The owner has the right to and may authorize others to
Create other forms of original work (modify)
Perform certain types of work
Display certain types of work
Benefits and Limitations Copyrights
No formal process to protect
Term of protection: creator’s life + 70 yrs.
U.S. protection extends internationally
Only expression is protected, not the ideas, concepts, facts
Others may independently create an “original” of the same or similar work without any knowledge of another’s work
Several exceptions to creator’s rights
"Fair use" is the right of the public to make reasonable use of copyrighted material in special circumstances without the copyright owner's permission .
The United States Copyright Act recognizes that fair use of a copyrighted work may be used "for purposes such as criticism, comment, news reporting, teaching, or research."
Factors to be considered in Fair Use
(1) the purpose and character of the use, including whether the use is for a commercial purpose or is for non-profit educational purposes;
(2) what kind of work is the copyrighted work (for instance, is it creative or factual);
(3) the amount and importance of the portion used in relation to the copyrighted work as a whole; and
(4) the effect of the use upon the potential commercial market for or value of the copyrighted work.
Determining Fair Use
Fair use can not be assumed simply because the use...
is for nonprofit, educational purposes, or
gives credit for the source of the work, or
limits the amount of material used
Fair use of a copyrighted work is not always easy to determine and there have been many lawsuits to determine if uses are "fair."
If in doubt about whether or not a use is “fair”, request permission from the copyright holder .
So, what does this all mean for you …as a student ?
ALWAYS record bibliographic information you use in a project (author/creator, complete title, place of publication, publisher and copyright date) and where you located it (which library, what call number, complete website, etc.).
Give credit for everything that you use. Don't just paraphrase. Use quotes. Include copyright information beside or under images (photographs, charts, maps, pictures, graphics).
Try to choose graphics from sources that grant permission to use their materials freely. Without granted permission, ALWAYS give credit to the original source [This applies to pictures or images that you use in reports, on posters, or in Powerpoint presentations.]
Make only ONE copy of articles, etc. for personal use when you are working on school assignments. Follow this rule unless the source gives other directions regarding use or copyrights.
For graphics or photographs used in a presentation make sure you include the following information next to the image: the letter "c" or the word "copyright", the name of the creator of the image, then the copyright date. If this information is not available in or on your source, you can list the bibliographic information or web address of the source.