction.247. Chapter 7 and 7 of “The Gamification of Learning and Instruction.
  • Don’t overload experienced learners with extrainformation. Keep to critical information they need to know..Use a problem-based or challenge-based approach to teaching experts. Position the learning event as a “scale up” of existing skills.
  • Recommendations• Provide different entry points into the instruction.• Provide different learner experiences within the same e-learning module.• Consider “leveling up” learner challenges.
  • Curve of Interest Monitor within the instruction. Track player movement, time on task, level of activity.
  • Replayability• Replay provides learners with a chance to try a different approach, explore different hypothesizes and reduces the “sting of failure”
  • Replay and exploration can be placed in games by providingadditional pathways through the content. Achieving goals Collecting Items Exploring Socializing Easter Eggs
  • Conflict, Competition and Cooperation
  • Conflict Conflict-inflicting damage on other players
  • Competition Competition- competing against other players
  • Cooperation Cooperation- working with other players to achieve a goal.
  • Rewards, Incentives and Points• Many games have leaderboards, badges that can be collected and other ways of rewarding players for certain activities and allow them to “show off” those awards.
  • Variable rewards Rewards release release it twice.chemical dopamine in brain.
  • In games like Super Mario Brothers, coins are collected and players are rewarded for having a large number of coins. This is extrinsic motivation which keeps players playing to get more coins.
  • Use coins, points and rewards to provide feedbackon performance, updates on progress and level of correctness.
  • Leaderboards provide opportunities for players toreceive feedback about theirperformance as compared to others.
  • Aesthetics• A large element of any game is how the game looks and the overall congruency of the artwork, interface and activities.
  • Includes audio as well as visual. Artwork and the “look and feel”of the game plays a major role inthe overall design and enjoyment of a game.
  • Chance• Chance and luck are two key elements in games, the randomness of events and unpredictability of outcome is what keeps players engaged. – 50/50 chance is best level of chance in a game.
  • Chance or luck is a highly motivational element of games both of traditional games of chance but in other video games like finding hidden treasures.
  • Freedom to Fail
  • Recommendations• Allow failure.• Provide for multiple attempts.• Focus on learning from mistakes and failure.