What Research Tells us AboutGames, Gamification and Learning                  By Karl M. Kapp                  Bloomsburg ...
Agenda          1                                   2                               How do you apply game-based strategies...
Google “Kapp Notes”                      2012 New Book:        “The Gamification of Learning and Instruction”       Septem...
Based on the Book.
Let’s PlayFact or Fishy…
Games and result in…Learner spending more timeon task than traditionalinstruction. Is that Fact    or Fishy?
A math facts game deployed on a handled computer        encouraged learners to complete greater number of           proble...
When learning DeclarativeKnowledge…Using a game/simulationparticipants learned 11%more than using traditionalinstruction. ...
Fact                          Type of    % Higher                          Knowledge                          /Retention  ...
Percentages of Impact                  Type of      It wasn’t the game, it was                                 % Higher   ...
Use game-based mechanics,aesthetics and game thinking toengage people, motivate action,  promote learning, and solve      ...
Games/Simulations must befun to be Educational. Is that Fact   or Fishy?
Sitzmann, T. (2011) A meta-analytic examination of the instructional effectiveness ofcomputer-based simulation games. Pers...
Simulation/games build moreconfidence for on the job application of  learned knowledge than classroom              instruc...
20% higher                                                                              confidence                        ...
An on-screen character isdistracting to the learner anddoes not facilitate learningas well as simple text. Is that Fact   ...
On transfer tests involving different word problems, the            group who had a character generated 30% more          ...
Who is more likely to run 24 hours later?A.Person who watched an avatar that didnot look like them runningB.Person who wat...
Within 24 hours of watching an avatar                                        like themselves run, learners were more      ...
If learners watch an avatar that                                              looks like them exercising & losing         ...
Avatar as Teacher          Research indicates that learners perceive,          interact socially with and are influenced b...
Two avatars are better                 than one?Motivator                             Mentor Expert     Fact or Fishy?
Yes, two avatars are         better than one.                                                         Fact             Mot...
Learners remember facts better…When presented as bulletedlist rather than presented asa story.Is that Fact    or Fishy?
Yep, People tend to remember                                                      Yep, People tend to remember  Researcher...
NikePlus Stats for Karl
Story Elements  1. Characters2. Plot (something has to happen).  3. Ten s ion   4. Resolution                             ...
One way to engage learners is to…Present them with a difficultchallenge. Is that Fact    or Fishy?
Fact.                 Provide a challengeJones, B., Valdez, G., Norakowski, J., & Rasmussen, C. (1994). Designing learning...
Re-design the Instructionto Start with a Challenge
Investigatory Training• Course Objectives  – Identify the Forms Required for an    Investigation  – Practice Interview Tec...
It is your first day on the job as an investigator andJane, an employee in Accounting, just accused herboss of embezzling ...
Coins, points and rewardsare extrinsic motivators andshould be avoided at allcosts.Is that Fact   or Fishy?
Use coins, points and rewards to providefeedback on performance, updates on progress          and level of correctness.
The value, or size, of an anticipated reward influences the motivational signal sent to  the brain only within the context...
Games can influencepeople to behave in a pro-social manner.Is that Fact   or Fishy?
FactGreitemeyer, T. & Osswald, S. (2010) Effective of Prosocial games on prosocialGreitemeyer, T. & Osswald, S. (2010) Eff...
28% helped to pick up   pencils
33% helped to pick up   pencils
67% helped to pick up   pencils
22%intervened
56%intervened
Different content requiresdifferent game designs.Is that Fact   or Fishy?
Fact
DeclarativeKnowledge Games                     Matching                 Multiple Choice              Organization-Drag/Drop
Conceptual       Knowledge        Games      Examples   Non-ExamplesResults of Conceptual   Understanding
Problem SolvingKnowledge Games            Branching            Simulation
Problem SolvingKnowledge Games             Virtual 3D            Environments
Take-Away1) Interactivity of games leads to higher knowledge retention for1) Interactivity of games leads to higher knowle...
Questions   ?          Available at             Amazon.com            Twitter:@kkapp            kkapp@bloomu.edu
ASTD Gamification Webinar Slides
ASTD Gamification Webinar Slides
ASTD Gamification Webinar Slides
ASTD Gamification Webinar Slides
ASTD Gamification Webinar Slides
ASTD Gamification Webinar Slides
ASTD Gamification Webinar Slides
ASTD Gamification Webinar Slides
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  • Lee, Luchini, Michael, Norris, and Soloway (2004) found that a math facts game for second graders deployed on handheld computers encouraged learners to complete a greater number of problems at an increased degree of difficulty. Learners playing the handheld game completed nearly three times the number of problems in 19 days as those using paper worksheets. Learners using the handheld game also voluntarily increased the level of difficulty in the game as they continued to play. Lee, J., Luchini, K., Michael, B., Norris, C., & Soloway, E. (2004). More than just fun and games: Assessing the value of educational video games in the classroom. Paper presented at the CHI '04 Extended Abstracts on Human Factors in Computing Systems, Vienna, Austria.
  • Clark, R., Mayer, R. (2011) E-Learning and the Science of Instruction: Proven Guidelines for Consumers and Designers of Multimedia Learning. New York: Pfeiffer. Pg. 84-86.
  • Clark, R., Mayer, R. (2011) E-Learning and the Science of Instruction: Proven Guidelines for Consumers and Designers of Multimedia Learning. New York: Pfeiffer. Pg.194
  • One element of engaged learning is challenging tasks. Jones, B., Valdez, G., Norakowski, J., & Rasmussen, C. (1994). Designing learning and technology for educational reform. North Central Regional Educational Laboratory. [Online]. Available: http://www.ncrtec.org/capacity/profile/profwww.htm and Schlechty, P. C. (1997). Inventing better schools: An action plan for educational reform. San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass .
  • Cognitive, Behavioral, Affective
  • Transcript of "ASTD Gamification Webinar Slides"

    1. 1. What Research Tells us AboutGames, Gamification and Learning By Karl M. Kapp Bloomsburg University July 24, 2012 Twitter:@kkapp
    2. 2. Agenda 1 2 How do you apply game-based strategiesWhat does research say about to the presentation of learning content?games and game elements forlearning? 3 4 What are tips for creatingWhat are some principles for e-learning games and simulationsadding serious games to change behavior?to learning curriculums?
    3. 3. Google “Kapp Notes” 2012 New Book: “The Gamification of Learning and Instruction” September 2011 Training Quarterly Article Improving Training: Thinking Like a Game Developer July 2012 T&D ArticleGames, Gamification and the Quest for Interactive Learning
    4. 4. Based on the Book.
    5. 5. Let’s PlayFact or Fishy…
    6. 6. Games and result in…Learner spending more timeon task than traditionalinstruction. Is that Fact or Fishy?
    7. 7. A math facts game deployed on a handled computer encouraged learners to complete greater number of problems at an increased level of difficulty. Learners playing the handheld game completed nearly 3 times the number of problems in 19 days and voluntarily increased the level of difficulty.Lee, J., Luchini, K., Michael, B., Norris, C., & Soloway, E. (2004). More than just fun andLee, J., Luchini, K., Michael, B., Norris, C., & Soloway, E. (2004). More than just fun andgames: Assessing the value of educational video games in the classroom. Paper presentedgames: Assessing the value of educational video games in the classroom. Paper presentedat the CHI 04 Extended Abstracts on Human Factors in Computing Systems, Vienna,at the CHI 04 Extended Abstracts on Human Factors in Computing Systems, Vienna,Austria.Austria.
    8. 8. When learning DeclarativeKnowledge…Using a game/simulationparticipants learned 11%more than using traditionalinstruction. Is that Fact or Fishy?
    9. 9. Fact Type of % Higher Knowledge /Retention Declarative 11% Procedural 14% Retention 9%Sitzmann, T. (2011) A meta-analytic examination of the instructional effectiveness of computer-basedsimulation games. Personnel Psychology .Review of 65 studies
    10. 10. Percentages of Impact Type of It wasn’t the game, it was % Higher level of activity in the game. Knowledge /Retention Declarative 11% In other words, the Procedural engagement of the learner in 14% the game leads to learning. Retention 9%Sitzmann, T. (2011) A meta-analytic examination of the instructionaleffectiveness of computer-based simulation games. PersonnelPsychology .Review of 65 studies
    11. 11. Use game-based mechanics,aesthetics and game thinking toengage people, motivate action, promote learning, and solve problems. Gamification
    12. 12. Games/Simulations must befun to be Educational. Is that Fact or Fishy?
    13. 13. Sitzmann, T. (2011) A meta-analytic examination of the instructional effectiveness ofcomputer-based simulation games. Personnel Psychology .
    14. 14. Simulation/games build moreconfidence for on the job application of learned knowledge than classroom instruction. Sitzmann, T. (2011) A meta-analytic examination of the instructional effectiveness of computer-based simulation games. Personnel
    15. 15. 20% higher confidence Fact levels.Sitzmann, T. (2011) A meta-analytic examination of the instructional effectiveness ofcomputer-based simulation games. Personnel Psychology .
    16. 16. An on-screen character isdistracting to the learner anddoes not facilitate learningas well as simple text. Is that Fact or Fishy?
    17. 17. On transfer tests involving different word problems, the group who had a character generated 30% more correct answers than the group with on-screen text. Animated pedagogical agents (characters) can be aids to learning. A “realistic” character did not facilitate learning any better than a “cartoon-like” character.Clark, R., Mayer, R. (2011) E-Learning and the Science of Instruction: Proven Guidelines for Consumers and Designers ofMultimedia Learning. New York: Pfeiffer. Pg. 194.
    18. 18. Who is more likely to run 24 hours later?A.Person who watched an avatar that didnot look like them runningB.Person who watched an avatar thatlooked like them runningC.Person watching an avatar that lookedlike them loitering /hanging out
    19. 19. Within 24 hours of watching an avatar like themselves run, learners were more likely to run than watching an avatar not like them or watching an avatar like them loitering .Fox, J., Arena, D., & Bailenson, J.N. (2009). Virtual Reality: A survival guide for the social scientist. Journal of Media Psychology,21 (3), 95-113.
    20. 20. If learners watch an avatar that looks like them exercising & losing weight, they will subsequently exercise more in the real world as compared to a control group.Fox, J., Arena, D., & Bailenson, J.N. (2009). Virtual Reality: A survival guide for the social scientist. Journal of Media Psychology, 2(3), 95-113.
    21. 21. Avatar as Teacher Research indicates that learners perceive, interact socially with and are influenced by anthropomorphic agents (avatars) even when their functionality and adaptability are limited.Baylor, A. 2009 Promoting motivation with virtual agents and avatars: R ole of visual presence and appearance.Philosophical Transactions of the Royal B Society. 364, 3559–3565
    22. 22. Two avatars are better than one?Motivator Mentor Expert Fact or Fishy?
    23. 23. Yes, two avatars are better than one. Fact Motivator MentorBaylor, A. L. & Kim, Y. (2005). Simulating instructional roles throughpedagogical agents. International Journal of Artificial Intelligence inEducation, 15(1), 95-115. Expert
    24. 24. Learners remember facts better…When presented as bulletedlist rather than presented asa story.Is that Fact or Fishy?
    25. 25. Yep, People tend to remember Yep, People tend to remember Researchers have found that the Researchers have found that the facts more accurately if they facts more accurately if they human brain has a natural affinity human brain has a natural affinity encounter them in a story rather encounter them in a story rather for narrative construction. for narrative construction. than in a list. than in a list. And they rate legal arguments as more convincing when built into narrative tales rather than on legal precedent.Carey, B. (2007) this is Your Life (and How You Tell it). The New York Times.Carey, B. (2007) this is Your Life (and How You Tell it). The New York Times.Melanie Green http://www.unc.edu/~mcgreen/research.htmlMelanie Green http://www.unc.edu/~mcgreen/research.html
    26. 26. NikePlus Stats for Karl
    27. 27. Story Elements 1. Characters2. Plot (something has to happen). 3. Ten s ion 4. Resolution te rs pr ob le m C ha ra ct er en co u n n si on 5. Conclusion Pr ob le m bu il ds te re d A so lu ti on is of fe te d /p os it iv e R es u lt s ar e pr es en
    28. 28. One way to engage learners is to…Present them with a difficultchallenge. Is that Fact or Fishy?
    29. 29. Fact. Provide a challengeJones, B., Valdez, G., Norakowski, J., & Rasmussen, C. (1994). Designing learning and technology for educational Jones, B., Valdez, G., Norakowski, J., & Rasmussen, C. (1994). Designing learning and technology for educationalreform. North Central Regional Educational Laboratory. [Online]. Available: reform. North Central Regional Educational Laboratory. [Online]. Available:http://www.ncrtec.org/capacity/profile/profwww.htm and Schlechty, P. C. (1997). Inventing better schools: An action http://www.ncrtec.org/capacity/profile/profwww.htm and Schlechty, P. C. (1997). Inventing better schools: An actionplan for educational reform. San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass plan for educational reform. San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass
    30. 30. Re-design the Instructionto Start with a Challenge
    31. 31. Investigatory Training• Course Objectives – Identify the Forms Required for an Investigation – Practice Interview Techniques – Understand and Follow the Investigation Model
    32. 32. It is your first day on the job as an investigator andJane, an employee in Accounting, just accused herboss of embezzling $10,000.What is the first thing you should do?
    33. 33. Coins, points and rewardsare extrinsic motivators andshould be avoided at allcosts.Is that Fact or Fishy?
    34. 34. Use coins, points and rewards to providefeedback on performance, updates on progress and level of correctness.
    35. 35. The value, or size, of an anticipated reward influences the motivational signal sent to the brain only within the contexts of the reward system.
    36. 36. Games can influencepeople to behave in a pro-social manner.Is that Fact or Fishy?
    37. 37. FactGreitemeyer, T. & Osswald, S. (2010) Effective of Prosocial games on prosocialGreitemeyer, T. & Osswald, S. (2010) Effective of Prosocial games on prosocialbehavior. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology. Vol. 98 .. No. 2., 211-behavior. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology. Vol. 98 No. 2., 211-221.221.
    38. 38. 28% helped to pick up pencils
    39. 39. 33% helped to pick up pencils
    40. 40. 67% helped to pick up pencils
    41. 41. 22%intervened
    42. 42. 56%intervened
    43. 43. Different content requiresdifferent game designs.Is that Fact or Fishy?
    44. 44. Fact
    45. 45. DeclarativeKnowledge Games Matching Multiple Choice Organization-Drag/Drop
    46. 46. Conceptual Knowledge Games Examples Non-ExamplesResults of Conceptual Understanding
    47. 47. Problem SolvingKnowledge Games Branching Simulation
    48. 48. Problem SolvingKnowledge Games Virtual 3D Environments
    49. 49. Take-Away1) Interactivity of games leads to higher knowledge retention for1) Interactivity of games leads to higher knowledge retention for declarative and procedural knowledge. declarative and procedural knowledge.2) Games/Simulations do not need to be fun to be educational.2) Games/Simulations do not need to be fun to be educational.3) On screen characters can enhance e-learning.3) On screen characters can enhance e-learning.4) Two on screen characters (mentor and expert) are better then4) Two on screen characters (mentor and expert) are better then one. one.5) Onscreen avatars can influence off-screen behavior.5) Onscreen avatars can influence off-screen behavior.6) Use stories rather than bulleted lists to present facts.6) Use stories rather than bulleted lists to present facts.7) Present learners with a difficult challenge to engage and motivate7) Present learners with a difficult challenge to engage and motivate them. them.8) Use points, rewards and badges to provide feedback on8) Use points, rewards and badges to provide feedback on performance or progress. performance or progress.9) Games can influence people to behave in a pro-social manner.9) Games can influence people to behave in a pro-social manner.10) Use different game designs for different types of learning.10) Use different game designs for different types of learning.
    50. 50. Questions ? Available at Amazon.com Twitter:@kkapp kkapp@bloomu.edu

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