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Future of Learning: Games and Gamification
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Presentation outlining basic tenants of games and gamification in the context of the future development and implications for learning.

Presentation outlining basic tenants of games and gamification in the context of the future development and implications for learning.

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  • Various games and the problems the gamers had to solve.
  • First introduced to me by Sebastian Deterding
  • One element of engaged learning is challenging tasks. Jones, B., Valdez, G., Norakowski, J., & Rasmussen, C. (1994). Designing learning and technology for educational reform. North Central Regional ducational Laboratory. [Online]. Available: http://www.ncrtec.org/capacity/profile/profwww.htm and Schlechty, P. C. (1997). Inventing better schools: An action plan for educational reform. San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass .
  • Cognitive, Behavioral, Affective

Future of Learning: Games and Gamification Future of Learning: Games and Gamification Presentation Transcript

  • Future of Learning: Games and Gamification By Karl M. Kapp Bloomsburg UniversityTwitter:@kkapp Gamification of Learning and Instruction September 6, 2012
  • Torn from thebook…
  • Google “Kapp Notes” September 2011 Training Quarterly Article Improving Training: Thinking Like a Game Developer July 2012 T&D ArticleGames, Gamification and the Quest for Interactive Learning
  • Agenda 1 2 What is gamification and why does itWhat are the expectations of the Matter to learning professionals?new generation of learners? 3 What elements from games can be added to traditional learning to maximize impact?
  • Games 1.04 2 3
  • Games 1.0 4 3 How will the ball Where is my bounce off the wall? opponentgoing to go next? In what direction should I try to move the ball?
  • Games 2.0
  • Games 2.0 What is the patternShould I shoot the aliens these aliens are on the end or in the following?middle or all the bottom aliens first? How long do I have to shoot before an alien shoots at me?
  • Games 3.0
  • What must I do toWhere do I explore achieve my goal? first? What activities are of the most value?
  • Games 4.0
  • Games 4.0 What activities give me the most return for my efforts? Can I trust this person who wants to team with me to accomplish a goal?
  • Games 4.0 Flippy wants to become friends with you. Do you want to add Flippy to your friend’s list.
  • Games 4.0
  • Games 4.0
  • - Realistic simulators for contemporary Leadership Training- Integrate these games into leadership development programs- Attempt various leadership structures-Employees may make hundreds of leadership decision an hour in a game Leadership’s Online Labs Leadership’s Online Labs Harvard Business Harvard Business Review, May 2008 Review, May 2008
  • 10,000 hours of 13 hours Game play of console games a week 87% of 8- to 17- year olds play video games Digital divisions. Report by the Pew /Internet: Pew Internet & American Life. US Department of Commerce at home.
  • Almost 43% of thegamers are femaleand 26% of those females are over 18. Females play 5 hours a week of console games. They make up the majority of PC gamers at 63%.
  • Are games effective for learning?
  • Yes! Retention % Higher Type of Knowledge Retention 9% Procedural 14% Declarative 11%Sitzmann, T. (2011) A meta-analytic examination of the instructional effectiveness of computer-basedsimulation games. Personnel Psychology .Review of 65 studies. Chapter 4 “The Gamification of Learning andInstruction.”
  • Percentages of Impact Retention It wasn’t the game, it was % Higher level of activity in the game. Type of Knowledge Retention 9% In other words, the Procedural engagement of the learner in 14% the game leads to learning. Declarative 11%Sitzmann, T. (2011) A meta-analytic examination of the instructional effectiveness of computer-basedsimulation games. Personnel Psychology .Review of 65 studies. Chapter 4 “The Gamification of Learning andInstruction.”
  • Do simulation/games have to be entertaining to be educational?Sitzmann, T. (2011) A meta-analytic examination of the instructional effectiveness of computer-basedsimulation games. Personnel Psychology .Review of 65 studies. Chapter 4 “The Gamification of Learning andInstruction.”
  • Do simulation/games have to be entertaining to be educational? NOSitzmann, T. (2011) A meta-analytic examination of the instructional effectiveness of computer-basedsimulation games. Personnel Psychology .Review of 65 studies. Chapter 4 “The Gamification of Learning andInstruction.”
  • Do Simulation/games build more confidence for on the job application of learned knowledge than classroom instruction.Sitzmann, T. (2011) A meta-analytic examination of the instructional effectiveness of computer-basedsimulation games. Personnel Psychology .Review of 65 studies. Chapter 4 “The Gamification of Learning andInstruction.”
  • Do Simulation/games build more confidence for on the job application of learned knowledge than classroom instruction. Yes, 20% higher confidence levels.Sitzmann, T. (2011) A meta-analytic examination of the instructional effectiveness of computer-basedsimulation games. Personnel Psychology .Review of 65 studies. Chapter 4 “The Gamification of Learning andInstruction.”
  • Fact: Instructional games should be embedded in instructional programs that include debriefing and feedback. Engagement Instructional support to help learners understandEducational the game increases how to use instructionalSimulation effectiveness of the gaming Game experience. PedagogyHays, R. T. (2005). The effectiveness of instructional games: A literature review andHays, R. T. (2005). The effectiveness of instructional games: A literature review anddiscussion. Naval Air Warfare Center Training Systems Division (No 2005-004). Chapter 4discussion. Naval Air Warfare Center Training Systems Division (No 2005-004). Chapter 4“The Gamification of Learning and Instruction.”“The Gamification of Learning and Instruction.”
  • Example
  • Recommendations1) Use a game/simulation to provide a context for the learning.2) Don’t focus on “entertainment.”3) Carefully craft the simulation/game to provide opportunities to increase engagement and interactivity to increase learning.
  • Use game-based mechanics,aesthetics and game thinking toengage people, motivate action, promote learning, and solve problems. Gamificatio n
  • Gaming (Serious ) Games Gamification Simulations Course HeroWhole Part Toys Playful Design Legos iPhone PlayingFrom Game Design Elements to Gamefulness: Defining “Gamification”, Deterding, S. et. al
  • http://success.adobe.com/microsites/levelup/index.html
  • Use measurement achievements instead of completion achievements to increase intrinsic motivation through feedback.Locke, E.A., & Latham, G.P. (2002) Building a practially useful theory of goal setting andtask motivation: A 35-year Odyssey. American Psychologist, 57(9), 705-717 Chapter 11: “The Gamification of Learning and Instruction”
  • Primarily use expected achievements so players can establish goals for themselves and create a schema of the learning environment. http://www.coursehero.com/courses/ Schooler, L.J., & Anderson (1990) The disruptive potential of immediate feedback. The proceedings of the TwelfthAnnual Conference of the Cognitive Science Society, Cambridge, MA. Chapter 11: “The Gamification of Learning and Instruction”
  • 2 weeks after launching Courses (powered by gamification),CourseHero received 350 suggested edits to existing courses and122 requests for new courses.Another 68 people offered to augment existing courses by creatingtheir own course to be hosted on coursehero.com.
  • • Since the implementation of gamification elements, time on site overall has increased around 5 percent.
  • • For Gamified courses, the time on site for the Courses are nearly three times as long as time onsite for all of coursehero.com.• Social sharing of achievements increased nearly 400 percent in three months.
  • Some people think Gamification is only about points, badges and rewards…PBL (Points, Badges, Leader Boards)…
  • … if it was, this would be the most engaging game in the world.
  • … but the possibilities of “gamification” are far larger than points, badges and rewards.
  • Elements ofGames that Aid Learning• Story• Character• Recognition• Levels• Challenges• Chance• Replayability• Aesthetics• Time• Continual Feedback
  • Three Elements ofGames that Aid Learning1. Story2. Challenges3. Characters4. Levels
  • Story
  • Researchers have found that the Researchers have found that the Yep, People tend to remember facts Yep, People tend to remember facts human brain has a natural affinity human brain has a natural affinity more accurately if they encounter more accurately if they encounter for narrative construction. for narrative construction. them in a story rather than in a list. them in a story rather than in a list. And they rate legal arguments as more convincing when built into narrative tales rather than on legal precedent.Carey, B. (2007) this is Your Life (and How You Tell it). The New York Times. Melanie Green Carey, B. (2007) this is Your Life (and How You Tell it). The New York Times. Melanie Greenhttp://www.unc.edu/~mcgreen/research.html. Chapter 2 “The Gamification of Learning and http://www.unc.edu/~mcgreen/research.html. Chapter 2 “The Gamification of Learning andInstruction. Instruction.
  • Story Elements 1. Characters2. Plot (something has to happen). 3. Ten s ion 4. Resolution te rs pr ob le m C ha ra ct er en co u n n si on 5. Conclusion Pr ob le m bu il ds te re d A so lu ti on is of fe te d /p os it iv e R es u lt s ar e pr es en
  • NikePlus Stats for Karl
  • Provide a challengeJones, B., Valdez, G., Norakowski, J., & Rasmussen, C. (1994). Designing learning and technologyJones, B., Valdez, G., Norakowski, J., & Rasmussen, C. (1994). Designing learning and technologyfor educational reform. North Central Regional Educational Laboratory. [Online]. Available:for educational reform. North Central Regional Educational Laboratory. [Online]. Available:http://www.ncrtec.org/capacity/profile/profwww.htm and Schlechty, P. C. (1997). Inventinghttp://www.ncrtec.org/capacity/profile/profwww.htm and Schlechty, P. C. (1997). Inventingbetter schools: An action plan for educational reform. San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass. Chapter 2better schools: An action plan for educational reform. San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass. Chapter 2“The Gamification of Learning and Instruction.”“The Gamification of Learning and Instruction.”
  • Re-design the Instruction to Start with a Challenge
  • Investigatory Training• Course Objectives – Identify the Forms Required for an Investigation – Practice Interview Techniques – Describe and Follow the Investigation Model
  • It is your first day on the job as an investigator andJane, an employee in Accounting, just accused herboss of embezzling $10,000.What is the first thing you should do?
  • Challenge and Consolidation– Good games offer players a setof challenging problems and then let them solve these problemsuntil they have virtually routinized or automated their solutions.Games then throw a new class of problem at the players requiringthem to rethink their now, taken-for-granted mastery, learnsomething new, and integrate this new learning into their oldmastery.James Paul Gee,University of Wisconsin-Madison
  • Recommendations• Embed facts to be learned in the context of stories.• Start the learning process by providing a challenge to the learner.• Provide a progression from simple to more difficult tasks.• Use stories that are related to the context of the desired learning outcome.
  • We’ve Always W anted Characters Characters
  • On tests involving different word problems, the group who had a character explain the problems generated 30% more correct answers than the group with just on-screen text. Animated pedagogical agents (characters) can be aids to learning. A “realistic” character did not facilitate learning any better than a “cartoon-like” character.Clark, R., Mayer, R. (2011) E-Learning and the Science of Instruction: Proven Guidelines for Consumers and Designers ofMultimedia Learning. New York: Pfeiffer. Pg. 194. Chapter 4 “The Gamificaiton of Learning and Instruciton”
  • Avatar as Teacher Research indicates that learners perceive, interact socially with and are influenced by anthropomorphic agents (characters) even when their functionality and adaptability are limited.Baylor, A. 2009 Promoting motivation with virtual agents and avatars: R ole of visual presence and appearance. PhilosophicalTransactions of the Royal B Society. 364, 3559–3565. Chapter 4 “The Gamification of Learning and Instruction”
  • Are two avatars better than one?Motivator Mentor Expert
  • Yes, two avatars are better than one. Motivator MentorBaylor, A. L. & Kim, Y. (2005). Simulating instructional roles throughpedagogical agents. International Journal of Artificial Intelligence inEducation, 15(1), 95-115. Chapter 4 “The Gamification of Learning and ExpertInstruction”
  • http://codebaby.com/elearning-solutions/examples/
  • http://codebaby.com/elearning-solutions/examples/
  • Recommendations• Use characters/agents to model desired behavior.• Use characters/agents to provide feedback and instruction to learners.• Characters should speak in a natural, conversational tone.• Use two characters, one for coaching and one for expertise is better than just having one character trying to do both.
  • Levels
  • Games providedifferent levels fordifferent points of entry.
  • Scaffolding: Process of controllingthe task elements that initially are beyond the learner’s capacity. Guided Practice. Step-by-step instructions and then fading of instruction Having different entry points into a learning module provides players with a comfort level that they can enter the learning and be successful.
  • Many of the instructional methods that are effective for novices either have no effect or, in some cases, depress the learning of learners with more expertise. Training designed for learners with greater prior knowledge requires different instruction methods than training designed for novice learners.Clark, R., Nguyen, F. & Sweller, J. (2006) Efficiency in Learning: Evidence-based guidelines to manage cognitive load. Pfeiffer. PageClark, R., Nguyen, F. & Sweller, J. (2006) Efficiency in Learning: Evidence-based guidelines to manage cognitive load. Pfeiffer. Page247. Chapter 7 and 7 of “The Gamification of Learning and Instruction.247. Chapter 7 and 7 of “The Gamification of Learning and Instruction.
  • Recommendations
  • FactGreitemeyer, T. & Osswald, S. (2010) Effective of Prosocial games on prosocial behavior.Greitemeyer, T. & Osswald, S. (2010) Effective of Prosocial games on prosocial behavior.Journal of Personality and Social Psychology. Vol. 98 .. No. 2., 211-221.Journal of Personality and Social Psychology. Vol. 98 No. 2., 211-221.
  • 28% helped topick up pencils
  • 33% helped topick up pencils
  • 67% helped topick up pencils
  • 22%intervened
  • 56%intervened
  • Take-Away1) Interactivity of games leads to higher knowledge retention for declarative and procedural knowledge.2) Embed facts to be learned in the context of stories.3) Games/Simulations do not need to be fun to be educational.4) On screen characters can enhance e-learning.5) Two on screen characters (mentor and expert) are better then one.6) Use stories rather than bulleted lists to present facts.7) Present learners with a difficult challenge to engage and motivate them.8) Use stories that are related to the context of the desired learning outcome.9) Allow different entry points/levels into the instruction.10) Games can be more influential than reading about a subject.
  • Questions? Twitter:@kkapp kkapp@bloomu.edu