Anth 4400
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Anth 4400






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Anth 4400 Anth 4400 Presentation Transcript

  • The Life and Culture of Ecotopia E.N. Anderson
    • Everyone is an advocate or student of man’s relationship with nature, however the state of the environment does not reflect this.
    • The increase of population and resources put more pressure on the food base every year.
    • Few have paid attention to the food crisis.
    • Anthropologists are unique and shuttle between two different worlds.
    • Anthropologists are also noted for bridging the gap between biological and social sciences. Anthropologists must take responsibility for their actions.
    • Research needs to be oriented toward genuine solutions of the problem
    • Ecological crisis is due to exploitation
    • Ecological costs will show up in economic costs and someone will pay.
    • Real costs are always passed onto general public
    • Peru overfishing their anchovy stocks.
    • Concerns:
    • Extraction is cheaper than recycling
    • Single use is more economical than multiple use
    • Population explosion occurs.
  • 3
    • Ecological crisis is the result of the political and economic structure
    • Disagrees with Lynn White
    • Difference between demand and effective demand
    • - Example: Americans demand wilderness conservation, but do not pay for it in the marketplace
  • 4
    • Constructing and ecotopia is a final goal for anthropologists
    • Groundwork in the form of research is needed
    • Planning is necessary as well
    • Population and consumption will stop because they must- energy consumption must level itself
  • 5
    • Anthropologists should allocate their efforts in seven ways:
    • When research is conducted, make it relevant to some aspect of planning
    • In studies, the relationship between community and world market should be determined
    • How to maximize the local relationship should also be determined
    • Look at designing a new culture on a worldwide scale
    • New priorities must be established
    • Organizational changes must be made
    • Anthropologists must learn and cooperate from other disciplines.
  • Question:
    • In your opinion, what is the most effective way anthropologists can allocate their efforts?
  • Ecotopian Possibilities and the Sustainable Future James Veteto and Joshua Lockyer
  • Earthaven Ecovillage
  • Earthaven Ecovillage
    • Located in western North Carolina
    • Founded in 1994 on 320 acres
    • Currently has 60 members
  • ‘‘ Ecovillages are human-scale, fullfeatured settlements in which human activities are harmlessly integrated into the natural world in a way that is supportive of healthy human development, and which can be successfully continued into the indefinite future’’ (Dawson 2006:13).
    • To achieve sustainability, actions grounded in knowledge of “local ecological, political–economic, and socio-cultural systems combined with a global awareness and scientific acumen”
    • Permaculture is an ethical philosophy
    • Earthaven followed this philosophy
    • Permaculture is a combination of permanent, culture, and agriculture.
    • Views humans and their activities and creations as part of the natural world
  • History of Permaculture
    • Created by Bill Mollison and David Holmgren
    • Negative response among academics
    • Positive response among the public
  • Three Ethical Principles of Permaculture
    • Care for the earth
    • Care for people
    • Set limits to consumption and reproduction and redistribute surplus
    • Question:
    • Do you live by any of the principles above? How?
  • 12 Design Principles of Permaculture
    • Observe and interact
    • Catch and store energy
    • Obtain a yield
    • Apply self regulation and feedback
    • Use and value renewable resources and services
    • Produce no waste
    • 7) Design from patterns to details
    • 8) Integrate rather than segregate
    • 9) Small and slow solutions
    • 10) Use and value diversity
    • 11) Use edges and value the marginal
    • 12) Creatively use and respond to change
  • Engaging Permaculture: Areas of Theoretical and Applied Compatibility
    • Cultural Ecology
    • Agricultural Anthropology
    • Historical Ecology
    • Ethnoecology
    • Political Ecology
    • Question:
    • Given the two scenarios, which one best fits you?
  • “ Permaculture: A Designers Manual ” Bill Mollison
  • Permaculture Design Philosophy
    • Action is pertinent and necessary
    • Life is a cooperative force
    • Adoption of aboriginal belief systems will be of great benefit to us
    • Question:
    • Do you use a spiritual belief system in your interactions with the environment?
  • Ethics
    • Ethical basis of permaculture as described by Anderson
    • Philosophy of working with, not against the earth
    • Questions can be asked in two ways
    • Rules of use:
    • Necessitous use
    • Conservative use
    • Multiple ways to achieve permanence and stability
      • Peasant approach
      • Permanent approach
      • Communal approach
    • The move from permanent productive systems to annual, commercial systems has created a shift from low to high energy
    • No such thing as “free energy ”
  • Permaculture in Landscape and Society
    • Basis of permaculture is beneficial design
    • Difference between cultivated ecosystem and natural one
    • Home and garden is important
    • Two Responsibilities:
    • Get your home and garden to support you
    • Limit population growth