The Life and Culture of Ecotopia E.N. Anderson
Everyone is an advocate or student of man’s relationship with nature, however the state of the environment does not reflect this. The increase of population and resources put more pressure on the food base every year. Few have paid attention to the food crisis. Anthropologists are unique and shuttle between two different worlds. Anthropologists are also noted for bridging the gap between biological and social sciences. Anthropologists must take responsibility for their actions. 1
Research needs to be oriented toward genuine solutions of the problem
Ecological crisis is due to exploitation Ecological costs will show up in economic costs and someone will pay. Real costs are always passed onto general public Peru overfishing their anchovy stocks. Extraction is cheaper than recycling Single use is more economical than multiple use 2
Population explosion occurs.
3 Ecological crisis is the result of the political and economic structure Disagrees with Lynn White Difference between demand and effective demand
- Example: Americans demand wilderness conservation, but do not pay for it in the marketplace
4 Constructing and ecotopia is a final goal for anthropologists Groundwork in the form of research is needed Planning is necessary as well
Population and consumption will stop because they must- energy consumption must level itself
5 Anthropologists should allocate their efforts in seven ways: When research is conducted, make it relevant to some aspect of planning In studies, the relationship between community and world market should be determined How to maximize the local relationship should also be determined Look at designing a new culture on a worldwide scale New priorities must be established Organizational changes must be made
Anthropologists must learn and cooperate from other disciplines.
In your opinion, what is the most effective way anthropologists can allocate their efforts?
Ecotopian Possibilities and the Sustainable Future James Veteto and Joshua Lockyer
Earthaven Ecovillage Located in western North Carolina
Founded in 1994 on 320 acres
‘‘ Ecovillages are human-scale, fullfeatured settlements in which human activities are harmlessly integrated into the natural world in a way that is supportive of healthy human development, and which can be successfully continued into the indeﬁnite future’’ (Dawson 2006:13).
To achieve sustainability, actions grounded in knowledge of “local ecological, political–economic, and socio-cultural systems combined with a global awareness and scientiﬁc acumen” Permaculture is an ethical philosophy Earthaven followed this philosophy Permaculture is a combination of permanent, culture, and agriculture.
Views humans and their activities and creations as part of the natural world
History of Permaculture Created by Bill Mollison and David Holmgren Negative response among academics
Positive response among the public
Three Ethical Principles of Permaculture Set limits to consumption and reproduction and redistribute surplus
Do you live by any of the principles above? How?
12 Design Principles of Permaculture Apply self regulation and feedback Use and value renewable resources and services 7) Design from patterns to details 8) Integrate rather than segregate 9) Small and slow solutions 10) Use and value diversity 11) Use edges and value the marginal
12) Creatively use and respond to change
Engaging Permaculture: Areas of Theoretical and Applied Compatibility Agricultural Anthropology
Given the two scenarios, which one best fits you?
“ Permaculture: A Designers Manual ” Bill Mollison
Permaculture Design Philosophy Action is pertinent and necessary Life is a cooperative force Adoption of aboriginal belief systems will be of great benefit to us
Do you use a spiritual belief system in your interactions with the environment?
Ethics Ethical basis of permaculture as described by Anderson Philosophy of working with, not against the earth
Questions can be asked in two ways
Multiple ways to achieve permanence and stability The move from permanent productive systems to annual, commercial systems has created a shift from low to high energy
No such thing as “free energy ”
Permaculture in Landscape and Society Basis of permaculture is beneficial design Difference between cultivated ecosystem and natural one Home and garden is important
Get your home and garden to support you