The Phenomenon of Perception Perception is individual. It is intimately tied to an individual’s belief and value system. Perception carries the power of truth. What is perceived by an individual is what they believe to be true.
Klapper’s Concepts of Selective Exposure Selective Perception-the inherent human function of selecting from the millions of daily stimuli only those messages one chooses to perceive. Selective Retention-the inherent human function of selecting from the hundreds of stimuli perceived only those messages one chooses to retain.
Uses and Gratification Theory A basic assumption of the theory is that people choose how media will serve them and use media for those purposes. 3 Motives for Media Use: Environmental surveillance Environmental diversion Environmental interaction
Attitudes, Values, and Beliefs Milton Rokeach developed a theory about human behavior, attitude, and attitude change. In this theory, beliefs are the fundamental building blocks of attitudes. Attitudes toward objects Attitudes toward situations Core beliefs are values that function as life guides. A collection of beliefs organized around a focal point like an issue, event, or person constitute an attitude.
Methods of Persuasion
People are motivated to action in 3 ways:
Power may be legitimate authority, peer group pressure, or informal status. Patronage is simple paying for the desired behavior either monetarily, in kind, or by favor. Persuasion is the method most used by public relations and typically involves information disseminations and appeals to change attitudes and opinions to achieve the desired behavior.
The Powerful Influence of Conformity An opinion leader is someone we turn to for advice and counsel, typically because he/she has more knowledge or information about the issue in question. See Figure 2.2
Self interest-convincing them the desired behavior is in their best interest.
Self Persuasion developed by Robert Cialdini: Consistency Reciprocity Social Validation Authority Scarcity
The Ethics of Persuasion Propaganda devices-See figure 2.3 Ethical Criteria that guide the communications professional: Do not use false, distorted, or irrelevant evidence or reasoning or diversionary tactics Do not deceive or mislead your audience or conceal your purpose. Do not oversimplify complex issues or minimize detrimental effects Do not engage in advocacy for something or someone you do not trust or believe in personally.