Learning theory staff development hour feb 2011


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These slides were used in a session for OU Learning & Teaching librarians on learning theory and how it relates to information literacy teaching

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Learning theory staff development hour feb 2011

  1. 1. Introduction to learning theory Staff Development Hour, 16 th February 2011
  2. 2. Session outline <ul><li>How do people learn? </li></ul><ul><li>Learning theories </li></ul><ul><li>Elearning and information literacy </li></ul><ul><li>Learning at what level? </li></ul><ul><li>Designing for learning </li></ul><ul><li>Reflection </li></ul>
  3. 3. Learning outcomes <ul><li>By the end of this session you should: </li></ul><ul><li>Have an overview of some relevant theories and what they mean for IL as well as for learning and teaching in general </li></ul><ul><li>Be able to select the appropriate approach for what you want to do (face-to-face teaching or online activity) </li></ul>
  4. 4. Your own experience of learning <ul><li>Recall some specific learning experiences and think about what made them good or bad </li></ul><ul><li>How have these influenced the way you yourself teach, or write online activities? </li></ul><ul><li>What are the preferred ways of teaching and learning in the subjects that you work with? </li></ul>
  5. 5. How do students learn?
  6. 6. How students learn <ul><li>Need to relate new learning to existing knowledge and experience </li></ul><ul><li>It’s what the learner does that results in learning </li></ul><ul><li>Two-way conversation (Laurillard, 2002) </li></ul><ul><li>Different learning styles, but depends on context </li></ul><ul><li>‘ Deep’ and ‘surface’ learning </li></ul><ul><li>Reflection is important </li></ul>
  7. 7. Kolb learning cycle
  8. 8. Ripples on a pond (Phil Race) Wanting/ Needing Doing Feedback Making sense
  9. 9. Jargon-busting <ul><li>Pedagogy </li></ul><ul><li>Andragogy </li></ul><ul><li>Behaviourism </li></ul><ul><li>Cognitivism </li></ul><ul><li>Constructivism </li></ul>
  10. 10. Pedagogy <ul><li>The art, occupation, or practice of teaching. Also: the theory or principles of education; a method of teaching based on such a theory (OED) </li></ul>
  11. 11. Andragogy <ul><li>Theory of adult learning </li></ul><ul><li>Adults need to know why they need to learn something </li></ul><ul><li>Adults need to learn experientially </li></ul><ul><li>Adults approach learning as problem solving </li></ul><ul><li>Adults learn best when they see the topic is of immediate value to them </li></ul>
  12. 12. Behaviourism <ul><li>About conditioning, and reinforcing behaviour </li></ul><ul><li>There is objective knowledge which can be learnt and is measurable </li></ul><ul><li>Relevant to skills development, e.g. ‘How to’ type teaching </li></ul><ul><li>Teacher-centred </li></ul>
  13. 13. Cognitivism <ul><li>About the mind making sense of material with which it is presented </li></ul><ul><li>How the brain operates in learning – what helps / hinders </li></ul><ul><li>People learn better in short segments, where there is reinforcement at the end </li></ul>
  14. 14. Constructivism <ul><li>Is about the learner creating new meanings for him or herself </li></ul><ul><ul><li>http://vodpod.com/watch/5027058-constructivism-in-learning?u=joaoa&c=joaoa </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Everyone starts from their own perspective: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>http://www.youtube.com/oulife#p/u/3/VNgNcJ112pU (Building on experience - OU student view) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=nqCIUXNYkxw (Victor Borge - How people with different occupations play the piano) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Social constructivism: about how meanings and understandings grow out of social encounters </li></ul>
  15. 15. Elearning <ul><li>‘ Learning facilitated and supported through the use of information and communications technology (ICT)’ (JISC, http:// www.jisc.ac.uk/elearning ) </li></ul><ul><li>Key principles of effective elearning (Dyke, Conole et al, 2007): </li></ul><ul><li>Thinking and reflection </li></ul><ul><li>Experience and activity </li></ul><ul><li>Conversation and interaction </li></ul>
  16. 16. (E)learning and information literacy
  17. 17. Learning at what level? <ul><li>The language of learning outcomes </li></ul><ul><li>Bloom’s taxonomy: http:// www.learningandteaching.info/learning/bloomtax.htm </li></ul><ul><li>IL levels framework: http://library.open.ac.uk/ILLFramework/ </li></ul>
  18. 18. Bloom’s taxonomy (revised Anderson & Krathwohl) http:// www.learningandteaching.info/learning/bloomtax.htm
  19. 19. IL and progression <ul><li>IL levels framework aims to define level at which students should be able to perform skills, e.g. for Understand the information landscape </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Level 1 identify a limited number of key sources of information </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Level 2 identify a range of key sources </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Level 3 select from and use a wide range of sources… </li></ul></ul>
  20. 20. Designing for learning <ul><li>Constructive alignment (Biggs & Tang, 2007) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Constructive because it’s about what the learner does, constructing own knowledge </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Alignment because learning outcomes, assessment and teaching and learning activities are all consistent with each other </li></ul></ul>
  21. 21. Example of constructive alignment for IL from TU120 <ul><li>Learning outcome : Critically evaluate information from a variety of sources </li></ul><ul><li>Assessment : Part of the EMA and carries 25/100 marks. </li></ul><ul><li>Apply PROMPT criteria to at least two of the sources you have referred to in your report, to explain why you have chosen to use this material. Write no more than 500 words . </li></ul><ul><li>Learning activities include: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>What would a good piece of information look like? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>What is meant by each of the criteria represented by PROMPT? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Summary activities to test what people have learnt, make clear it is about developing a critical approach and apply to a real-life scenario </li></ul></ul>
  22. 22. Activity <ul><li>Think of an activity or training session you have worked on recently. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>What was it about? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>How did you go about teaching or training? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>How well did it work? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>In light of what you have learned in today’s session, what would you do differently next time? </li></ul></ul>
  23. 23. Reflection <ul><li>Two key things you have got from this session </li></ul><ul><li>A question you still have </li></ul>
  24. 24. Acknowledgements <ul><li>Joel Mark Witt (2008) Leadership: ask better questions, http://www.flickr.com/photos/joelmarkwitt/2797956179/ </li></ul><ul><li>Peter J. Bury (2008) adult learning cycle by David Kolb, http://www.flickr.com/photos/bury_irc/2827216705/ </li></ul><ul><li>Manic Toys (2010) A curious discovery 2, http://www.flickr.com/photos/liam-manic/4507751075/ </li></ul><ul><li>Stacy Lynn Baum (2009) Buzz Lightyear, http://www.flickr.com/photos/stacylynn/4142811972/ </li></ul><ul><li>With thanks to Clare Humphries, University of Cranfield </li></ul>
  25. 25. After the session…(for OU people only, sorry) <ul><li>Please visit SocialLearn: http:// sociallearn.open.ac.uk/social/paths/view?pathId =7656 </li></ul><ul><li>Work through the learning path as and when you have time </li></ul><ul><li>Join the group and make any comments </li></ul><ul><li>Fill in the questionnaire with your feedback on SocialLearn as a learning platform </li></ul>
  26. 26. Further reading / viewing <ul><li>See SocialLearn learning path, ‘Learning theory for OU Librarians’: http://sociallearn.open.ac.uk/social/paths/view?pathId=7656 </li></ul><ul><li>Angles on learning: http://www.learningandteaching.info/learning/index.htm </li></ul><ul><li>Biggs, J. & Tang, C. (2007) Teaching for quality learning at university: what the student does , 3 rd edn, Maidenhead, Open University Press </li></ul><ul><li>Conole, G. & Oliver, M. (eds) (2007) Contemporary perspectives in elearning research: themes, methods and impact on practice , London, Routledge. </li></ul><ul><li>Introduction to learning theories: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=hsX5Tq3WTBw </li></ul>
  27. 27. Information Literacy Unit, Library Services The Open University Walton Hall Milton Keynes MK7 6AA <ul><li>www.open.ac.uk </li></ul>