The Market Revolution

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Overview of Early Industrialization

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  • Makes cotton production the most valuable crop in south 1. over ½ world ’ s cotton supply from south 2. pushes grain production westward 3. farm output per worker increases
  • First employees were women, single and needed chaperones
  • Cost of transportation drops 95% between 1825-1855
  • Different types of roads dirt, split rail, cobblestone Rise of internal improvements as bone of contention between political parties
  • Employees building canal paid 80 cents per day - 10-12 hours labor by 1826 (year after completion) - 2000 boats, 9000 horses and 8000 men were employed in transporting goods on the canal
  • High vs. low pressure boilers
  • Cost of transportation drops 95% 1825 & 1855
  • 1860: 50,000 miles under Western Union Telegraph Corp. Most lines run NE-NW
  • Factors leading to urbanization improved transportation immigrants industrialization (jobs) declining farm productivity Social Impact of Market Revolution lowered status of workers stimulated consumerism/materialism reorganized society toward specialization greater per capita wealth in U.S. social structure becomes more stratified (greater concentration of wealth)
  • The Market Revolution

    1. 1. Society in the new century Factories at Lowell, Massachusetts
    2. 2. Main PointsI. The Market EconomyII. Early IndustrializationIII. TransportationIV. CommunicationV. Urbanization
    3. 3. I. American Economy• Growth of market economy – influence of embargo – government activity in the economy • protective tariff • internal improvements.
    4. 4. II. Industrialization1793 Eli Whitney invents cotton gin1810-20 Cotton boom starts1820 Lowell established• Eli Whitney – cotton gin – interchangeable parts – revolutionizes mechanization and industry
    5. 5. Expansionof slavery
    6. 6. II. Industrialization• Lowell, Massachusetts – First employees – first industrial city – problems of industrialization.
    7. 7. Factories andworkers in 1839
    8. 8. III. Transportation Revolution• Turnpikes• Stage coaches• Canals• Steamboats• Railroads.
    9. 9. Cumberland (National) Road and Main Connections
    10. 10. Erie Canal• Built 1818-1825• 363 miles long; total cost $7,143,000• Links midwest farms with NYC• success begins canal building boom.
    11. 11. Erie Canal and Main Branches
    12. 12. Principal Canals in 1840
    13. 13. Steamboats• 1811 first steamship• use in west• impact on commerce.
    14. 14. Railroads1830 100 miles1840 3,500 miles1860 30,600 miles• No national network• Dangerous travel – Cow catcher, weak brakes, curves, smokestack & fires
    15. 15. IVCommunication Revolution• Railroads alter life – communication – time – commerce• Telegraph - 1844
    16. 16. Travel Times
    17. 17. Travel Times
    18. 18. V. Urbanization• Nation becomes less farmer centered – 15:1 (1800) to Population Density 1820 1860 5.5:1 (1850)• Population density increases• Growth of cities• Growth of middle class.
    19. 19. Population Increase, Including Slaves and Indians, 1790-1860

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