Blood transfusion

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Blood transfusion

  1. 1.  It is a procedure in which a patient receives a bloodproduct through an intravenous line. It is the introduction of blood components into thevenous circulation. Process of transferring blood-based products from oneperson into the circulatory system of another.
  2. 2.  To replace blood lost during surgery or a serious injury. To restore oxygen-carrying capacity of the blood. To provide plasma factors to prevent or treat bleeding. Done if patient’s body is not capable of making bloodproperly because of an illness.
  3. 3.  Major injuries after an accident or disaster. Surgery on an organ such as liver and the heart. Severe Anemia Bleeding such as Haemophilia andThrombocytopenia.
  4. 4.  Each person has one of the following bloodtypes: A, B, AB, or O. O - can be given to anyone but can only receiveO. AB – can receive any type but can only be givento AB. Every person’s blood is either Rh-positive orRh-negative.
  5. 5.  Type O blood is called the universal donor. People with type AB blood are called universalrecipients. People with Rh-positive blood can get Rh-positive or Rh-negative blood. But peoplewith Rh-negative blood should get only Rh-negative blood.
  6. 6.  Before a blood transfusion, a technician teststhe patient’s blood to find out what blood typethey have (A, B, AB, or O and Rh-positive orRh-negative). Some patients may have allergic reaction evenwhen the blood given does work their ownblood type.
  7. 7.  A needle is used to insert an intravenous (IV) lineinto a blood vessel. Through this line, the blood istransfused. The procedure usually takes one to fourhours. During the BT, carefully watch the patient,especially for the first 15 minutes. This is when badreactions are most likely to occur. After a BT, vital signs are checked (temp., BP, RR, andHR). Follow-up blood tests may be necessary to show howthe body is reacting to the transfusion.
  8. 8.  Hemolytic Reaction – incompatibility between client’sbloods and donor’s blood.Clinical signs:Chills, fever, headache, backache, dyspnea, cyanosis,chest pain, tachycardia, hypotension. Febrile Reaction – sensitivity of the client’s blood towhite blood cells, platelets, or plasma proteins.Clinical signs:Fever, chills, warm, and flushed skin, headache, anxiety,muscle pain. Allergic Reaction (mild)Clinical signs:Flushing, itching, urticaria, bronchial wheezing.
  9. 9.  Allergic Reaction (Severe)Clinical Signs:Dyspnea, chest pain, circulatory collapse, cardiac arrest. Circulatory Overload – blood administered faster thanthe circulation can accommodate.Clinical signs:Cough, dyspnea, crackles (rales), distended neck veins,tachycardia, hypertension. Sepsis – contaminated blood administered.Clinical Signs:High fever, vomiting, diarrhea, hypotension.
  10. 10.  Components of the blood which are collected from adonor for us in blood transfusion.

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