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# Chapter 6 - Standardized Measurement & Assessment

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### Chapter 6 - Standardized Measurement & Assessment

1. 1. Chapter 6 - Standardized Measurement and Assessment http://www.offthemarkcartoons.com/cartoons/2005-08-21.gif
2. 2. What is measurement? • the act of measuring • assigning symbols or numbers to something according to a specific set of rules
3. 3. What are the four different levels or scales of measurement? •Nominal Scale •Ordinal Scale •Interval Scale •Ratio Scale
4. 4. What is essential to know about the Nominal Scale? • it’s the simplest form of measurement • it uses symbols, such as words or numbers • it measures categorical variables IDENTIFY LABEL CLASSIFY
5. 5. What is essential to know about the Ordinal Scale? • it’s a rank-order scale • it doesn’t indicate how much greater one ranking is over another
6. 6. What is essential to know about the Interval Scale? • it’s also a rank-order scale • includes equal distances or intervals between adjacent numbers • the absence of a zero points means you cannot make “ratio statements”
7. 7. What is essential to know about the Ratio Scale? • it’s the highest level of quantitative measure • it has all the properties of the nominal, ordinal, and interval scales plus it has a true zero point • it is not often used in educational research
8. 8. Scales of Measurement Nominal Ordinal Interval Ratio -labels things- -ranks things- -ranks w/ equal distances -ranks & labels-
9. 9. How do we define testing? • the measurement of variables
10. 10. How do we define assessment? • gathering data to make evaluations
11. 11. How do we define error? • the difference between true scores and observed scores
12. 12. How do we define traits? • distinguishable, enduring ways in which one individual differs from another
13. 13. How do we define states? • distinguishable but less enduring ways in which individuals vary
14. 14. What are the twelve assumptions underlying testing and measurement? psychological psychological traits & states traits & states exist can be measured assessments various approaches can answer to measurement some of life’s can be most important useful questions
15. 15. What are the twelve assumptions underlying testing and measurement? various sources of data assessment enrich & are part can pinpoint of the assessment phenomena process that require further study various sources measurement of error techniques are always have strengths part of the & assessment weaknesses process
16. 16. What are the twelve assumptions underlying testing and measurement? testing & test-related assessment behavior can be done in a fair predicts non-test and unbiased related way behavior testing present-day sampling & predicts assessment future behavior benefit society
17. 17. What is the difference between reliability and validity? • Reliability refers to • Validity refers to the the consistency of a accuracy of the score interpretations you make from the scores If you want validity, you must have reliability.
18. 18. What is a reliability coefficient? • a correlation coefficient that is used as an index of reliability • Researchers want reliability coefficients to be as close to +1.00 as possible
19. 19. What are four different ways of assessing reliability? 1. Test-Retest Reliability 2. Equivalent Forms Reliability 3. Internal Consistency Reliability 4. Interscorer Reliability
20. 20. What is test-retest reliability? • a measure of the consistency of scores over time • the time interval can have an effect on test- retest reliability because people change over time
21. 21. What is equivalent forms reliability? • the consistency of a group of individuals’ scores on two equivalent forms of a test measuring the same thing • the success of this method depends on the ability to construct two equivalent forms of the same test
22. 22. What is internal consistency reliability? • the consistency with which the items on a test measure a single construct
23. 23. What is are two indexes of internal consistency? • split-half reliability: splitting a test into two equivalent haves and then assessing the consistency of the scores across the two halves of the test • each ha
24. 24. What is split-half reliability? • splitting a test into two equivalent halves and then assessing the consistency of the scores across the two halves of the test • each half needs to be equal to the other in format, style, content, and other aspects
25. 25. What is coefficient alpha? • a formula that provides an estimate of the reliability of a homogeneous test or an estimate of the reliability of each dimension in a multidimensional test • tells you the degree to which the items are interrelated • need to consider the number of items; don’t just assume that because the coefficient alpha is large, the items are strongly related
26. 26. What is interscorer reliability? • the degree of agreement or consistency between two or more scorers, judges, or raters • some degree of training and practice for the scorers is advised to improve the reliability of an evaluation
27. 27. What is the definition of validity? • the accuracy of the inferences, interpretations, or actions made on the basis of test scores • to make sure that our test is measuring what we intended it to measure for the particular people in a particular context and that the interpretations we make on the basis of the test scores are correct • we want our inferences to be accurate and aour actions to be appropriate
28. 28. What is the definition of validity evidence? • the empirical evidence and theoretical rationales that support the inferences or interpretations made from the test scores
29. 29. What is the definition of validation? • the process of gather evidence that supports inferences made on the basis of test scores • the best rule is to collect multiple sources of evidence