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# Chapter 6 - Standardized Measurement & Assessment

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• 1. Chapter 6 - Standardized Measurement and Assessment http://www.offthemarkcartoons.com/cartoons/2005-08-21.gif
• 2. What is measurement? • the act of measuring • assigning symbols or numbers to something according to a specific set of rules
• 3. What are the four different levels or scales of measurement? •Nominal Scale •Ordinal Scale •Interval Scale •Ratio Scale
• 4. What is essential to know about the Nominal Scale? • it’s the simplest form of measurement • it uses symbols, such as words or numbers • it measures categorical variables IDENTIFY LABEL CLASSIFY
• 5. What is essential to know about the Ordinal Scale? • it’s a rank-order scale • it doesn’t indicate how much greater one ranking is over another
• 6. What is essential to know about the Interval Scale? • it’s also a rank-order scale • includes equal distances or intervals between adjacent numbers • the absence of a zero points means you cannot make “ratio statements”
• 7. What is essential to know about the Ratio Scale? • it’s the highest level of quantitative measure • it has all the properties of the nominal, ordinal, and interval scales plus it has a true zero point • it is not often used in educational research
• 8. Scales of Measurement Nominal Ordinal Interval Ratio -labels things- -ranks things- -ranks w/ equal distances -ranks & labels-
• 9. How do we define testing? • the measurement of variables
• 10. How do we define assessment? • gathering data to make evaluations
• 11. How do we define error? • the difference between true scores and observed scores
• 12. How do we define traits? • distinguishable, enduring ways in which one individual differs from another
• 13. How do we define states? • distinguishable but less enduring ways in which individuals vary
• 14. What are the twelve assumptions underlying testing and measurement? psychological psychological traits & states traits & states exist can be measured assessments various approaches can answer to measurement some of life’s can be most important useful questions
• 15. What are the twelve assumptions underlying testing and measurement? various sources of data assessment enrich & are part can pinpoint of the assessment phenomena process that require further study various sources measurement of error techniques are always have strengths part of the & assessment weaknesses process
• 16. What are the twelve assumptions underlying testing and measurement? testing & test-related assessment behavior can be done in a fair predicts non-test and unbiased related way behavior testing present-day sampling & predicts assessment future behavior benefit society
• 17. What is the difference between reliability and validity? • Reliability refers to • Validity refers to the the consistency of a accuracy of the score interpretations you make from the scores If you want validity, you must have reliability.
• 18. What is a reliability coefficient? • a correlation coefficient that is used as an index of reliability • Researchers want reliability coefficients to be as close to +1.00 as possible
• 19. What are four different ways of assessing reliability? 1. Test-Retest Reliability 2. Equivalent Forms Reliability 3. Internal Consistency Reliability 4. Interscorer Reliability
• 20. What is test-retest reliability? • a measure of the consistency of scores over time • the time interval can have an effect on test- retest reliability because people change over time
• 21. What is equivalent forms reliability? • the consistency of a group of individuals’ scores on two equivalent forms of a test measuring the same thing • the success of this method depends on the ability to construct two equivalent forms of the same test
• 22. What is internal consistency reliability? • the consistency with which the items on a test measure a single construct
• 23. What is are two indexes of internal consistency? • split-half reliability: splitting a test into two equivalent haves and then assessing the consistency of the scores across the two halves of the test • each ha
• 24. What is split-half reliability? • splitting a test into two equivalent halves and then assessing the consistency of the scores across the two halves of the test • each half needs to be equal to the other in format, style, content, and other aspects
• 25. What is coefficient alpha? • a formula that provides an estimate of the reliability of a homogeneous test or an estimate of the reliability of each dimension in a multidimensional test • tells you the degree to which the items are interrelated • need to consider the number of items; don’t just assume that because the coefficient alpha is large, the items are strongly related
• 26. What is interscorer reliability? • the degree of agreement or consistency between two or more scorers, judges, or raters • some degree of training and practice for the scorers is advised to improve the reliability of an evaluation
• 27. What is the definition of validity? • the accuracy of the inferences, interpretations, or actions made on the basis of test scores • to make sure that our test is measuring what we intended it to measure for the particular people in a particular context and that the interpretations we make on the basis of the test scores are correct • we want our inferences to be accurate and aour actions to be appropriate
• 28. What is the definition of validity evidence? • the empirical evidence and theoretical rationales that support the inferences or interpretations made from the test scores
• 29. What is the definition of validation? • the process of gather evidence that supports inferences made on the basis of test scores • the best rule is to collect multiple sources of evidence