The blocking of blood vessels by particle that has
broken away from the body clot at its site of
The decrease mobility of the heart with cardiac
disease and the impaired circulation that
accompany these disorder contribute to the
development of intracardiac and intravascular
Intracardiac thrombi are especially common in
patient with atrial fibrillation.
Can be detected by an echocardiogram and treated
with anticoagulants,such as heparin and
Sign and symptom of thromboembolism
Normal finding from the lung examination
Doppler ultrasonography of venous system
Acid base status: respiratory alkalosis
1.Anticoagulant and thrombolytics therapy are
available to prevent further clot deposition and
allows the patients natural fibrinolytics mechanism
to lyse the existing clot include heparin or LMWH
followed by initiation of oral coumadin derivative.
is a blockage of the main
artery of the lung or one of its
branches by a substance that
has travelled from elsewhere
in the body through the
bloodstream (embolism). PE
most commonly results from
deep vein thrombosis (a
blood clot in the deep veins
of the legs or pelvis) that
breaks off and migrates to the
lung, a process termed
Is the most common
among patient with HF.
CLINICAL INDICATORS OF PULMONARY :
Symptom of deep venous thrombosis
1.anticoagulants.heparin works quickly and is usually
delivered with a needle
Ventilation perfusion lung scan or high resolution
helical computed tomography
A blood D-dimer assay-is helpful to determine
whether fibrolysis of clots is taking place
somewhere in the body.
PERICADIAL EFFUSION AND CARDIAC TAMPONADE
Pericadial effusion-(accumulation of fluid in
normal pericardial sac(20 ml of fluid),which is needed to
decrease friction for the beating heart.
Increase in pericardial fluid raise the pressure within the
pericardial sac and compress the heart. these are the ff.
Elevated pressure in all cardiac chamber
Decrease venous return due to atrial compression
Inability of the ventricles to distend and fill adequately
Increase pressure within pericardium
Venous tends to pressure to increase
Shortness of breath and labile or low BP
-systolic BP that is markedly lower
-characterized by an abnormal difference of
at least 10mmhg systolic pressure between
the point that is heard during exhalation and
the point that is heard during inhalation.
ECG-confirm to diagnosis and quantify the amount
of pericardial fluid
Chest X-ray-show large pericardial effusion
Puncture of the pericardial sac to aspirate
Is performed to remove fluid from the pericardial
Recurrent pericardial effusions,usually associated
with neoplastic disease,may be treated by
pericardiotomy(pericardial window) under
gen.anesthesia,a potion of the pericardium is
excised to permit the exudative pericardial fluid to
drain into the lympathic system
A particular slide catching your eye?
Clipping is a handy way to collect important slides you want to go back to later.