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    Anth 4400 Anth 4400 Presentation Transcript

    • The Life and Culture of Ecotopia E.N. Anderson
      • Everyone is an advocate or student of man’s relationship with nature, however the state of the environment does not reflect this.
      • The increase of population and resources put more pressure on the food base every year.
      • Few have paid attention to the food crisis.
      • Anthropologists are unique and shuttle between two different worlds.
      • Anthropologists are also noted for bridging the gap between biological and social sciences. Anthropologists must take responsibility for their actions.
      • Research needs to be oriented toward genuine solutions of the problem
      1
      • Ecological crisis is due to exploitation
      • Ecological costs will show up in economic costs and someone will pay.
      • Real costs are always passed onto general public
      • Peru overfishing their anchovy stocks.
      • Concerns:
      • Extraction is cheaper than recycling
      • Single use is more economical than multiple use
      • Population explosion occurs.
      2
    • 3
      • Ecological crisis is the result of the political and economic structure
      • Disagrees with Lynn White
      • Difference between demand and effective demand
      • - Example: Americans demand wilderness conservation, but do not pay for it in the marketplace
    • 4
      • Constructing and ecotopia is a final goal for anthropologists
      • Groundwork in the form of research is needed
      • Planning is necessary as well
      • Population and consumption will stop because they must- energy consumption must level itself
    • 5
      • Anthropologists should allocate their efforts in seven ways:
      • When research is conducted, make it relevant to some aspect of planning
      • In studies, the relationship between community and world market should be determined
      • How to maximize the local relationship should also be determined
      • Look at designing a new culture on a worldwide scale
      • New priorities must be established
      • Organizational changes must be made
      • Anthropologists must learn and cooperate from other disciplines.
    • Question:
      • In your opinion, what is the most effective way anthropologists can allocate their efforts?
    • Ecotopian Possibilities and the Sustainable Future James Veteto and Joshua Lockyer
    • Earthaven Ecovillage
    • Earthaven Ecovillage
      • Located in western North Carolina
      • Founded in 1994 on 320 acres
      • Currently has 60 members
    • ‘‘ Ecovillages are human-scale, fullfeatured settlements in which human activities are harmlessly integrated into the natural world in a way that is supportive of healthy human development, and which can be successfully continued into the indefinite future’’ (Dawson 2006:13).
      • To achieve sustainability, actions grounded in knowledge of “local ecological, political–economic, and socio-cultural systems combined with a global awareness and scientific acumen”
      • Permaculture is an ethical philosophy
      • Earthaven followed this philosophy
      • Permaculture is a combination of permanent, culture, and agriculture.
      • Views humans and their activities and creations as part of the natural world
    • History of Permaculture
      • Created by Bill Mollison and David Holmgren
      • Negative response among academics
      • Positive response among the public
    • Three Ethical Principles of Permaculture
      • Care for the earth
      • Care for people
      • Set limits to consumption and reproduction and redistribute surplus
      • Question:
      • Do you live by any of the principles above? How?
    • 12 Design Principles of Permaculture
      • Observe and interact
      • Catch and store energy
      • Obtain a yield
      • Apply self regulation and feedback
      • Use and value renewable resources and services
      • Produce no waste
      • 7) Design from patterns to details
      • 8) Integrate rather than segregate
      • 9) Small and slow solutions
      • 10) Use and value diversity
      • 11) Use edges and value the marginal
      • 12) Creatively use and respond to change
    • Engaging Permaculture: Areas of Theoretical and Applied Compatibility
      • Cultural Ecology
      • Agricultural Anthropology
      • Historical Ecology
      • Ethnoecology
      • Political Ecology
      • Question:
      • Given the two scenarios, which one best fits you?
    • “ Permaculture: A Designers Manual ” Bill Mollison
    • Permaculture Design Philosophy
      • Action is pertinent and necessary
      • Life is a cooperative force
      • Adoption of aboriginal belief systems will be of great benefit to us
      • Question:
      • Do you use a spiritual belief system in your interactions with the environment?
    • Ethics
      • Ethical basis of permaculture as described by Anderson
      • Philosophy of working with, not against the earth
      • Questions can be asked in two ways
      • Rules of use:
      • Necessitous use
      • Conservative use
      • Multiple ways to achieve permanence and stability
        • Peasant approach
        • Permanent approach
        • Communal approach
      • The move from permanent productive systems to annual, commercial systems has created a shift from low to high energy
      • No such thing as “free energy ”
    • Permaculture in Landscape and Society
      • Basis of permaculture is beneficial design
      • Difference between cultivated ecosystem and natural one
      • Home and garden is important
      • Two Responsibilities:
      • Get your home and garden to support you
      • Limit population growth