Everyone is an advocate or student of man’s relationship with nature, however the state of the environment does not reflect this.
The increase of population and resources put more pressure on the food base every year.
Few have paid attention to the food crisis.
Anthropologists are unique and shuttle between two different worlds.
Anthropologists are also noted for bridging the gap between biological and social sciences. Anthropologists must take responsibility for their actions.
Research needs to be oriented toward genuine solutions of the problem
Ecological crisis is due to exploitation
Ecological costs will show up in economic costs and someone will pay.
Real costs are always passed onto general public
Peru overfishing their anchovy stocks.
Extraction is cheaper than recycling
Single use is more economical than multiple use
Population explosion occurs.
Ecological crisis is the result of the political and economic structure
Disagrees with Lynn White
Difference between demand and effective demand
- Example: Americans demand wilderness conservation, but do not pay for it in the marketplace
Constructing and ecotopia is a final goal for anthropologists
Groundwork in the form of research is needed
Planning is necessary as well
Population and consumption will stop because they must- energy consumption must level itself
Anthropologists should allocate their efforts in seven ways:
When research is conducted, make it relevant to some aspect of planning
In studies, the relationship between community and world market should be determined
How to maximize the local relationship should also be determined
Look at designing a new culture on a worldwide scale
New priorities must be established
Organizational changes must be made
Anthropologists must learn and cooperate from other disciplines.
In your opinion, what is the most effective way anthropologists can allocate their efforts?
Ecotopian Possibilities and the Sustainable Future James Veteto and Joshua Lockyer
Located in western North Carolina
Founded in 1994 on 320 acres
Currently has 60 members
‘‘ Ecovillages are human-scale, fullfeatured settlements in which human activities are harmlessly integrated into the natural world in a way that is supportive of healthy human development, and which can be successfully continued into the indeﬁnite future’’ (Dawson 2006:13).
To achieve sustainability, actions grounded in knowledge of “local ecological, political–economic, and socio-cultural systems combined with a global awareness and scientiﬁc acumen”
Permaculture is an ethical philosophy
Earthaven followed this philosophy
Permaculture is a combination of permanent, culture, and agriculture.
Views humans and their activities and creations as part of the natural world
History of Permaculture
Created by Bill Mollison and David Holmgren
Negative response among academics
Positive response among the public
Three Ethical Principles of Permaculture
Care for the earth
Care for people
Set limits to consumption and reproduction and redistribute surplus
Do you live by any of the principles above? How?
12 Design Principles of Permaculture
Observe and interact
Catch and store energy
Obtain a yield
Apply self regulation and feedback
Use and value renewable resources and services
Produce no waste
7) Design from patterns to details
8) Integrate rather than segregate
9) Small and slow solutions
10) Use and value diversity
11) Use edges and value the marginal
12) Creatively use and respond to change
Engaging Permaculture: Areas of Theoretical and Applied Compatibility
Given the two scenarios, which one best fits you?
“ Permaculture: A Designers Manual ” Bill Mollison
Permaculture Design Philosophy
Action is pertinent and necessary
Life is a cooperative force
Adoption of aboriginal belief systems will be of great benefit to us
Do you use a spiritual belief system in your interactions with the environment?
Ethical basis of permaculture as described by Anderson
Philosophy of working with, not against the earth
Questions can be asked in two ways
Rules of use:
Multiple ways to achieve permanence and stability
The move from permanent productive systems to annual, commercial systems has created a shift from low to high energy
No such thing as “free energy ”
Permaculture in Landscape and Society
Basis of permaculture is beneficial design
Difference between cultivated ecosystem and natural one